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أسئلة شائعة

Successful salvage of kidney allografts threatened by ureteral stricture using pyelovesical bypass.

R A Azhar, M Hassanain, M Aljiffry, S Aldousari, T Cabrera, S Andonian, P Metrakos, M Anidjar, S Paraskevas.

Ureteral stricture is the most common urologic complication after renal transplantation. When endourologic management fails, open ureteral reconstruction remains the standard treatment. The complexity of some of these procedures makes it necessary to explore other means of repair. This study evaluated the intermediate-term outcome of subcutaneous pyelovesical bypass graft (SPBG) on renal transplant recipients. We reviewed 8 patients (6 male and 2 female; mean age 52 years) with refractory ureteral strictures postrenal transplantation, who received SPBG as salvage therapy. All patients failed endourologic management and half failed open management of their strictures. After a mean follow-up of 19.4 months, 7 out of 8 renal grafts have good function with mean GFR of 58.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2), without evidence of obstruction or infection. One patient lost his graft due to persistent infection of the SPBG and one patient developed a recurrent urinary tract infection managed with long-term antibiotics. SPBG offers a last resort in the treatment of ureteral stricture after renal transplantation refractory to conventional therapy. - Am J Transplant (2010) vol. 10 (6) pp. 1414-9



Pathological response grade of colorectal liver metastases treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Gabriel Chan, Mazen Hassanain, Prosanto Chaudhury, Dionisios Vrochides, Amy Neville, Matthew Cesari, Petr Kavan, Victoria Marcus, Peter Metrakos.

BACKGROUND: The complete resection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer is the major determinant of longterm survival. The effectiveness of current chemotherapy regimens has made treatment algorithms more flexible and resulted in many different options. Recently, the pathological response to chemotherapy has emerged as another important prognostic marker. Different systems have been used to grade the pathological response in these patients. METHODS: This study prospectively evaluates the prognostic value of the pathological response grade (PRG) in liver metastases treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. RESULTS: Between 2002 and 2006, 50 patients were treated with a sandwich chemotherapy regimen and underwent liver resection. Complete resection was achieved in 45 patients (90%). A strong pathological response to chemotherapy (<10% viable tumour cells in all lesions) was seen in 17 patients (34%). It was associated with a statistically significant longer overall survival (P= 0.019) and was also identified on multivariate analysis as an independent predictor of survival (odds ratio = 243). CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates the prognostic potential of the PRG, which could be used clinically to select patients for an aggressive multimodal adjuvant algorithm. Larger multicentre studies are required to validate this particular grading system. The keys to longterm survival are resectability and chemo-responsiveness. - HPB (Oxford) (2010) vol. 12 (4) pp. 277-84



Perioperative Glucose and Insulin Administration While Maintaining Normoglycemia (GIN Therapy) in Patients Undergoing Major Liver Resection.

Hiroaki Sato, Ralph Lattermann, George Carvalho, Tamaki Sato, Peter Metrakos, Mazen Hassanain, Takashi Matsukawa, Thomas Schricker.

Background: Although hyperglycemia is a well-recognized risk factor in the context of cardiac surgery, the relevance of perioperative glycemic control for patients undergoing major noncardiac operations has received little attention. We designed this study to assess the hyperglycemic response to liver resection, and to test the hypothesis that perioperative glucose and insulin administration while maintaining normoglycemia (GIN therapy) provides glycemic control superior to that achieved by the conventional use of insulin. Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to GIN therapy or standard therapy (control group). In the GIN therapy group, insulin was administered at 2 mU . kg(-1) . min(-1) during surgery. At the end of surgery, the insulin infusion was decreased to 1 mU . kg(-1) . min(-1) and continued for 24 hours. Dextrose 20% was infused at a rate adjusted to maintain blood glucose within the target range of 3.5 to 6.1 mmol . L(-1) (63-110 mg . dL(-1)). Patients in the standard therapy group received a conventional insulin sliding scale during and after surgery. The mean and SD of blood glucose as well as the percentage of blood glucose values within the target range were calculated. To evaluate intrasubject variability, the coefficient of variability (CV) of blood glucose was calculated for each patient. Episodes of severe hypoglycemia, i.e., blood glucose <2.2 mmol . L(-1) (40 mg . dL(-1)), were recorded. The primary outcome was the proportion of normoglycemic measurements. Results: We studied 52 patients. The mean blood glucose value in patients receiving GIN therapy always remained within the target range. The blood glucose levels were lower in the GIN therapy group than in the standard therapy group (during surgery, P < 0.01; after surgery, P < 0.001). In nondiabetic patients receiving GIN therapy (n = 19), target glycemia was achieved in 90.1% of the blood glucose measurements during surgery and in 77.8% of the measurements after surgery. In diabetic patients receiving GIN therapy (n = 7), target glycemia was achieved in 81.2% of the blood glucose measurements during surgery and in 70.5% of the measurements after surgery. In nondiabetic patients receiving standard therapy (n = 19), target glycemia was achieved in 37.4% of the blood glucose measurements during surgery and in 18.3% of the measurements after surgery. In diabetic patients receiving standard therapy (n = 7), target glycemia was achieved in 4.3% of the blood glucose measurements during surgery and in 2.9% of the measurements after surgery. The SD and CV of blood glucose were smaller in the GIN therapy group than in the standard therapy group, especially in nondiabetic patients after surgery (SD, P < 0.001; CV, P = 0.027). No patients receiving GIN therapy experienced severe hypoglycemia during surgery. One patient receiving GIN therapy experienced hypoglycemia in the intensive care unit after surgery without neurological sequelae. Conclusions: GIN therapy effectively provides normoglycemia in patients undergoing liver resection (, NCT00774098). - Anesth Analg (2010) pp.



Conservative management of well-differentiated thyroid cancer.

Mazen Hassanain, Marvin Wexler.

Background: Controversy exists over the optimal surgical treatment of well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Conservative surgical management reduces the risk of complications and maintains an overall survival rate equivalent to the more extensive approach. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer greater than 1 cm (180 patients) who underwent surgery between 1982 and 2002 by a single general surgeon at our institution. The prevailing philosophy was to be as conservative as possible, and the predominant resection was lobectomy and isthmusectomy on the affected side. Results: In total, 90% of patients were in a definable low-risk group: 75% had conservative surgery with 4 recurrences and no mortality, 25% had extensive surgery with 3 recurrences and no mortality. The other 10% were in a definable high-risk group: 90% had extensive surgery with 9 recurrences and 4 deaths. Overall, there were 22 sites of recurrence in 16 patients. There was no recurrence in the residual thyroid tissue, with a median follow-up of 10 years. Three recurrences occurred in the resected thyroid bed; each of these patients had undergone extensive surgery. Twelve recurrences were in lymph nodes; 67% of these patients had extensive surgery. All except 1 of 7 distant metastases occurred in the high-risk group, despite the patient having undergone extensive local surgery. Recurrence did not affect survival in the low-risk group. The extensive surgery group had a 3.4% incidence of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and a 1.1% incidence of permanent hypocalcemia, with none in the conservative surgery group. Conclusion: Conservative surgery for low-risk patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer appears to be sufficient and avoids complications without significantly increased risk for local, regional or distant recurrence. - Can J Surg (2010) vol. 53 (2) pp. 109-18




Perioperative chemotherapy with bevacizumab and liver resection for colorectal cancer liver metastasis.

Prosanto Chaudhury, Mazen Hassanain, Nathaniel Bouganim, Ayat Salman, Petr Kavan, Peter Metrakos.

BACKGROUND: Surgery remains the only curative option for patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLM). Perioperative chemotherapeutic strategies have become increasingly popular in the treatment of CRLM. Although the role of bevacizumab (Bev) in this setting remains unclear, its widespread use has raised concerns about the use of Bev as part of perioperative chemotherapy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients who received Bev and underwent liver resection between July 2004 and July 2008 at the McGill University Health Center. Chemotherapy-related toxicity, response to chemotherapy, surgical morbidity and mortality, liver function and survival data were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 35 patients were identified. Of these, 26 (74.3%) patients received oxaliplatin-based cytotoxic chemotherapy, six (17.1%) received irinotecan-based therapy and the remainder received both agents. A total of 17 patients (48.6%) underwent portal vein embolization prior to resection and 12 (34.3%) underwent staged resection for extensive bilobar disease. A median of six cycles of preoperative Bev were administered. Nine patients (25.7%) experienced grade 3 or higher chemotherapy-related toxicities. Four events were deemed to be related to Bev. The overall response rate was 65.7% (complete and partial response). One patient progressed on therapy, but this did not prevent R0 resection. The incidence of postoperative morbidity was 42.3%. A total of 21.7% of complications were Clavien grade 3 or higher. There were no perioperative mortalities. There were no cases of severe sinusoidal injury or steatohepatitis. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of 4-year survival was 52.5%. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm the safety of chemotherapy regimens which include Bev in the perioperative setting and demonstrate that such perioperative chemotherapy in patients with CRLM does not adversely affect patient outcome. There was no increase in perioperative morbidity compared with published rates. The addition of Bev to standard chemotherapy may improve response rates, which may, in turn, impact favourably on patient survival. - HPB (Oxford) (2010) vol. 12 (1) pp. 37-42



Stereotactic radiotherapy of the liver: a bridge to transplantation stereotactic radiotherapy of the liver: a bridge to transplantation.

Abdul Aziz Al Hamad, Mazen Hassanain, René P Michel, Peter Metrakos, David Roberge.

Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have limited curative therapeutic options. In North America, liver transplantation is one of the most commonly used curative therapies. Many potential transplant patients will be treated with another therapeutic modality to prevent local disease progression while awaiting organ donation. We present the case of 60-years old male diagnosed with HCC and awaiting liver transplantation. Prior to registration on the transplant list, the patient had a significant increase of his serum alpha-fetoprotein level. Due to his vascular anatomy and tumor location, he was not a candidate for more standard local ablative therapies. He was thus offered stereotactic radiotherapy as a bridge to liver transplantation. He received 50 Gy in 5 fractions using respiratory gating. Following this, he had a complete radiological and serological response without worsening of his baseline Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis. Following transplant, 13 months later, pathological examination of the liver explant revealed only scarring at the site of radiation. This case illustrated the fact that hepatic stereotactic radiotherapy is a promising and safe treatment for patients with HCC. In selected patients, it can be a bridge to transplantation and, on its own, has the potential to induce complete pathological response in non-surgical candidates. - Technol Cancer Res Treat (2009) vol. 8 (6) pp. 401-5



Massive hemobilia.

S Demyttenaere, M Hassanain, Y Halwani, D Valenti, J Barkun.

Canadian journal of surgery Journal canadien de chirurgie (2009) vol. 52 (4) pp. E109-E110



Recovery of graft function early posttransplant determines long-term graft survival in deceased donor renal transplants.

M Hassanain, J I Tchervenkov, M Cantarovich, P Metrakos, S Paraskevas, D Keith, D Baran, M Fernandez, R Mangel, P Chaudhury.

INTRODUCTION: Because kidneys show remarkable resilience and can recover function, we examined the impact on long-term graft survival in deceased donor renal transplants of both immediate graft function (IGF) and the rate of renal function recovery over the first 3 months after transplantation. METHODS: We included all cadaveric renal transplants from 1990 to 2007 (n = 583). Delayed graft function (DGF) was defined as the need for dialysis in the first 7 days posttransplant. Slow graft function (SGF) and IGF were defined by serum creatinine falls of <20% or >20% in the first 24 hours posttransplant respectively. Recovery of renal function was expressed as either the best creatinine clearance (CrCl) in the first 3 months post-renal transplantation (BCrCl-3mos) as calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault formula or as a percentage of actual versus expected value (as calculated from the donors' CrCl at procurement). RESULTS: There were 140 (23.6%) subjects who received extended criteria donor (ECD) organs. The overall graft survival at 1 and 5 years was 87.8% and 74%, respectively. The 5-year graft survivals for patients with IGF, SGF, and DGF were 85%, 76%, and 54%, respectively (P < .02). ECD kidneys showed twice the DGF rate (49% vs 23%, P < .001). BCrCl-3mos of <30 mL/min displayed a 5-year graft survival of 34%; 30 to 39 mL/min, 72%; 40 to 49 mL/min, 85%; and >50 mL/min, 82% (P < .001). Similarly, a recovery within 90% of expected CrCl in the first 3 months posttransplant correlated with 5-year graft survival of 81%; a recovery of 70% to 90%, with 65%; and a recovery of <70%, with 51% (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Early graft function in the first 3 months showed a significant impact on long-term graft survival after deceased donor renal transplantation. - Transplantation Proceedings (2009) vol. 41 (1) pp. 124-6



Delayed graft function has an equally bad impact on deceased donor renal graft survival in both standard criteria donors and expanded criteria donors.

M Hassanain, J Tchervenkov, M Cantarovich, P Metrakos, S Paraskevas, D Keith, D Baran, M Fernandez, R Mangel, P Chaudhury.

INTRODUCTION: The use of expanded criteria donors (ECDs) is still limited because of inferior graft survival compared to standard criteria donors (SCDs). We assessed the impact of immediate graft function (IGF) on renal graft survival among recipients of SCD and ECD grafts to determine whether these kidneys performed equally well under "ideal" conditions favoring IGF. METHODS: We included all cadaveric renal transplants performed from 1990 to 2002 (n = 335). Delayed graft function (DGF) was defined as the need for dialysis in the first 7 days posttransplant. Slow graft function (SGF) and IGF were defined as a serum creatinine fall by <20% versus >20% in the first 24 hours posttransplant, respectively. Non-death censored actual graft survivals are reported herein. RESULTS: Seventy-two of the 335 subjects (21.5%) received organs from ECDs and displayed IGF in 54.7%, SGF 16.2%, and DGF 29.1%. Among SCDs, the SGF and DGF rates were 15.3% and 23.4%, respectively. In ECD, the SGF and DGF rates were 19.4% and 50% (P < .02). Actual graft survivals at 1 and 5 years was 86.3% and 70.4%, respectively. Patients with IGF had higher actual graft survival at 5 years compared to SGF and DGF (83.5% vs 74.1% vs 45.4%). DGF had an equally bad impact on actual 5-year graft survival in SCDs and ECDs (42.6% vs 50%). CONCLUSION: DGF has a strong detrimental impact on 5-year graft survival. There is a higher rate of DGF in ECD versus SCD kidneys. The detrimental impact on 5-year actual graft survival is equal in SCD and ECD kidneys. Minimizing DGF should be our goal. - Transplantation Proceedings (2009) vol. 41 (1) pp. 133-4



An unusual cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

Sebastian Demyttenaere, Mazen Hassanain, Peter Ghali, David Valenti, Prosanto Chaudhury.

Liver Transpl (2008) vol. 14 (10) pp. 1541-3



Hepatic protection by perioperative metabolic support?.

Mazen Hassanain, Thomas Schricker, Peter Metrakos, George Carvalho, Dionisios Vrochides, Ralph Lattermann.

OBJECTIVE: We report the case of a 63-y-old woman undergoing left hepatectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma who was at high risk of postoperative liver failure due to an atrophic right liver lobe. She participated in a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of perioperative glucose infusion on hepatic function after major liver resection. METHODS: Intravenous glucose was initiated the night before the operation at 2 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1). During and after the operation, glucose was administered with a continuous insulin infusion until the first postoperative day. Postoperative liver function was assessed by the score proposed by Schindl, evaluating total serum bilirubin and plasma lactate concentrations, prothrombin time, and the grade of encephalopathy. RESULTS: The patient's liver dysfunction was classified as "mild" on postoperative day 1 and as "none" on postoperative day 2. Postoperative liver function scores were better than those observed in a control group of patients who underwent hepatic resection of similar magnitude without glucose/insulin therapy. CONCLUSION: Perioperative glucose/insulin administration was associated with a surprisingly small deterioration of liver function after left lobe liver resection in the presence of an atrophic right lobe. A randomized clinical trial will have to determine whether glucose/insulin therapy can improve hepatic function after major liver resections. - Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif) (2008) vol. 24 (11-12) pp. 1217-9


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