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تحميل الدليل التدريبي

أسئلة شائعة


          My Major Courses:


Course Symbol & Number: BCH 349


Course Title: Metabolism Practical


Credit Hours: 2(0+2)



 Essential experiments in the metabolism of Carbohydrates 

  and. Lipids




Course Symbol & Number: BCH 443


Course Title: Biochemistry of specialized Tissues


Credit Hours: 2(2+0)



     Chemical, composition, biosynthesis and biochemical role of the


     tissues: Connective tissues in bone, cartilage, teeth, epithelial


     muscle tissue and basis of contraction, nerve and brain, kidney

     and liver.


Lecture No



Connective Tissue: definitions, classification, components of connective tissues-cell types. Collagen in detail, tropocollagen structure, the synthesis of collagen in details, Maturation of collagen. Biochemical basis of other collagen-associated diseases e.g. Ehlers-Danlos syndromes. Collagenases , tissue and bacterial, role in health and disease.  Elastin, occurrence, physiochemical properties, amino acid composition, cross-links. Ground substance: composition and function. Cartilage, occurrence and composition. Bone , composition and structure of mineral of mineral phase, hydroxyapatite, organic constituents. Calcium metabolism: Forms of blood calcium. Physiological functions of calcium. Regulation of blood calcium by 1,25-dihydroxycholcalciferol, parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Blood phosphate. Teeth, brief structure. Composion of enamel, dentine and cementum. Dental caries and role of fluorides.


Epithelial Tissue, Definition and cellular structure. Melanin,location and structure. Synthesis of melanin. Albinism, biochemical basis of the various types.


Muscle Tissue: Classification of muscles. Skeletal muscle cell structure in detail, internal membrane systems, e.g. sarcoplasmic reticulum. Myofibril structure, sarcomere structure in detail. Thick and thin filaments, their arrangement as the physical basis for the striated appearance of skeletal muscle. Sliding filament hypothesis. Proteins of striated muscles, myosin, structure and properties, enzymic cleavage, heavy and light myosin and their properties. Arrangement of myosin in thick filaments. Actin, structure and properties, G-actin and F-actin. Molecular basis of contraction, ATP cycle.



Nerve Tissue: Brief introduction to anatomy of central and peripheral nervous systems. Neuron morphology, dendrites, axons etc. Sensory and motor nerves. Definitions of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, ganglia, synapses etc. Membrane potentials, role of Na+-K+ ATPase.  Effects of inhibitors e.g. Ouabain. Action potentials, Sodium and potassium “channels”. Molecular basis and action of inhibitors e.g. tetrodotoxin etc.   

 Neurotransmitters: definition and characteristics. Acetylcholine synthesis, storage,  release, mechanism of action and catabolism in detail. Role of monoamine oxidase (MAO) . Other neurotransmitters in brief, e.g. Dopamine, serotonin. Brain: composition. Grey matter, white matter. Brain lipids, proteins and inorganic components. Blood-brain barriers, physical basis. Energy sources, respiratory quotient and oxygen consumption in normal state, hypoglycaemia and insulin shock. Ketone bodies and their role in starvation. Amino acid metabolism of brain and toxicity of ammonia.



Kidney: Brief introduction  to kidney structure and function. Kidney metabolism in brief. Definitions of “clearance” “renal threshold” and “transport maximum”. Mechanism of excretion of various non-electrolytes and electrolytes. Role of kidney in maintenance of acid-base balance.



Liver: Metabolic profile of the liver- an overview. Role of the Liver in the integration of metabolism



The First Continues Assessment Exam: 7-10- 1428 H  29-10-2007

 The Second Continous Assessment Exam: 28-11-1428  8-12-2007




 Course Symbol and  Number:  BCH 476


Course Title                            : Antibiotics

Credit Hours                          : 2 (2+0)




 Usage of antibiotics. Isolation, purification and characterization of antibiotics. Classification, structural and functional properties of antibiotics. Mode of action of antibiotics. Modes of resistance from the biochemical point of view.



Lecture No.



Introduction, definition of antibiotics, sources of antibiotics.



Usage of antibiotics, in medicine and animal feed.



When & Why antibiotics are produced. The concept of idiophase & trophase. Primary and secondary metabolism in relation to antibiotic production. Ecological role of antibiotics in nature.



Choice and administration of antibiotics to humans Isolation of Isolation of the microorganisms.





Classification of antibiotics on the basis of biological effect.   

Classification of antibiotics according to chemical structure.

Carbohydrate antibiotic structure and characteristics e.g.

Streptomycin and neomycins.



Macrocyclic lactone antibiotics- characteristics & mode of

action e.g erythromycin, nystatin, amphtericin B etc.



Quinine and similar antibiotics. General structural properties,

General structural properties, e.g. tetracyclines, mitomycins.



Amino acid, peptides antibiotics.  Site of action. {e.g. Penicillin, cephalosporin}, Gramicidins A,  Gramicidins S and actiomycins.



Alicyclic antibiotics e.g. cycloheximide. Aromatic antibiotic e.g. chloramphenicol. Aliphatic antibiotics e.g.phosphonomycin. Sources, structural and functions.



Mechanism of action of antibiotics, biochemical targets or sites of action of antibiotics: Inhibitors of cell wall synthesis e.g. penicillin, cephalosporin, cycloserine, phosphonomycin.



Antibiotics affecting membrane structure & function. e.g.Valinomycin, gramicidinA , polymyxins, polyene.



Antibiotics affecting purine & pyrimidine synthesis.  

Inhibitors of de novo purine & pyrimidine synthesis e.g.

e.g. azaserine & DON. Inhibitors of nucleotide Interco version e.g. hadacidin.



Antibiotics inhibiting ribonucleic acid metabolism Directly e.g. azaserine, DON, formycin, rifamicin.

Indirectly inhibitors of RNA synthesis.



Antibiotics that inhibit DNA metabolism by a. cross-linking covalently with DNA e.g. anthramycin. b. intercalation with DNA e.g. actinomycin D & daunomycin. c. non-covalently interacting with DNA e.g. chromomycin & distamycin A.



Protein biosynthesis-inhibition by antibiotics 

a. Inhibitors of the initiation stage e.g. streptomycin & tetracyclin.

b. Inhibitors of the elongation stage e.g. chloramphenicol, cycloheximide & erythromycine.

c. Inhibitors of the termination stage e.g. puromycin.



Oxidative phosphorylation & chain inhibitors e.g. antimycin A, oligomycin, gramicidin A, valinomycin


Modes of resistance to antibiotics, a. modification of the target enzyme b. reduction of the physiological  importance of the target c. prevention of access of the

inhibitor  d. synthesis of an enzyme capable of inactivating the inhibitor.



The First Continuous Assessment Exam: 25-10-1428 H,

6-11-2007 G


The second Continuous Assessment Exam: 1-12-1428 H,

11-12-2007 G


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