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George E. Carvell, PhD, PT   University of Pittsburgh
 
SPINAL CORD: STRUCTURE
The adult spinal cord begins at the medulla-spinal cord transition at the foramen magnum and ends as the conus medullaris at the L1- L2 vertebral level. Below the conus, spinal roots continue caudally as the cauda equina. Lumbar and sacral roots of the cauda equina exit at the appropriate orthopedic level. Like the Brain in the cranial vault, the spinal cord and the cauda equina are surrounded by three meninges (dura, arachnoid, and pia mater) & cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A spinal tap at the L4-5 level is used to measure the pressure and constituents of the CSF. There are 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, and 5 sacral segments in the human spinal cord.
Ventral Horn
BC&P Appendix p 231