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تحميل الدليل التدريبي

أسئلة شائعة


BCH 443


Course Symbol & Number: BCH 443


Course Title: Biochemistry of specialized Tissues


Credit Hours: 2(2+0)



     Chemical, composition, biosynthesis and biochemical role
    of the
following tissues: Connective tissues in bone,
    cartilage, teeth, epithelial 
tissue, muscle tissue and basis 
    of contraction, nerve and brain, kidney 
and liver.


Lecture No



Connective Tissue: definitions, classification, components of connective tissues-cell types. Collagen in detail, tropocollagen structure, the synthesis of collagen in details, Maturation of collagen. Biochemical basis of other collagen-associated diseases e.g. Ehlers-Danlos syndromes. Collagenases , tissue and bacterial, role in health and disease.  Elastin, occurrence, physiochemical properties, amino acid composition, cross-links. Ground substance: composition and function. Cartilage, occurrence and composition. Bone , composition and structure of mineral of mineral phase, hydroxyapatite, organic constituents. Calcium metabolism: Forms of blood calcium. Physiological functions of calcium. Regulation of blood calcium by 1,25-dihydroxycholcalciferol, parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Blood phosphate. Teeth, brief structure. Composion of enamel, dentine and cementum. Dental caries and role of fluorides.


Epithelial Tissue, Definition and cellular structure. Melanin,location and structure. Synthesis of melanin. Albinism, biochemical basis of the various types.


Muscle Tissue: Classification of muscles. Skeletal muscle cell structure in detail, internal membrane systems, e.g. sarcoplasmic reticulum. Myofibril structure, sarcomere structure in detail. Thick and thin filaments, their arrangement as the physical basis for the striated appearance of skeletal muscle. Sliding filament hypothesis. Proteins of striated muscles, myosin, structure and properties, enzymic cleavage, heavy and light myosin and their properties. Arrangement of myosin in thick filaments. Actin, structure and properties, G-actin and F-actin. Molecular basis of contraction, ATP cycle.



Nerve Tissue: Brief introduction to anatomy of central and peripheral nervous systems. Neuron morphology, dendrites, axons etc. Sensory and motor nerves. Definitions of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, ganglia, synapses etc. Membrane potentials, role of Na+-K+ ATPase.  Effects of inhibitors e.g. Ouabain. Action potentials, Sodium and potassium “channels”. Molecular basis and action of inhibitors e.g. tetrodotoxin etc.   

 Neurotransmitters: definition and characteristics. Acetylcholine synthesis, storage,  release, mechanism of action and catabolism in detail. Role of monoamine oxidase (MAO) . Other neurotransmitters in brief, e.g. Dopamine, serotonin. Brain: composition. Grey matter, white matter. Brain lipids, proteins and inorganic components. Blood-brain barriers, physical basis. Energy sources, respiratory quotient and oxygen consumption in normal state, hypoglycaemia and insulin shock. Ketone bodies and their role in starvation. Amino acid metabolism of brain and toxicity of ammonia.



Kidney: Brief introduction  to kidney structure and function. Kidney metabolism in brief. Definitions of “clearance” “renal threshold” and “transport maximum”. Mechanism of excretion of various non-electrolytes and electrolytes. Role of kidney in maintenance of acid-base balance.



Liver: Metabolic profile of the liver- an overview. Role of the Liver in the integration of metabolism




The First Continues Assessment Exam:
7-10- 1428 H / 29-10-2007

 The Second Continous Assessment Exam:
28-11-1428 H / 8-12-2007

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