The following are sample exam questions:
- To understand the etiology of acute kidney injury in patients with infective endocarditis.
- Interpretation of urine lytes in setting of acute renal failure
23 years old Saudi male, IV drugs addicts presented to the emergency department with fever and shortness of breath for 5 days. On examination he is ill looking, febrile 38.5 Bp 140/80 respiratory rate 22/min, IV tracks on arms, heart sound normal first and second heart sounds with systolic murmur over right sterna border. On admission, Complete blood count showed leukocytosis. Normal electrolytes and serum Creatinine. Preliminary blood culture result is gram positive cocci and echo cardiogram showed vegetation on Tricuspid valve, patient was started on antibiotics. Five days later the serum creatinine is 300 micro mole/L.
Q 1: The acute renal failure of this patient could be explained by all except:
A-Antibiotic related interstitial nephritis.
B- Post infectious glomerulonephritis.
C- Acute tubular necrosis secondary to toxic drugs.
D- Wegener's Granulomatosis
Q 2: for the previous patient, the following investigation will be useful to establish the etiology of Acute renal failure except:
A- Urine analysis and electrolytes
B- Complete blood count with differential
C- Anti DNA
D- Kidney ultra sound
Q 3: for a different patient presenting with acute renal failure, If a spot urinary Na <10 mmol/l and calculated FENa is < 1% (fractional excretion of Na) that would support which of the following as a cause:
A- Pre renal etiology
B- Post renal cause.
C- Renal cause
D- It is not a helpful test
- To know the epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in Saudi Arabia
The commonest cause of chronic kidney disease in Saudi is:
A- Adult poly cystic kidney disease
B- IgA nephropathy
C- Diabetes mellitus
D- Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
To know the indication of renal replacement therapy in setting of acute renal failure
The followings are true indication for emergency dialysis in setting of acute renal failure except:
A- Refractory metabolic acidosis
B- Uremic encephalopathy
C- Refractory volume overload
D- Potassium level of 4.9 mmol/l
- To know the regulatory hormone for K homeostasis
Q: Which hormone plays a major role in potassium regulation?
D- Growth hormone