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George E. Carvell, PhD, PT   University of Pittsburgh
NEUROSCIENCE (NEUROBIOLOGY)
 
Neuroscience (neurobiology) is the study of the nervous system or components of neural structure and function. Neuroscientists explore the nervous system using methodologies ranging from behavioral research in human subjects, to single cell recordings of neuronal activity in-vivo or in-vitro, to genetic engineering of DNA/RNA responsible for specific brain protein molecules. Neurobiology as a separate field of study is relatively young (under 50). Originally, ‘neuroscience’ was just a part of more traditional disciplines such as anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, cell biology, psychology, molecular biology, genetics, kinesiology, pathology, pharmacology, engineering, mathematics, artificial intelligence, medicine, surgery, etc.
Drawing of Nerve Cell by O. Deiters, a German Anatomist (published in 1865)
BC&P Fig. 1.15, p. 13
BC&P Fig. 1.12, p. 11
Paul Broca (1824-1880), French
 Anatomist & Surgeon
Broca’s clinical observations of a man’s speech deficits (expressive aphasia) and his subsequent inspection of the lesion site in the autopsied brain (fig 1.12) lead him to the conclusion that functions are localized to specific areas of the brain.
BC&P Fig. 1.11, p. 10
Broca’s Area