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تحميل الدليل التدريبي

أسئلة شائعة


Senna leave


Senna leaf consists of the dried leaflets of Alexandrian or Khartoum senna, Cassia senna L. (C.acutifolia) or Tinnevelly senna, Indian senna (C. angustifola) or mixture of both F. Leguminoseae.

Alexandrian or Khartoum and Indian senna are called genuine senna

Alexanderian senna:

The leave are compound paripinnate. The leaflets are entire, frequently broken very shortly petiolate.

1-    shape: lanceolate to ovate lanceolate, 2-4cm long, 5-10mm width (broad).

2-    Colour: pale greyish- green.

3-    Apex acute.

4-    Asymmetric

5-    Margin: entire and slightly revolute.

6-    Texture: thin and brittle, both surfaces are slightly hairy.

7-    The venation: pinnate reticulate, the veins being distinct on the lower surface.

Tinnevelelly or Indian senna:

The leaflets are usually unbroken up to 6cm long, 6-15mm broad differs from Alexandrian senna in the following:

1-  yellowish green in colour.

2-  Less asymmetric.

3-  Hairy and show some depressed lines on the surface.

Senna leaves have a faint characteristic odour and slightly bitter acrid mucilaginous taste.

Micoscopical characters:

1-  The leaflets are isobilateral.

2-  The epidermal cells are polygonal with straight anticlinial walls, numerous stomata occur on both surfaces of paracytic type. Hair of non glandular type, few present especially on the lower surface near the veins. They are unicellular, thick walled with warty cuticle and frequently curved near the base.

3-  Mesophyll: show a single layer of palisade abutting on each epidermis except in the midrib region where only the upper palisade layer is continuous. The cells of the lower palisade have heavy anticlinal wall and shorter than those of the upper. The spongy tissue containing cluster crystals of calcium oxalate.

4-  The midrib: shows a crescent shaped vascular bundle, accompanied by arc of pericyclic fibres below and a compact mass of fibres above with the cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate abutting on these group of fibres forming crystal sheath. The pericyclic fibres are lignified with blunt ends.

Powdered senna:

1-  Numerous green fragments some show epidermal cell.

2-  Stomata of paracytic type, warty hairs, cicatrix with radiating epidermal cells.

3-  Fragments of bundles of lignified percyclic fibres accompanied by crystal sheath.

4-  Isolated unicellular warty hairs

5-  Fragments of lignified vessels.

6-  Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate.

7-  Starch granules.

8-  Fragments showing isobilateral structure.

Active constituents:




Sennoside A


Rhein dianthrone Trans

Sennoside B


Rhein dianthrone Meso

Sinnoside C


Aloe emodin dinthrone Trans

Sinnoside D


Aloe emodin dianthrone Meso


1-     To 25mg powdered senna add 50ml water and 2ml HCl, heat in w.b. for 15', allow to cool and shake with 40ml of ether. Dry the ether over anhydrous sodium sulphate, evaporate to dryness, cool and add 5ml of 6M ammonia to the residue. Yellow to orange colour develops.

2-     Thin layer chromatography

3-     Modified borntrager's test: 200mg of powdered senna with 4ml of alcohol potassium hydroxide for 5' in t.t. dilute with 4ml of water and filter, acidify with HCl. Cool and shake well with 5ml of ether, separate the ether into t.t. and shake with 2ml of dilute solution of ammonium hydroxide. Rose red to intense red colour is produced in the aqueous layer.

Foreign matter:

Not more than 3% of foreign organ and not more than 1% foreign elements. It dose not contains any hairy leaves (Cassia auriculata),

The absence of which is demonstrated in the following manner:

1-    place leaf powdered on a slide, add 0.05ml of 80% w/v solution of sulphuric acid. No carmine red colour appears.

2-    Shake 200mg of powder with 3ml of alcohol for 3', filter, add 200mg charcoal, shake and filter, add equal volume of 33% solution of sulphuric acid. No red colour develops either in cold or after heating for 1' on w.b.


A- Cassia auriculata (Pathe senna): leaves can be distinguished from genuine sennas by:

1-    thick walled unicellular trichomes about three times as long as genuine senna.

2-    The upper palisade consists of two layer of cells.

3-    The leaves give with 80% sulphuric acid a red colour.

4-    Absence of anthraquinone derivatives.

B- Bombay senna (Arabian senna):

1- Its leave resemble Indian senna leaves but they are more elongated, narrower, brownish green colour.

2- Can be distinguish from other senna by vein islet number.

A-                         Dog senna (upper region of Egypt),

1-  Obovate,

2-  Presence of pappilosed in lower epidermis cell.

B-Argel leave: not Cassia species.

1- Non glandular hair, multi-cellular 2-3 cells.

Test for purity of genuine senna:

1- Senna leaves should contain not more than 8% of senna stalk and not more than 2% of senna pods

2- No crimson colour with 80% sulphuric acid (no pathe senna).

3- no multicellular hair (no argel).

4- no abundant starch granules or scelerides, no stalk of senna.

5- no papillosed epidermal cell (no dog senna)


Laxative, purgative.

Buchu leaves

Buchu leaves is a dried leaves of Barosma betulina known commercially as short or round buchu.

Buchu contains:

1-   Not more than 5% of buchu stem and

2-   Yield not less than 2% v/w of volatile oil.

Description (Morphology):

Leaf is entire, simple broken, very short petiolate.

Shape: obovate, 10-20 mm long 4-15 mm broad.

Color: green to yellowish green.

Apex: blunt and strongly re-curved.

Base: symmetric.

Margin: dentate in the upper two thirds of the leaf and serrate towards the base.

The midrib is prominent on the lower surface and grooved on the upper surface.

Texture: rigid and coriaceous (thick and leathery) when dry but cartilaginous when moist.

The surface is punctuate, dotted with projections formed by subjacent of scattered oil glands.

Large oil gland situated at the base of each marginal indentation and one in the apex of the lamina.

Buchu has strong aromatic odour and characteristic specially when crushed and strong aromatic taste.

Microscopical characters:

1- The leaf is dorsiventral.

2- The epidermal cells are polygonal with straight anticlinal walls, thick cuticle and containing thick deposit of mucilage on the inner walls and a sphaero-crystalline masses or aggregates of feather like crystals of diosmin, which is insoluble in solution of NH4OH but is colored yellow by KOH. The stomata of anomocytic type are present on the lower surface only.


3- Mesophyll shows a single layer of palisade cells continuous in the midrib. The spongy tissue contains cluster crystals of calcium oxalate and ovoid schizo lysigenous oil glands.

4- Midrib showed a crescent shaped vascular bundle with radiating xylem and a narrow phloem and an arc of non lignified pericyclic fibres below.

Powdered of buchu

1-     fragment of epidermal cells with sphaero-crystals of feather.

2-     Numerous oil glands

3-     Very few unicellular non glandular hairs.

4-     Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate.

5-     Fragments of vascular tissue and non lignified pericyclic fibres.

Constituents: Short buchu contains:

1- 1.2-1.45% of volatile oil contains about 30% of diosphenol (buchu camphor) which is phenolic ketone. Also contains keton L-menthone which is responsible for the peppermint like odour.

                        Diosphenol              menthone


2- Flavone glycoside, diosmin, it is yellow in color.


Buchu is used as diuretic and UT antiseptic



Diff: all tissues of (stem, branches, roots) woody plant  outside cambium.

Cinnamon bark

It is dried bark of shoots of Cinnamomum zeylanicum F. lauraceae. It is deprived from most of its cork and cortex, its known as Ceylon cinnamon, it contain not less than 1% of volatile oil.



Morphology of cinnamon bark

It occurs as long slender single or double, compound quills 2 m in length, thickness 0.5 mm thick.

Microscopical examination:

1- phloem fibres: thick lignified walls, not exceed 30 um in diameter.

2- few cork cell

3- Numerous unequally thickened lignified sclereids contain starch granules.

4- fragments of parenchyma cells containing minute acicular crystal of Caox and starch granules.

5- acicular crystals of Caox and starch granules.

6- Starch granules can be simple or compound, diameter is 4-8 um.


1% v.o. phlobatannin, mucilage and starch, 75% cinnamon aldehyde, genuine oil contain 4-10% phenols chiefly eugenol.

The oil is liable to adulteration with cinnamon leaf oil and with oil of cassia:

1-    cinnamon leaf oil contains 70-95% of eugenol and its alcoholic solution gives a blue color with solution of ferric chloride.

2-    Oil of cassia contains about 80-95% of aldehydes and a similar test with ferric chloride gives a brown color.


Cinnamon is used as flavouring agent and mild astringent.

The oil has carminative properties and it’s a power germicide.

Cassia bark

Its dried bark of Cinnamomum cassia F. lauraceae, its known as Chinese cinnamon


Thick channelled pieces or single flat quill, length 40 cm long, thickness 1-3mm.


1-   patches of lignified cork cells.

2-   Isolated phloem fibres up to 45 um width in diameter

3-   Numerous starch granules simple, compound that exceed 10 um in diameter.

4-   Fragmens of parenchymatous cells with minute acicular (needle crystals) of Caox.

5-   Fragments of unequal thickness of sclerids that contain some starch granules.    

Active constituents

Cinnamon contain volatile oil not less than 1.2%, in cassia the V. O is 1-2%.

                                        Cinnamon                         Cassia

Major A.C.      

Cinnamic aldehyde           75%                                   85%

 Eugenol                            1.2%                                  ----

Catechol tannin             present                             present

Test for purity of cinnamon

1-   no wood with bark.

2-   No vessels (no wood)

3-   No phloem fibres exceed 30 um in diameter

4-   No starch granules over 10 um in diameter

5-   Not more than few cork cells are present


Carminative and flavouring











Fruits are developed ripe ovary or ovaries of single flower or whole inflorescence as the result of fertilization.

True fruit that formed of gynaecium (carpel) only.

False fruit is result from other parts of flower in addition to gynaecium e.g., receptacle.

Structure of fruit:

Fruit containing pericarp +seed


1-   epicarp (outer epidermis)

2-   mesocarp (lignified reticulate parenchyma which contains vascular bundle)

3-   endocarp (parallel arrangement or parquetry), it is inner layer, direct contact to the seeds.                                  






Diff: it is the dried ripe fruits of Foeniculum volgare F. Umbelliferae.


Microscopical examination:

1-    Pericarp: the epicarp contains of thick wall rectangular polygonal cells with smooth cuticle showing few anomocytic stomata and no hair.


2-    Mesocarp: thick wall reticulate parenchyma containing vittae and having brown epithelial cells.


3-    Endocarp is composed of a single layer of narrow elongated cells, arranged in groups of 5 or more (parallel and parquetry).


4-    endosperm is formed of thick wall polygonal cellulosic parenchyma containing coax, aleurone grains and fixed oil.





1-   Fragments of epicarp cover with smooth cuticle and very few anomocytic stomata.

2-   Fragments showing lignified reticulate parenchyma.

3-   Vessels

4-   Parquetry endocarp accompanied by testa layer

5-   Fragments of yellowish brown vittae.

6-   Hairs and starch granules are absent.


Active constituents:

1-   It is contain not less than 1.4% of v.o. of which about 60% formed of anethole.

2-   20% fanchone

3-   12-18% of fixed oil

4-   20% protein


Test for identification:

With suddan III get red color






Mature ovule as result of fertilization, it is important for distribution and propagation of medicinal gland.


Seed contains 

1- Testa: outer cover layer.

2- kernel: all tissues includes within the testa. Endosperm: it contains parenchyma containing aleurone grains and contains drops of fixed oil, caox and starch.

It can be formed of embryo only, the seed called exalbuminous seed.

If contains endosperm or perisperm or two together with embryo, the seed called albuminous seed.

Strychnine is most abundant in the inner part of the endosperm and brucine in the outer layers.

Nux vomica

Dif: it is dried ripe seeds of Strychnos nux vomica F. loganiceae. It yields not less than 1.2% of strychnine.

Nux vomina powdered:

Color: yellowish grey.

Odour: unpleasant

Taste: very bitter

Elements of diagnostic value:

1-       Numerous lignified rod shaped fragments, wide of the ribs trichomes.

2-       Fragments of thick walled of epidermal cells having thick sinuous walls.

3-       Fragments of the endospermal cells showing oil globules, aleurone grains and plasmodesma (fine threads connect protoplasm of endosperm cells).

4-       No starch or calcium oxalate.    

Chemical test:

It contain strychnine and brucine.

Test for strychnine:

Strychnine + ammonium vanadate in H2SO4 (mandelin's reagent) give violet color.

Test for brucine:

Brucine + nitric acid give crimson or red color.

Strychnine is more physiologically active than brucine, therefore, the seed are assayed for strychnine.


1-   respiratory stimulant in certain cases of poisoning with CNS depressants.

2-   Circulatory stimulant in case of surgical shock.

3-   The powder was misused as bitter tonic because strychnine improves appetite and digestion.

4-   Brucine is less toxic and it is used as alcohol denaturant.



Contain of 4 floral leaves (arranged on receptacle):

1-   calyx (sepals)

2-   corolla (petals)

3-   gynaecium (carpel)

4-   androecium (stamen)


Powdered of flower:

1-         it is characterized by the present of pollen grain characteristic for each flower.

2-         Anther: fragments of antherous cell called fibrous layer.

3-         Fragments of filament.

4-         Fragments of stigma, papellose cells.



Its dried flower bud of Eugenia aromatica F. Myrtaceae. It contains not more than 5% clove stalk, it yield not less than 15% volatile oil.


Powdered of clove:

1-   pollen grains as equilateral triangular with truncate apices.

2-   Fragments of filaments.

3-   Parenchyma cells containing cluster crystals of Caox.

4-   Fibrous fragments of anther in surface view.



Cloves contain about 14-21% volatile oil, the oil contains:

1-   eugenol 80-90%

2-   acetyl eugenol 3%

3-   caryophyllene 8%

4-   clovene 0.1%


also contain 10-13% hydrolysable tannin.


volatile oil of clove is heavier than water because it contains high percentage of oxygenated compounds.


Test for purity:

1- No starch granules (mother clove)

2- No more than few sclereids (clove stalk).

3- No prism of Caox (clove stalk).

4- Clove free from oil which has been removed by steam distillation (exhausted clove).



Carminative, flavoring agent.

Oil of clove is used in dentistry as local analgesic and antiseptic.



Herbs in world health organization (WHO):

Found under name of Traditional Medicine


It is defined as health practices, approaches, knowledge and beliefs incorporating plant, animal and mineral based medicines, therapies, manual techniques and exercises, applied singularly or in combination to treat, diagnose and prevent illnesses or maintain well being.


Unregulated or inappropriate use of traditional medicines and practices have negative or dangerous effects:

1-      In Belgium: 70 people required renal transplant or dialysis for fibrosis of the kidney after taking a herbal preparation made from the wrong species of plant as sliming treatment.

2-      Ma Hung (ephedra) is traditionally used in China to treat respiratory congestion. In USA, the herb was marketed as a dietary aid, over dose led to death, heart attacks and strokes.



Herbs regulation in Saudi Arabia

1-    Registration: which is submitted to the medicinal and pharmaceutical licenses at the ministry of health (is based on the registration of the product in the country of origin).


Handling of locally produced or improved product is prohibited before registration by M.O.H.


Therefore, have to be submitted to following:

1- Full specifications and methods of analysis of the finishing product.

2- Data of stability.

3- Storage conditions.

4- Six samples of the product.

5- Outer package and label.

6- Abstracts of scientific references testifying to the efficacy and safety of the product.



After registration it is not allowed to make any change in:

·       the composition,

·       specification,

·       method of manufacturing,

·       indications,

·       container or package

Unless it has been approved by the authority.


The registration committee reviews registered products after three years from the date of registration or as deemed necessary.


Herbs in FDA:

In 1990, herbs was added to the term dietary supplement.

1-       A product (other than tobacco) that is intended to supplement the diet that contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients such as vitamin, mineral, amino acid, ..etc.

2-       Is intended for ingestion in pill, capsules, tablet or liquid form.

3-       It is not represented for use as a conventional food or as the sole item of a meal or diet.

4-       Is labeled as a dietary supplement.

5-       Includes products such as an approved new drug, certified antibiotic or licensed biologic that was marketed as a dietary supplement before approval, certification or license.


Regulation of dietary supplement

1- safety:

A dietary supplement that contains a new dietary ingredient is adulterated when there is inadequate information to provide reasonable assurance that the ingredient will not present a significant or unreasonable risk of illness or injury.


2- literature:

1.   Information must not be false or misleading.

2.   Cannot promote a specific supplement brand.

3.   Must be displayed with other similar materials to present a balance view.


3- nutritional support statements:

- A product is not carry the claim "cures cancer" or "treats arthritis".


- Appropriate health claims authorized by FDA such as the claim linking folic acid and reduce risk of neural tube birth defects and the claim that calcium may reduce the risk of osteoporosis.


- to use these claims, manufacturers must have substantiation that the statements are truthful and not misleading.


- the product label must bear the statement "this statement has not been evaluated by the FDA: this product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.


4- ingredient and nutrition information labeling:

·       Name and quality of each dietary ingredient.

·       The label must identify the product as a "dietary supplement" such as vit C.

·       Labeling of products containing herbal and botanical ingredients must stated the part of the plant from which the ingredient is derived.

·       Labels must provide significant amounts "FDA has ingredients with no daily intake recommendation".

·       May include source of a dietary ingredient such as calcium from calcium gluconate"


5- Good manufacturing practices (GMPs):

GMPs regulations governing the:

1-   preparation,

2- packing,

2-   holding of dietary supplements under conditions that ensure their safety.


FDA intended to work with the supplement industry and other interested persons to develop GMPs.





6- Commission on dietary supplements:

- Nutritionist

- Industry representative

- Pharmacognosist

- Attorneys.


In USA, the commission will submit final report including recommendations and legislation related to label claims for dietary supplement to the president within two years of convening.



1-The use of herbal product in diseases treatment is almost all over the world while herbal regulation policy is found only in 70 countries.


2-Even in these countries herbs still in the same class of dietary supplement ignoring its treatment potency.


3-For that further classification is needed, if herbs according to there potency is required to deal with herbs as neutral drug than a supplement.

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