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Guidelines_English_Final
تحميل الدليل التدريبي

أسئلة شائعة


106حين

مبادئ علم الحيوان العام                                     4(3+1) وحدة معتمدة

لطلاب البرنامج الموحد ( طب ، صيدله ، أسنان ، علوم طبية )

الوصف

دراسة أنواع الخلايا، محتويات الخلية، الإنقسامات الخلوية، الأنزيمات، قوانين مندل الوراثية، تركيب الDNA وبناء البروتينات والهندسة الوراثية، الغدد الصماء الهرمونات، الجهاز العصبي، الجهاز التناسلي في الإنسان والفقاريات، التركيب والوظيفة.

 

 

 

 

106 ZOO (GENERAL ANIMAL BIOLOGY – PREMEDICAL)

COURSE CONTENT

 

Cell type

Pages

Subject

5th edition

6th edition

Lecture 1

Page 105

112

A panoramic view of the cell

Prokaryotic cells & Prokaryotes

Page 106

112

Fig 7.4 structure of Prokaryotes

Page 108, 109

114,115

Figs. Only (7.7 , 7.8)

Page 214

221-223

Cytokinesis in plant & Animal Binary Fission (Fig. 12.8 a, b )

Page 215

224

Bacterial cell division. (Fig. 12.10)

Page 320

329

Viral genomes Fig 18.1 sizes

Types of genomes , Names of viruses Capsids & Envelopes

Capsid & Structrane (capsomeres )

Viral envelopes: Origin, structure

Bacteriophages

Page 321

330-331

Why virus need host cells: = Ribosomes, metabolic enzymes (Fig. 18.2)

Lecture 2

Page 322

331-332

Lytic cycle & virulent virus (Fig. 18.4)

Page 323

332

Lysogenic cycle & temperate virus (Fig. 18.4)

Page 324

332,333, 334

Lysogenic cycle Fig. 18.5, structure of viral envelopes.

Page 325

334

Enveloped virus, Fig 18.6 DNA virus (Herpes)

Page 326

335,336

RNA virus Example HIV & Aids + Figure

Page 504

528

Function of prokaryotic cell wall (three Functions)

 

528-529

The difference between prokaryotic cell wall & plant & Fungi

Gram stain Fig. 27.5

Fig. 27.6* pili

Page 505

529-530

Capsule & pili

Methods: The gram stain & structures

Many prokaryotes are motile. Flagellar action

Page 506

530

Fig. 27.5 Nucleoid region

 

532

Prokaryotes, nutrition groups: photoautotrophs, Chemoautotrophs, Photohetrotrophs, Chemoheterotrophs, Saprobs, Parasites

 

Cell molecules

Pages

Subject

5th edition

6th edition

Lecture 1

Page 22,23

26

Elements, Compounds, 25 elements required for life

Page 24

27

Trace elements

Page 41

45

Solution, solvent, solute, aq. Solution

Page 42

46

Hydrophilic, hydrophobic

Page 44

48

pH scale + Fig 3.9*

Page 45

49

Buffers

Page 52

56

Isomers, Structural isomers

Page 53

57

Hydroxyl & carbonyl groups, alcohols aldehyde, ketone

Page 54

58

Table 4.1, carboxyl group

Page 55

59

Amino group + sulfhydryl + phosphate

Carbohydrate

Page 60

64

Carbohydrate

Monosaccharides Fig. 5.3

Page 61

65

Disaccharides (Fig. 5.4,5.5)

Lecture 2

Page 62

66

Polysaccharides Storage poly Fig. 5.6

Page 63

67

Structural poly, Cellulose Fig. 5.7

Page 64

68

Bacteria digest cellulose, Chitin (Figs. 5.8- 5.9)

Page 65

68-69

Lipid structure, bonds Fig. 5.10

Page 66

69

Triacylglycerol = triglyceride

Saturated, unsaturated fatty acids Fig. 5.11

Page 67

70

Phospholipids, Structure, Behaviour toward water

Aggregates in water cell membrane (Figs. 5.12 + 5.13)

Page 68

71

Steroids + cholesterol

Page 68

71

Proteins: polypeptide, Amino acids, R group, (Fig.5.15)

Lecture 3

Page 71

74

Four levels of protein structure Primary structure + Fig. 5.18

Page 72

75

Change in primary structure and sickled RBC+ Fig. 5.19 Secondary structure

Page 73

76

The pleated sheet Fig. 5.20

Page 73

77

Tertiary structure

Hydrophobic interaction Disulfide bridges

Page 74

78

Fig. 5.22, Quaternary structure, Hemoglobian

Page 75

78,79

Denaturation, Fig. 5.23, Fig. 5.24 Review

Page 76

79

Fig. 5.25, Nucleic acids

Page 77

80,81,82

DNA & RNA, Fig. 5.26 = 5.28*

The nitrogen bases

Page 78

83

Fig. 5.27 = 5.29*

 

Page 78, 79

82-83

Inheritance is based + Fig. 5.28 = 5.30*

 

The Cell organelles

Pages

Subject

5th edition

6th edition

Lecture 1

Pages 130-135

138-143

Cell membrane from page

 

 

(A) Membrane models Fig 8.1,8.2 A & B

(B) A membrane is a fluid mosaic of lipids -What is a fluid Fig. 8.3

-Proteins movement Fig. 8.4

-What is mosaic Fig 8.5 = 6.8*

pages 107,109

114-117

Nucleus Fig 7.9, Structure & function of the following

a) Nuclear Membrane

b) Nuclear Pores

c) Nuclear Lamina

d) Chromatin

e) Nucleolus

Ribosomes build a cell's protein ( structure & function), Fig 7.1 0

Page 111

117, 118

Page 111

Lecture 2

page 111

118

The endomembrane system

page 112

118

Two types of ER, the difference between SER & RER Fig 7.11

Page 112

119

Functions of SER, Rough ER & Synthesis of Glycoproteins, Transport vesicles

Page 113

119

Cell membrane, RER

page 113, 114

120

Structure and Function of Golgi apparatus Fig.7.12

Lecture 3

Page 114-115

121-122

Lysosomes are digestive Fig. 7.13 & 7.14

Pompe's disease

Tay-sache disease

Fig 7.16 as a good review

Page 117

 

Mitochondria structure & function & Fig. 7.17

Lecture 4

page 119

126

The cytoskeleton Fig. 7.21

page 120

127

Microtubules Table 7.2

page 121

128

Centrosomes & centriols Fig. 7.22

Page 121, 122

128,129,130

Cilia & Flagella Fig. 7.23*, 7.24 & 7.25

Page 123

130-132

Microfilaments Fig.7.27

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Enzymes: (Chap 6)

Pages

Subject

5th edition

6th edition

2 lectures

 

Page (91- 97)

Page (96- 103)

Figs. 6.9,6.10,6.12,6.13,6.14, 6.15,6.16,6.17

lecture 1

page 91

96

Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers (Fig 6.9 6.10) = 6.12, 6.13*

page 92

97

Enzymes are substrate specific

page 93

98

The active site is an enz. Catalytic center Fig. 6.12 = 6.15*

Page 94,95

99-100

A cell's physical and chemical environment affects enzyme active, cofactor, Enzy inhibitors. (Fig. 6.13, 6.14) = 6.16, 6.17*.

lecture 2

 

 

Metabolic control often depends on allosteric.

Page 96

101

Feedback inhibition, coperativity (Fig.6.15, 16) = 6.18, 6.19*

Page 97

101,102

The localization of Enz. within a cell (Fig. 6.17) = 6.20*

 

Energy production, cellular Respiration: (Chap 9)

Pages

Subject

5th edition

6th edition

Lecture 1

Page 147-148

155-156

Principles of Energy Harvest

Page 148

156

Cells recycle the ATP they use for work. The NAD, NADH (Fig. 9.4)

Page 152

160, 161

The Process of cellular Respiration

Respiration involves glycolysis (Fig 9.6)

page153

161

the Krebs cycle, and Election transport an over views

Glycolysis harvests chemical energy oxidizing glucose to pyruvate Fig. 9.7).

Lecture 2

page 156

164

The Krebs cycle (Summary of Krebs cycle chemiosmosis Fig. 9.10

Page 156 157, 158, 159

164,165,166

The inner mitochondria, Electron Transport. (Fig. 9.11 show only) Fig. 9.12, Fig. 9.13. Fig. 9.15, Fig. 9.16).

Page 162-163

167-173

Chemiosmosis 159) Fig. 9.11. Fermentation (Fig. 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. How things get into and out of cells

Pages

Subject

5th edition

6th edition

Lecture 1

Page 130-135

138-142

"Membrane models have..."

the term; Amphipathic

Page 132

142

Fluid mosaic model

Page 133

142-144

"Membranes as Mosaics of structure & Function" Term; integral proteins, peripheral proteins, "carbohydrates and cell to cell recognition" Figure 8.5

Lecture 2

Page 136

144

"Permeability of the lipid Bilayer" "Transport proteins"

Page 137

145

"Passive transport is diffusion. ...," Terms; concentration gradient. Passive transport.

"Osmosis is the passive transport. ..." Terms; hypertonic, isotonic.

Page 138

146-147

Terms; osmosis, osmoregulation Page 140 The term; facilitated diffusion e. g. gated channels

Lecture 3

Page 140-141

148-149

The term; active transport

e.g. Sodium-Potassium pump, Figure 8.14 = 8.15*

Page 142

149-151

The term; membrane potential, co- transport

Page 143

151-152

"Exocytosis & endocytosis. ..."

Terms; Phagocytosis, pinocytosis. Receptor-mediated endocytosis

(Case study: Familial hypercholesterolemia)

 

9. Information codes and genes (Four lectures)

Pages

Subject

5th edition

6th edition

Lecture 1

Page 281

290

" Additional evidence that DNA is the genetic material of cell"

Page 281-283

290-292

"Watson & crick discovered." Figure 16.3, 16.5 -16.6

Page 284-285

293-294

The term; Semiconservative model Figure 16.7-16.8 (للتوضيح فقط)

Lecture 2

Page 286-289

295-298

" A Large team of enzymes "

The student should know briefly what is the meaning of the following: (Fig. 16;10, 16.12, 16.13, 16,15,16.16) DNA replication, Origins of replication, Replication fork

 DNA polymerase, Leading strand, Logging strand DNA Ligase, Primer, Primase Helicase, Okazaki fragments

 

Page 296-298

304-307

"'Transcription…..... (Fig. 17.2-17.4) What is transcription? What is translation?

What mRNA & RNA Processing?

"In the genetic code…."

The term; triplet code

The term; template strand

Lecture 3

Page 298-299

304-309

"Cracking the code "

Page 300-301

309- 310

The student should know the following terms briefly).

RNA Polymerase (Fig. 17.6,7.7)Transcription Unit

Transcription factor

Page 304

313

"Translation is the RNA. ..,"Terms; tRNA, Anticodon (Fig. 17.21 = 23* ,22 = 24*)

Page 306-310

316-320

"Ribosome "Terms; rRNA, p Site, A Site, E Site

Briefly what is initiation elongation and termination? (Fig. 17.14 = 17.15* ,15 = 17*,16 = 18*,17 = 19*,19 = 21*)

Lecture 4

Page 312-313

322-325

"Point mutation" Fig. (17,21 = 17.23*)

The student should know what is.

Point mutations

Base-pair substitution

Missense mutations

Nonsense mutation

Insertions

Deletion

Frameshift mutation

Mutagens

Page 316

325

What is the gene briefly the definition in page 316 (Fig 17.23 = 17.25*)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Reproductive System (Chap 46) (Page 918-927) Figs. 46.8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15).

Pages

Subject

5th edition

6th edition

Lecture 1

page 918

980

Mammalian Reproduction

page 918-919-920

980-982

Human reproductive Male (Fig. 46.8)

page 920-921-922

982-984

Reproductive Anatomy Female. (Fig. 46.9)

Lecture 2

Page 922.923-924

984-986

Spermatogenesis, oogenesis genesis (Fig. 46.11, 12, 13)

Lecture 3

page 925

986

A complex interplay of hormones regulate

reproduction

page 925

986

The male pattern (Fig.46.14).

Page 925-926

986-989

The Female pattern Menstrual cycle

Page 927

989

Menopause. (Fig.46.15.)

 

Nervous system

Pages

Subject

5th edition

6th edition

Lecture 1

Page 961

1022

The nervous system is composed of neurons and supporting cells.

Structure of a vertebrate neuron, Fig. 48.2 P. 962 = 1023*

Page 963

1024-1026

Functional organization of neuron (Sensory neurons, interneurons and Motor neurons). Reflex arc. Fig. 48.4 = 48.3*

Lecture 2

Page 964

1026

The nature of neural signals (Membrane potential)

Page 965

1026-1032

The action potential. Fig. 48.5 = 48.7* resting potential, Depolarization, depolarization Fig. 48.7 = 48.9*.

Lecture 3

Page 970

1033

Chemical communication between cells.

Page 974-975

103-1038

(Presynaptic cell & postsynaptic cell)

Page 971

1033

Chemical synapse. Fig. 48.10 = 48.12* (Presynaptic membrane of postsynaptic membrane, synaptic vesicle, synaptic cleft, neurotransmitter). (Act, Epi, Noropi).

Lecture 4

Page 977

1040

The nervous system of Vertebrate. & 978

Page 979

1042

CNS (brain & spinal cord) white matter, gray mater, central

Page 978

1043-1053

Canal, ventricle, cerebrospinal fluid. Fig. 48.14 = 48.16* PNS (cranial nerves of spinal nerves. Fig. 48.15 = 48.17* parasympathetic div. sympathetic div. Fig. 48.16 = 48.18*

Page 979-961

1043-1053

Stricture and function of the brain. (Forebrain, midbrain 961 and hind brain briefly). (Fig. 48.17-48.19 48.17- 48.24*only adult).

 

Chemical signals in animals

Pages

 

Subject

5th edition

6th edition

 

Lecture 1

Page. 893

955

An introduction to regulatory systems

page 894

956

The endocrine system and the nervous fig 45.1

page 895-896

958

A variety of local regulators affect fig. 46.19

page 896

958-959

Chemical signals bind to specific fig. 45.3,4

page 897

960

Steroid hormones, thyroid fig. 45.5

Lecture 2

Page.899

960

The vertebrate endocrine fig. 45.6 = 45.45*, tab. 45.1

Page 900

962

The hypothalamus and pituitary fig 45.7 = 45.6* a,b

Page 900

962

Posterior pituitary hormones

Page 902

964

Anterior pituitary hormones

Page 902-903

964

the pineal gland is

Lecture 3

Page 903-904

965

Thyroid hormones function figs. 45. 8,9 = 45.7, 8*

Page 904

966

Parathyroid hormone fig.45.10 = 45.9*

Page 904-906

966

Endocrine tissues of the pancreas fig.45.11 = 45.10* 906

Lecture 4

page 907-909

969

The adrenal medulla and Fig.45.15 = 45.14*

Page 887

949

Nervous system and hormonal fig. 44.21 a,b = 44.24*

Page 910

972

Gonadal steroids regulate fig. 46.14

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 12: The cell cycle Chap. 13: Meiosis and sexual life cycles

Pages

Subject

5th edition

6th edition

Lecture 1

Page 207-208

 

216-217

Cell division distributes identical sets (genome-somatic cells-gametes-chromatin-sister chromatids-centromere- mitosis-cytokinesis- meiosis )

Page 209

 

The mitotic cell cycle fig. 12.4

Lecture 2

Page 210-212

218-219

The stages of mitotic cell division in an animal cell figs.12.5,12.6a

Page 213

221

Cytokinesis divides fig. 12.8

Page 228-230

236-239

The human life cycle fig. 13.4a = 13.5*

(karyotype-homol.chrom-sex chrom.autosomes- gametes-haploid cell-

fertilizationor syngamy-zygote-diploid cell-meiosis )

Lecture 3

Page 231

239

Meiosis reduces chrom. Number fig. 13.5 = 13.6*

Page 232-233

240-241

The stages of meiotic cell division (fig. 13.6) 233 = 13.7*

Page 231 then p. 235, 236

239 then

p. 242, 244

Mitosis and meiosis compared fig. 13.7 = 13.8* Fig. 13.9 =13.10* then p. 235 Crossing over fig. 13.9 =13.10*

 

Chapter 14: Mendel and the gene idea

Chapter 15: The chromosomal basis of inheritance

Pages

Subject

5th edition

6th edition

Lecture 1

page 240

247-248

Character- trait -true-breeding -hybridization-monohybrid cross p generation-Fl, F2 generations) By the law of segregation, the two

Page 241-242

250-251

fig. 14.4 table 14.1 242 = 250*

Lecture 2

Page 243-244

251-252

Some useful genetic vocabulary homozygous- 244 heterozygous-phenotype-genotype The testcross (Fig.

14.6)

Page 245

252

By the law of independent assortment, each pair. (and first paragraph in p. 246 = 254* and fig. 14.7b )

Lecture 3

Page 253

261

Genetic diseases (briefly) Recessively inherited disorders

Page 254

262

Cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease

Page 255

262

Sickle-cell disease, dominantly inh. Disorders

Page 255

263-264

Huntington dis., Multifactorial disorders, heart disease, diabetes, cancer, alcoholism, schizophrenia and manic- depressive disorder.

Page 270

278

Sex-linked disorders in humans Page 269 =277* Color blindness Page 270 Hemophilia

Page 272

280-282

Human disorders due to chromosomal aalterations Page 273 =280* Down syndrome, klinefelter syndrome Page 274 Cri du chat

Page 268

276

Sex chromosomes

Page 268-269

277

The chromosomal basis of sex varies with the organism 269 (and fig. 15.8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radiation Biology

Pages

Subject

5th edition

6th edition

2 lectures

Page 24

28

Neutrons, protons, electrons atomic nucleus

Page 25

28

Isotopes, radioactive isotopes

Page 30

30

Methods

Page 80

81

Methods

Page 281, 282  

290-291

Fig. 16.4 x-ray crystallography

 

 
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