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George E. Carvell, PhD, PT   University of Pittsburgh
 
NERVOUS SYSTEM ORGANIZATION: THEORIES, THEORIES, THEORIES
 How does the brain orchestrate the myriad of instruments (neurons & muscles) required to play a piece as beautiful to the senses as a Michael Jordan dunk? Many neuroscientists that study motor control would love to have a definitive answer, but as yet there are only hypotheses to be tested, a challenge as engaging to them as a 40 foot putt is to a golfer.
Jackson Portrait IN: F.E. Bloom and A. Lazerson, Brain, Mind, and Behavior New York : W.H. Freeman & Co, p 311, 1988.
UPPER LEVEL
‘Association’ Cortex
MIDDLE LEVEL
SensoriMotor Cortex
LOWER LEVEL
Brainstem  &
Spinal Cord
John Hughlings Jackson’s
‘One Way, Top-Down’ Hierarchy
Jackson is often considered to be the ‘father’ of Neurology
Late 19th - Early 20th Century Concepts
V.B. Brooks’ 20th Century Horizontal Hierarchy
(note ultimate authority: limbic system)
Limbic
System
Association
System
Projection
System
Spinal
System
Musculo-skeletal
System
EMOTIVE
COGNITIVE
HIGHEST LEVEL
MIDDLE LEVEL
LOWEST LEVEL
DEMANDS
SELECTS
GUIDES
EXECUTES
MOVES
‘FILL MY NEEDS’
‘TAKE THIS ROUTE’
‘DO IT THIS WAY NOW’
‘JUST DO IT ’
‘DOING IT ’
(after Brooks
 fig 2.4, p 25)
Do Madison Ave. Advertisers Like Brooks’ Model?