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George E. Carvell, PhD, PT   University of Pittsburgh
MD = Medial Dorsal Thalamic Nuc.
MI = Primary Motor Cortex
PPC = Posterior Parietal Cortex
Put = Putamen
SI+ = Somatosensory Cortex
SEF = Supplemental Eye Fields
SMA = Supplemental Motor Area
SNr = Substantia Nigra retic.
The basal ganglia have major connections with the cerebral cortex. The ‘generic’ pathway is shown on the left. Several cortical areas feed into the striatum where there is a partial overlap. The striatum funnels this partially integrated information to the globus pallidus and substantia nigra where a greater integration occurs. The pallidal and nigral information is sent to the thalamus where there is a full overlap of integrated information. The thalamus feeds back the integrated information to the closed loop cortical target (A). B & C provide open loop connections. The right diagram shows each of 5 functional subdivisions.
Caud = Caudate Nucleus
CG & CMA = Cingulate Gyrus & Mot Areas
DLC = Dorsolateral Prefrontal Ctx.
EC = Entorhinal Cortex
FEF = Frontal Eye Fields
GPi = Globus Pallidus internal
ITG = Inferior Temporal Gyrus
LOC = Lateral Orbitofrontal Ctx.

STG = Superior Temporal Gyrus
VA = Ventral Anterior Thalamic Nucleus
VL= Ventral Lateral Thalamic Nuc (o & m)
VP = Ventral Pallidum
VS = Ventral Striatum
VTA = Ventral Tegmental Area
AD&S Fig 2
AD&S Fig 3
A = Closed Loop Target
B & C = Open Loop Feedforward Sources