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Trauma Care Systems in Saudi

Arabia: An Agenda for Action

 

 

By:

 

Mohammed Alnaami

Maria Arafah

Fatimah Al-Ibrahim

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Published by King Saud University

Press, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

     1429H – 2008G

 

 

Trauma Care Systems in Saudi

Arabia: An Agenda for Action

 

 

Editor

 

Mohammed Y. Alnaami, MBBS, FRCSC,

FACS, M Ed.

 

Associate Professor, Department of Surgery, General

Surgery Division

 

Head, Associate Director, Faculty Development Program,

College of Medicine and University Hospitals, King Saud

University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

 

 

Associate Editors

 

Maria A. Arafah, MBBS

Intern, College of Medicine and Affiliated Hospitals,

King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

 

Fatimah S. Al-Ibrahim, MBBS

Medical student, College of Medicine and Affiliated

Hospitals, Hospitals, King Saud University, Riyadh,

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 To our parents, brothers, sisters, and families

who lost their lovers or adopting disabled members

and

to our police, traffic, civil defense, red crescent,

hospitals, rehabilitation centers, transportation, and

society who are burdened from trauma care and

management

 


 

Preface

 

Since the introduction of modern machines and world civilization humans are privileged by ease of transportation and daily use of different technologies, while endangered by higher risk of trauma deaths or injury. Trauma mortality and morbidity rates are climbing to a degree that prevention and management of trauma may look impossible at this stage. Human error has been shown to be a major factor for trauma deaths and injury followed by machinery default and environmental factors. Fortunately, human errors can be prevented and minimized simply by following instructions. These instructions, however, are missing at times, not complete, and not easy to implement and enforce upon users.      

 

After going through many reports and articles addressing this issue, more is needed to understand the human psychology for accepting instructions of safe driving and use of different tools and machines. Early education, believe, and self-satisfaction of these instructions are found very effective than any thing else. However, low enforcement, periodical checking of machinery safety, and checking roads safety are also important in preventing and minimizing trauma deaths and injuries. Efforts for trauma prevention and proper care started early in the 19th century after world war I, developed within and after world war II, and refined at the end of the century. Recently, international reports encourage planning and implementation of trauma care systems that encompass most if not all aspects of trauma prevention and management. Implementation of such systems in the US resulted in a decreased mortality from trauma by 50% and in disabilities by 85%.           

 

A trauma system is a pre-planned, comprehensive, and coordinated regionwide and local injury response network that includes all facilities and sectors with the capability to care for the injured. It is the system’s inclusiveness, of pre-planned trauma center and non-trauma center resource allocation, that offers the public a cost-effective plan for injury management. In such an effective system, trauma care delivery is organized through the entire spectrum of care delivery, from injury prevention to prehospital, hospital, and rehabilitative care delivery for injured persons. The system begins with a region’s authority to designate various levels of trauma and burn centers and, through data collection and analysis processes, demonstrates its own effectiveness from time to time.

 

In this document we will try to make use of others’ documented experiences, research, and outcomes of trauma care systems, reflect upon successful trauma care system programs, and plan for implementation of such a system in Saudi Arabia, with what is available and feasible. Although planning and implementation of such a system is going to be a difficult mission, we look forward that this document will highlight the process that makes it possible.

                                                                                          

Mohammed Y. Alnaami, MBBS, FRCSC, FACS, M Ed.

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

 

 

Acknowledgments

 

 

 

 

 

Contents

 

 

CHAPTER1: INTRODUCTION

 

CHAPTER 2: MAGNITUDE OF THE PROBLEM

 

CHAPTER 3: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

 

CHAPTER 4: INJURY PREVENTION

 

CHAPTER 5: SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION

 

CHAPTER 6: EDUCATION AND TRAINING

 

CHAPTER 7: PREHOSPITAL CARE

 

CHAPTER 8: HOSPITAL CARE

 

CHAPTER 9: REHABILITATION

 

CHAPTER 10: MANAGEMENT OF MASS CASUALTIES

 

CHAPTER 11: SYSTEM EVALUATION & QUALITY

IMPROVEMENT

 

CHAPTER 12: PUBLIC PARTICIPARION

(SAUDI TRAUMA SOCIETY)

 

APPINDICES

 
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