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George E. Carvell, PhD, PT   University of Pittsburgh
BC&P Fig 5.10  p. 108
Fig 5.10 LEGEND: “The release of neurotransmitter by exocytosis. 1) A synaptic vesicle loaded with neurotransmitter, in response to 2) an influx of Ca2+ through voltage-gated calcium channels, 3) releases its contents into the synaptic cleft by the fusion of the vesicle membrane with the presynaptic membrane, and 4) is eventually recycled by the process of endocytosis.” BC&P p 108
Figure 5.8 LEGEND: “Representative neurotransmitters. (a) The amino acid neurotransmitters glutamate, GABA, and glycine. (b) The amine neurotransmitters acetylcholine and norepinephrine. (c) The peptide neurotransmitter substance P. (For the abbreviations and chemical structures of amino acids in substance P, see Figure 3.4b.)” BC&P p107
The most common excitatory neuro-transmitter (NT) in the CNS is Glutamate (Glu) and the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS is GABA. The actual effect of the NT on the postsynaptic cell depends upon the properties of the postsynaptic receptor complex.
BC&P Fig 5.8  p. 107
Presynaptic Axon Terminal
Postsynaptic Membrane
a = amino acid neurotransmitters
b = amine neurotransmitters
c = neuroactive peptide neurotransmitter