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تحميل الدليل التدريبي

أسئلة شائعة

BCH 476


 Course Symbol and  Number:  BCH 476

 Course Title                            : Antibiotics

Credit Hours                          : 2 (2+0)



Usage of antibiotics. Isolation, purification and characterization of antibiotics. Classification, structural and functional properties of antibiotics. Mode of action of antibiotics. Modes of resistance from the biochemical point of view.


Lecture No.



Introduction, definition of antibiotics, sources of antibiotics.



Usage of antibiotics, in medicine and animal feed.



When & Why antibiotics are produced. The concept of idiophase & trophase. Primary and secondary metabolism in relation to antibiotic production. Ecological role of antibiotics in nature.



Choice and administration of antibiotics to humans Isolation of Isolation of the microorganisms.





Classification of antibiotics on the basis of biological effect.   

Classification of antibiotics according to chemical structure.

Carbohydrate antibiotic structure and characteristics e.g.

Streptomycin and neomycins.



Macrocyclic lactone antibiotics- characteristics & mode of

action e.g erythromycin, nystatin, amphtericin B etc.



Quinine and similar antibiotics. General structural properties,

General structural properties, e.g. tetracyclines, mitomycins.



Amino acid, peptides antibiotics.  Site of action. {e.g. Penicillin, cephalosporin}, Gramicidins A,  Gramicidins S and actiomycins.



Alicyclic antibiotics e.g. cycloheximide. Aromatic antibiotic e.g. chloramphenicol. Aliphatic antibiotics e.g.phosphonomycin. Sources, structural and functions.



Mechanism of action of antibiotics, biochemical targets or sites of action of antibiotics: Inhibitors of cell wall synthesis e.g. penicillin, cephalosporin, cycloserine, phosphonomycin.



Antibiotics affecting membrane structure & function. e.g.Valinomycin, gramicidinA , polymyxins, polyene.



Antibiotics affecting purine & pyrimidine synthesis.  

Inhibitors of de novo purine & pyrimidine synthesis e.g.

e.g. azaserine & DON. Inhibitors of nucleotide Interco version e.g. hadacidin.



Antibiotics inhibiting ribonucleic acid metabolism Directly e.g. azaserine, DON, formycin, rifamicin.

Indirectly inhibitors of RNA synthesis.



Antibiotics that inhibit DNA metabolism by a. cross-linking covalently with DNA e.g. anthramycin. b. intercalation with DNA e.g. actinomycin D & daunomycin. c. non-covalently interacting with DNA e.g. chromomycin & distamycin A.



Protein biosynthesis-inhibition by antibiotics 

a. Inhibitors of the initiation stage e.g. streptomycin & tetracyclin.

b. Inhibitors of the elongation stage e.g. chloramphenicol, cycloheximide & erythromycine.

c. Inhibitors of the termination stage e.g. puromycin.



Oxidative phosphorylation & chain inhibitors e.g. antimycin A, oligomycin, gramicidin A, valinomycin


Modes of resistance to antibiotics, a. modification of the target enzyme b. reduction of the physiological  importance of the target c. prevention of access of the

inhibitor  d. synthesis of an enzyme capable of inactivating the inhibitor.




The First Continuous Assessment Exam:

25-10-1428 H, 6-11-2007 G


The second Continuous Assessment Exam:

1-12-1428 H, 11-12-2007 G

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