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CLS 212


Department       : Clinical Laboratory Sciences

Course Number: CLS 212

Course Title      : Medical Microbiology

Credit Hours     : 3 + 1 = 4


 Course Description:

This is a general medical microbiology course intended for students outside the department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences. The structure of the course is based on presenting the fundamentals of microbiology to include structures, morphology and classification of bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. The students will be introduced to the pathogenesis of the various infectious agents. The course will also cover some topics related to community health, including the modes and sources of infections as well as prevention of these infections. 


CLS 212: Lectures Outline

 Weeks                                               Subjects 


1.                                 General introduction 

                                    Historical Background & classification of microorganisms

 2.                                Introduction to Viruses

              Structure and morphology of viruses

                                    Classification / Replication  / Pathogenicity

 3.                                 Introduction to Fungi

                                    Structure and morphology of fungi

                                    Classification / Fungal diseases               


4.                                  Introduction to Parasites

                                     Classification /General characteristics of protozoa

                                     Medically important protozoa

                                    General characteristics of helminths/Medically important 


 5.                                 Introduction to Bacteria   

                                    Classification / Morphology

                                    Bacterial Structures / Bacterial replication

 6.                                 Bacterial growth / Growth curve

                                    Factors affecting growth

 7.                                 Antimicrobial agents              

 8.                                 Microbial control / Principles

                                    Physical and chemical methods        

 9.                             Microbial control – Chemical agents

                                    Hospital acquired infections

10.                           Pathogenicity of infectious diseases

                                    Normal microbial flora                

 11.                           Upper respiratory tract infections

 12.                               Lower respiratory tract infections

 13.                               Wound and skin infections  

 14.                               Sexually transmitted diseases

 15.                               Food borne diseases, Water borne diseases 



CLS 212:   Laboratory Schedule:

 Weeks                                               Subjects


1.                                  Introduction to Microbiology laboratory

                                       Techniques and safety rules

 2.                                    Introduction to light Microscopy

                                       Types of light microscope

 3.                                   Examination of stained smear and wet mounts

 4.                                   Microscopic examination of eukaryotic microorganisms

 5.                                   Staining of bacterial cells and bacterial

                                       structures ( simple and differential  stains )

 6.                                   Bacterial culture media

                                       Techniques of cultivation

 7.                                   Microbial flora of skin and oral cavity

                                       Environmental sampling

 8.                                   Antimicrobial Agents - Methods of sensitivity testing

 9.                                   Microbial count : viable and total counts

 10.                                 Factors affecting microbial growth

 11.                                  Physical and chemical methods used in microbial


 12.                                  Revision  

 13.                              FINAL PRACTICAL EXAMINATION




 First Mid Term Examination:           15       

Second Mid Term Examination:      15

Mid Term Practical Examination:    10

Final Practical Examination:            20

Final Theoretical Examination:        40




  1. Cano J. Raoul and Calome J.S., Microbiology, West Publishing Company, USA, Latest Edition


  1. Eugene W. Nester et al, Microbiology- A Human Perspective, Mc Graw Hill, USA,Latest Edition

      3. Tortora, G. J., B. R. Funke, and C. L. Case., Microbiology, An Introduction


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