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تحميل الدليل التدريبي

أسئلة شائعة




Prepared by

Hanan M. Al-Youssef


Under the supervision of

Dr. Tawfeq A. Al- Howiriny


     Bacterial resistance was recognized shortly after antibiotics were introduced. The sulfonamides were the first antimicrobial agents to be used clinically. They were first used in 1935, with resistance documented by 1939. Commercial production of penicillin began in 1941, with reports of penicillin inactivation by Staphylococci appearing by 1944. It was the recognition of bacterial resistance that led to the development of new antibiotics; the semisynthetic penicillins in the 1950's and 1960's, the extended spectrum cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbapenems in the 1970's and 1980's [1-4].


     Resistance would develop soon after each new antibiotic become available. The current crisis is due to that several different organisms are involved and because there are no new agents currently available, or on the horizon, to treat these resistant microorganisms [5].


     Many commercially proven drugs used in modern medicine were initially used in crude form in traditional or folk healing practices that suggested potentially useful biological activity. The primary benefits of using plant derived medicines are that they are relatively safer than synthetic alternatives, offering profound therapeutic benefits, and more affordable treatment [6]. In order to halt the trend of increased emerging and resistant infectious disease, it will require a multi-pronged approach that includes the development of new drugs [7].


     Many herbs possess strong antibacterial qualities. Thus, there is a great deal of promise in addressing this problem through the use of plant medicines instead of antibiotics because plants have a much more complex chemistry than antibiotics [8].





1-Bush, K., Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother. 33, 259-263, 1989.

2- Bosso, J.A., Am. Coll. Clin. Pharm. Kansas City, MO. 89-101, 1995.

3- Kunin, C.M., Ann. Inter. Med. 118, 557-561, 1993.

4- Murray, B.E., Pharmacotherapy. 12 (6Pt2), 86S-93S, 1992.

5- Neu, H.C., Science.  257, 1064-1073, 1992.

6- Elmer, G.W., J. Am. Med. Assoc. 275, 870-6, 1996.

7- Wald, R. M. S., Natural Living Today. 39-42, 2000.

8- Whelton, P. K., J. Am. Med. Assoc. 277, 1624-32, 1997.





















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