VanDeGraaffHumanAnatomy6ed2001VanDeGraaff
наименование:Van de Graaff Human Anatomy
автор/ы : Van de Graaff Kent
год : 2001
страниц : 840
издательство : McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math, 6th edition
ISBN: 0072486651

печатное издание


Human Anatomy by Van De Graaff is designed for the one-semester human anatomy course. This course is usually offered at the freshman/sophomore level, is taught primarily in biology, physical education, or allied health departments, and is often a prerequisite for programs in occupational therapy, physical therapy, massage therapy, sports medicine, athletic training, chiropractic medicine, etc. This edition features new cadaver photos, expanded pedagogy, and more clinical coverage.




содержание



указатель


Preface
Visual Guide
Part 1 - Historical Perspective
1. History of Anatomy
Part 2 - Terminology, Organization, and the Human Organism
2. Body Orientation and Anatomical Terminology
Part 3 - Microscopic Structure of the Body
3. Cellular Anatomy
4. Histology
Part 4 - Support and Movement
5. Integumentary System
6. Skeletal System: Introduction and the Axial Skeleton
7. Skeletal System: Appendicular Skeleton
8. Articulations
9. Muscular System
10. Surface and Regional Anatomy
Part 5 - Integration and Coordination
11. Nervous Tissue and the Central Nervous System
12. Peripheral Nervous System
13. Autonomic Nervous System
14. Endocrine System
15. Sensory Organs
Part 6 - Maintenance of the Body
16. Circulatory System
17. Respiratory System
18. Digestive System
19. Urinary System
Part 7 - Continuance of the Species
20. Male Reproductive System
21. Female Reproductive System
22. Developmental Anatomy, Postnatal Growth, and Inheritance
Appendix A
Appendix B
Glossary
Credits
Index

A
A bands, 241, 242f, 243f, 245f
Abdomen, 36–37
developmental conditions involving, 336
diseases of, 337
internal anatomy of, 315, 317f, 318f
of neonate, 299t
quadrants of, 37, 39f
subdivisions of, 36–37, 38f, 38t
surface anatomy of, 312–313, 312f
trauma to, 336–337
veins of, 579
Abdominal aorta, 566, 567t, 569f, 581f
Abdominal aortic plexus, 441
Abdominal cavity, 40f, 41, 41f, 44f
arteries of, 569f
serous membranes of, 43
Abdominal muscles. See also specific muscles
in respiration, 620
Abdominal organs, 638f
Abdominal reflexes, 430t, 431f
Abdominal thrust maneuver, 608, 627, 628f
Abdominal wall, muscles of, 258, 259f, 260t
Abdominopelvic cavity, 40f, 41, 41f, 42f, 44f
Abducens nerve (VI), 360f, 402f, 404t, 406,
408f, 413t
Abduction, 207, 208f, 211f, 212f
Abductor digiti minimi muscle, 271f, 274f,
275, 275t, 290f, 291f, 325f
Abductor hallucis muscle, 285f, 291f, 329f
Abductor pollicis brevis muscle, 271f, 274f,
275, 275t, 325f
Abductor pollicis longus muscle, 271f, 272,
272f, 273t, 321f, 325f
tendon of, 274f
Abortion, 748, 762
Abrasion, 125f
Abscess, 596
Absorption, 114, 635, 653
Accelerator fibers, 377
Accessory digestive organs, 635
Accessory hemiazygos vein, 576, 577f
Accessory nerves (XI), 309f, 402f, 405t, 412,
412f, 413t, 621t
Accessory nipples, 25f
Accessory olivary nuclei, 377
Accessory pancreatic duct, 654f, 663f
Accessory reproductive glands, 708–709
Accessory structures, of eyes, 499–502
Accommodation (sensory), 490
Accommodation (visual), 510, 514
Acetabular labrum, 220, 220f
Acetabular notch, 181f, 183
Acetabulum, 181, 181f, 182f
Acetylcholine (ACh), 244, 358, 396, 444,
445, 446f
ACh. See Acetylcholine
Achilles reflex. See Ankle reflex
Achilles tendon. See Tendo calcaneus
Achondroplasia, 169
Acid(s), 51
Acid-base balance, 51, 85
Acid phosphatase, 709
Acinar cells, 664f
Acinar glands, 88f, 89t
Acne, 107t, 128
Acoustic nerve. See Vestibulocochlear nerve
Acquired heart disease, 594
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
(AIDS), 720, 721t
Acromegaly, 166, 334, 462, 480, 481f
Acromial extremity, 173, 175f
Acromioclavicular joint, 173, 225t
Acromioclavicular ligament, 216f
Acromion, 173, 175f, 311f, 319f, 320f
Acrosomal reaction, 756
Acrosome, 704–705, 706f, 756
ACTH. See Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Actin myofilaments, 243f
Action potential, 357, 357f
Active transport, 55t
Acupuncture, 8, 9f
Acute pain, 492
Acute prostatitis, 722
Acute purulent otitis media, 533
Acute renal failure, 693
Adam’s apple. See Laryngeal prominence
Addison’s disease, 483
Adduction, 207, 208f, 211f, 212f
Adductor brevis muscle, 276f, 277, 278f,
281t, 282f
Adductor hallucis muscle, 290f
Adductor hiatus muscle, 278f
Adductor longus muscle, 235f, 276f, 277,
278f, 279f, 281f, 281t, 328f, 331f
Adductor magnus muscle, 235f, 276f, 277,
279f, 280f, 281f, 281t, 282f, 328f
Adductor minimus muscle, 277
Adductor pollicis muscle, 271f, 274f, 275,
275t, 325f
Adenine, 65, 68
Adenohypophysis, 373, 460, 461f, 462f,
464t, 477
Adenoidectomy, 608
Adenoids, 584f, 607
Adenylate cyclase, 459, 459f
ADH. See Antidiuretic hormone
Adipocytes, 93, 445t
Adipose cells. See Adipocytes
Adipose tissue, 93–94, 94f, 95t, 107f, 297, 298f
Adolescence, 778–779, 779t, 781t
Adrenal cortex, 440, 457t, 471, 473t, 478
Adrenal glands, 456, 456f, 472f, 473f
autonomic nervous system and, 440
description of, 471
development of, 478
disorders of, 483
functions of, 471–473
Adrenal hormones, 473t
Adrenaline. See Epinephrine
Adrenal medulla, 440, 457t, 471
autonomic nervous system effects on, 445t
development of, 478
tumors of, 483
Adrenal medullary hormones, 473t
Adrenergic stimulation, 444
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH),
462, 464t
Adulthood, 779–781, 781t
Adventitia. See also Tunica externa
of stomach, 650f
of ureters, 684
of urinary bladder, 687
Afferent glomerular arterioles, 677, 680f, 681f
Afferent lymphatic vessels, 583
Afferent nerves, 356f
Afferent neuron, 352
Afterbirth, 775
Aging, 73–74
of muscles, 288–289, 292f
of skeletal system, 167–168, 167f
of skin, 127, 127f
Aging (senile) atrophy, 72
Agranulocytes, 542, 544t
AIDS. See Acquired immune deficiency
syndrome
Air movements, nonrespiratory, 621, 622t
Air pressure, hearing and, 519
Air spaces, 622t
Airways, 622t
Akinesia, 389
Alar cartilage, 305f, 605
Alar nasal sulcus, 304f, 304t
Alar plates, 390
Albinism, 109, 128, 128f
Albumin, 545, 545t
Alcohol
cytologic effects of, 57
intoxication with, 376
liver effects of, 579
Aldosterone, 457t, 471
Alendronate (Fosamax), 168
Alexandrian Era, and history of anatomy, 10–11
Alisphenoid, 142f
Allantois, 667, 764
Alleles, 782–783
Alligator, brain of, 26f
Allogenic transplant, 544
Allografts, 102
All-or-none contraction, 437
All-or-none response, 357
Alopecia, 128
Alpha cells, 470, 470f
Alpha globulin, 545, 545t
Alpha waves, 368t
Alveolar bone destruction, 669f
Alveolar ducts, 611, 612, 613f
Alveolar process, of maxilla, 150f,
154, 155f
Alveolar sacs, 611, 612, 613f
Alveolar ventilation, 622t
Alveolus, 136t
Alzheimer’s disease, 396
Amblyopia, 511, 532
Amelia, 192, 337
Amenorrhea, 747
Amine, 457f, 458, 458t, 459
Amino acids, 51
Amnesia, 392
Amniocentesis, 763, 765f, 787
Amnion, 762–763
Amniotic cavity, 80, 760
Amniotic fluid, 762–763
Amniotic sac, 762–763
Amoebic dysentery, 669
Amphiarthroses, 197
Ampulla
of ductus deferens, 699f, 707, 710f
of inner ear, 526f
of uterine tube, 729f, 734
Ampulla of Vater. See Hepatopancreatic ampulla
Amputation, phantom pain and, 492
Amsler grid, 532
Amylase, 654t
Anabolic effects, of androgens, 703t
Anabolic steroids, 703
Anal canal, 635f, 657, 657f, 658f, 667
Anal column, 657, 658f
Anal membrane, 667
Anal pit, 667
Anal region, pH of, 85
Anal triangle, 39f, 700, 701f
Anaphase, 70, 71f, 703, 704, 704t, 705f
Anastomosis, 555
Anatomical dead space, 622t
Anatomical position, 33, 35f
Anatomical snuffbox, 322, 322f
Anatomical terminology, 30
singular and plural forms of, 33t
standardization of, 17
Anatomy
definition of, 2
developmental, 17
gross, 17
historical documentation of, 6t
history of, 1–21, 5t
case study, 1, 20
microscopic, 17
prescientific period, 2–4
radiographic, 18–19, 18f, 19f
regional approach to, 29
in scientific period, 4–19
surface, 17
systematic (systemic) approach to, 29
terminology of, 2
in 17th Century, 15–16
in 18th Century, 15–16
in 19th Century, 16
in 20th Century, 16–19
Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, The
(Rembrandt), 15f
Anconeus muscle, 267f, 268, 269f, 270t,
271f, 272f, 321f
Androgens, 472, 698, 703, 703t
Anemia, 541, 542, 592
Anencephaly, 333, 392
Anesthesia, 157, 391–392, 775
Aneurysm, 595, 596f
Angina pectoris, 335, 594
Angiocardiogram, 18, 587
Angiography, 18
Angle
of mandible, 149f, 156f, 307f
of rib, 165, 165f
Angle of Louis. See Sternal angle
Angora hair, 117
Angular gyrus, 371, 371f
Angular movements, 207, 208f, 212f
Animal kingdom, 23, 27t
Ankle, 40
muscles of, 281–285, 286t
sprain of, 224
Ankle joint. See Talocrural joint
Ankle reflex, 430t, 431f
Ankylosis, 230
Annular ligament, 217, 218f
ANS. See Autonomic nervous system
Ansa cervicalis, 416t
Antagonistic muscles, 238, 239f
Antebrachium, 38
bones of, 177–178
internal anatomy of, 325f
muscles of, 267–268, 268–272, 270t,
271f, 272f, 273t
surface anatomy of, 320–322, 321f
Anteflexion, of uterus, 748
Anterior, 36t
Anterior arch, of axis, 160f
Anterior body cavity, 40f, 41, 44f
Anterior border, of tibia, 186f
Anterior cavity, of eye, 505f, 508
Anterior cerebral artery, 563, 563f
Anterior cervical triangle, 307, 307f, 308f, 308t
Anterior chamber, of eye, 500f, 505f, 508, 512f
Anterior commissure, 368, 370f
Anterior communicating artery, 563f
Anterior corneal epithelium, 504
Anterior corticospinal tract, 387, 388t, 389t
Anterior cranial fossa, 149f
Anterior crest, of tibia, 185
Anterior cruciate ligament, 221, 221f, 222f
Anterior crural muscles, 281–283, 283f
Anterior division
of brachial plexus, 416
of lumbar plexus, 421
of sacral plexus, 421
Anterior ethmoidal foramina, 150f
Anterior fontanel, 144, 145f
Anterior funiculus, 386, 386f
Anterior gluteal line, 182f, 183
Anterior horn, 365f, 384, 386f, 390
Anterior humeral circumflex artery, 565, 565f
Anterior inferior iliac spine, 181–183, 181f, 182f
Anterior intercostal arteries, 567f
Anterior interosseous artery, 565, 565f
Anterior interventricular artery, 548f, 551, 552f
Anterior interventricular vein, 548f, 551
Anterior lobe, of cerebellum, 375f
Anterior median fissure, 384, 386f
Anterior membranous ampulla, 519f
Anterior nasal spine, 148f
Anterior pituitary gland. See Pars distalis
Anterior ramus, of spinal nerves, 414, 414f
Anterior reticulospinal tract, 388t, 389t
Anterior root, of spinal nerves, 386f, 414, 414f
Anterior sacral foramina, 162, 181f
Anterior semicircular canal, 519f
Anterior spinocerebellar tract, 388t, 389t
Anterior spinothalamic tract, 388t, 389t
Anterior sternoclavicular ligament, 215, 215f
Anterior superior iliac spine, 181, 181f,
182f, 312f
Anterior surface
of patella, 186f
of stomach, 650
Anterior talofibular ligament, 222, 223f
Anterior tibial artery, 560f, 570, 570f
Anterior tibial vein, 573f, 576, 578f
Anterior tibiofibular ligament, 223f
Anterior tibiotalar ligament, 223f
Anterior trunk, of internal iliac artery, 569f
Anterior vagal trunk, 441
Anterolateral fontanels, 144, 145f
Anteversion, of uterus, 748
Anthropometry, 780–781, 782f
Antibodies, 52
Anticodons, 68–69, 69f
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), 457t, 463,
464t, 481
Antihelix, 517f
Antitragus, 517f
Antrum, 729, 730f, 733f
Anus, 330f, 635f, 657, 658f, 699f, 727f, 737f
Anvil, etymology of term, 30
Anxiety, 396
Aorta, 559, 567t, 568f
abdominal portion of, 566, 567t, 569f, 581f
ascending portion of, 314f, 548f, 550,
552f, 559, 561f, 567t
autonomic nervous system effects on, 448t
descending portion of, 549f, 560f
thoracic portion of, 566, 567t
Aortic arch, 24, 314f, 549f, 552f, 559–561,
560f, 561f, 567t, 590, 591f
Aortic area, 554, 554f
Aortic bodies, 623
Aortic impression, 615f
Aortic (semilunar) valve, 548t, 549f, 550
Apex
of cochlea, 519f
of heart, 314f, 545, 548f, 553f
of lung, 614, 615f
of nose, 304f, 304t
of patella, 185, 186f
Apical ectodermal ridge, 192
Apical foramen, 645, 645f
Apical turn, of cochlea, 520f
Aplastic anemia, 541
Apnea, 622t, 628
Apneustic area, 374, 374f, 623
Apocrine glands, 87, 88f, 89t, 118
Aponeuroses, 236, 317f
Appendectomy, 313
Appendicitis, 656
Appendicular skeleton
bones of, 132t, 134
case study, 172, 191
clinical considerations, 189–191
clinical practicum, 193
development of, 192, 192f
muscles of, 234, 263–285
Appendix, 635f, 656, 657f, 658f
Appositional bone growth, 137
Aqueduct of Sylvius. See Mesencephalic
aqueduct
Aqueous humor, 508, 512f
Arachnoid, 378f, 379, 379f, 381f
Arachnoid mater, 385f
Arachnoid villi, 378f
Arbor vitae, 370f, 375, 375f
Arches, of foot, 188, 188f
Arcuate artery, 677, 680f
Arcuate fasciculus, 371, 371f
Arcuate line, 182f
Arcuate popliteal ligament, 221, 221f
Arcuate vein, 678, 680f
Areola, 259f, 312f, 739, 739f
Areolar glands, 739
Areolar tissue. See Loose connective
(areolar) tissue
Argentaffin cells, 651
Aristotle, 7, 9–10, 11f
Arm. See Brachium; Upper extremity
Armpit. See Axilla
Arrector pili muscle, 107f, 113, 116, 445t
Arrhythmia, 587
Arterial blood, 540
Arterial pressure points, 570, 572f
Arteries, 540, 555, 556f, 559–571, 560f, 561f,
590, 591f. See also specific arteries
Arteriography, 587
Arterioles, 540, 555, 556f, 557f
Arteriosclerosis, 595
Arthralgia, 230
Arthritis, 60, 167f, 202, 226, 227f
Arthrolith, 230
Arthrology, 197
Arthrometry, 230
Arthroncus, 230
Arthropathy, 230
Arthroplasty, 200, 230
Arthroscopy, 227–229, 227f
Arthrosis, 230
Arthrosteitis, 230
Articular capsule. See Joint capsule
Articular cartilage, 137, 202, 206
Articular disc, 202, 206
Articular surface
of fibula, 186f
of head of rib, 165f
of palatine bone, 156f
of patella, 185, 186f
of tubercle, 165f
Articulating surface, of bones, 136t
Articulations, 196–232. See also Joints
Artificial implantation, 785
Artificial insemination, 714
Artificial ligaments, 200
Artificial respiration, 629f
Arytenoid cartilage, 609
Ascending aorta, 314f, 548f, 550, 552f, 559,
561f, 567t
Ascending colon, 318f, 635f, 638f, 656, 657f
Ascending corticospinal tract, 387f, 388t
Ascending limb, of nephron loop, 680f,
682, 683t
Ascending lumbar veins, 576
Ascending pharyngeal artery, 563
Ascending tracts, of spinal cord, 384, 389t
Aspirin, 358
Association fibers, 368, 369f
Association neurons, 352
Asthma, 611, 628
Astigmatism, 531, 531f
Astrocytes, 350f, 351, 351t
Astrocytomas, 394
Atheroma, 595
Atherosclerosis, 595, 595f
Athlete’s bradycardia, 592
Athlete’s foot, 128
Atlantoaxial joint, 225t
Atlanto-occipital joint, 161, 210, 225t
Atlas, 158f, 160f, 161, 204f
Atoms, 28
Atresia, 531
Atretic, 730
Atrial septal defect, 593, 593f
Atrioventricular bundle (AV bundle),
551–552, 553f
Atrioventricular node (AV node), 551–552, 553f
Atrioventricular valves (AV valves), 547, 548t
Atrium, 547, 589, 590t
Atrophy, 72, 102, 286
aging (senile), 72
disease, 72
disuse, 72, 102
muscle, 102
senescence, 102
Atropine, 445
Audiology, 527
Audiometry, 527
Auditory area, 366f
Auditory impairment, 533
Auditory nerve. See Vestibulocochlear nerve
Auditory ossicles, 24, 132, 132t, 157, 158f,
517, 518f, 529
Auditory tube, 24, 517, 517f, 518f, 529,
605f, 607, 641f
Auerbach’s plexus. See Myenteric plexus
Auricle
of ear, 301, 302, 516, 517f, 529
of heart, 547
Auricular abnormalities, 530–531
Auricular region, of face, 301, 302–303
Auricular surface, 162, 163f, 182f, 183
Auscultation, 35, 297
Australoid (Ngatatjara man), 27f
Autograft, 102, 124
Autonomic dysreflexia, 450–451
Autonomic ganglion, 435
Autonomic motor fibers, 354, 356f
Autonomic motor nerve, 345t
Autonomic nervous system (ANS), 344f,
345, 345t, 434–453
case study, 434, 451
clinical considerations, 450–451
clinical practicum, 451
control of, 448–450
dual innervation, 446–447
functions of, 444–448, 445
neurotransmitters of, 444, 446f
organization of, 435–436
parasympathetic division of, 436,
440–443, 442f, 443t, 444t
and somatic nervous system, 435, 435t, 436f
structure of, 438–443
sympathetic division of, 436, 438f,
439f, 440f, 441f, 442f,
443t, 444t
visceral effector organs of, 436–438
Autonomic reflexes. See Visceral reflexes
Autopsy, 18–19
Autosomal chromosomes, 782
Autotransplant, 544
AV node. See Atrioventricular node
Avulsion, 125f, 190
AV valves. See Atrioventricular valves
Axial muscles, 265–267
Axial skeleton, 132–134
bones of, 132t
clinical considerations, 165–168
clinical practicum, 168–169
development of, 141
muscles of, 234, 250–263
Axilla, 36, 311f, 312f, 319, 320f
Axillary artery, 560f, 565, 565f
Axillary fossa, 36
Axillary lymph nodes, 584, 584f
Axillary nerve, 324f, 416, 418f, 418t
Axillary process, of breast, 739
Axillary region, 36
Axillary vein, 573f, 575, 575f
Axis, 158f, 160f, 161, 204f
Axon, 101, 348, 349f, 350f, 351, 354f
Axonal transport, 348
Axon plate, 247f
Axon terminal, 244, 247f, 358
Axoplasmic flow, 348
Aye-aye, hands of, 26f
Azygos vein, 549f, 575–576, 577f

B
Babinski’s reflex, 387, 430t, 431f
Back, surface anatomy of, 309–310, 310f
Backbone. See Vertebral column
Back pain, 226
Bacterial endocarditis, 335–336, 594
Bacteriuria, 692
Baculum, 713
Balance, 516–527. See also Equilibrium
Ball-and-socket joint, 203, 205f, 205t
Baroreceptors, 490, 561
Bartholin’s glands. See Vestibular glands
Basal cell carcinoma, 120, 123
Basal metabolic rate (BMR), 480
Basal nuclei, 365f, 368–369, 370f
Basal plates, 390
Basal turn, of cochlea, 520f
Base
of heart, 545
of lung, 614
of metacarpals, 178, 179f
of metatarsals, 186, 187f, 188f
of patella, 185, 186f
of phalanges, 180f
of sacrum, 181f
Basement membrane, 80
Bases, 51, 68
Basilar artery, 360f, 561, 562f, 563f
Basilar membrane, 520, 520f, 521f
Basilar part, of occipital bone, 154f
Basilic vein, 321f, 573f, 575, 575f
Basle Nomina Anatomica (BNA), 17
Basophils, 542, 542f, 544t
Ba spirit, 8
BBB. See Blood-brain barrier
Bedsores, 111, 112f
Behavioral effects, of androgens, 703t
Bell’s palsy, 250, 409
Belly, of muscle, 236
Benign neoplasms, 73
Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), 709, 722
Benign viral infections, 119
Berengario, Jacopo, 13, 15
Beta cells, 470, 470f
Beta globulin, 545, 545t
Beta waves, 368t
Biaxial joint, 202
Biceps brachii muscle, 235f, 239f, 259f,
264f, 267, 268f, 270f, 270t, 313f,
319f, 320f
Biceps femoris muscle, 235f, 277, 280f, 281,
281f, 282f, 282t, 284f, 287f, 289f,
328f, 328f, 330f, 331f, 333f
tendon of, 328f
Biceps reflex, 430t, 431f
Bicipital aponeurosis, 268f
Bicornuate uterus, 746, 746f
Bicuspid area, 554, 554f
Bicuspids. See Premolars
Bicuspid valve. See Left atrioventricular valve
Bifid spinous process, 160
Bifurcate ligament, 223f
Bile, 662, 663f
Bile canaliculi, 662, 662f, 663f
Bile duct, 663f
Bile ducts, 662
Biliary calculi. See Gallstones
Biliary ductule, 662f, 663f
Binocular vision, 499
Biology, definition of, 2
Biomechanics, 197
of body movements, 210–213
Biopsy, 102
Bipedal locomotion, 25–27, 183
Bipolar neurons, 352, 356f, 506
Birth, effects of lysosomes on, 59
Birth control. See Contraception
Bitter taste, 497, 498f
Blackhead. See Comedo
Blanching, 592
Blastocoel, 80
Blastocyst, 80, 734, 757, 758f, 760t
Blastocyst cavity, 757
Blastomeres, 757
Bleeding, control of, 596–597, 597f
Blind spot, 507, 511f
Blister, 128
Blood, 98, 99f, 540–545. See also specific
components
analysis of, 592–593
circulatory routes of, 550–551
color of, 541
disorders of, 592–593
Blood-brain barrier (BBB), 351, 355f, 383–385
Blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, 382
Blood clotting, 125–126, 126f, 542
Bloodletting, 1
Blood plasma, 98, 540, 541f, 545
Blood platelets, 125–126, 126f
Blood pressure, 558–559
measurement of, 558f, 559f
variation in, 552
Blood vessels, 445t, 540, 555–559. See also
specific types
BMR. See Basal metabolic rate
BNA. See Basle Nomina Anatomica
Body
of axis, 160f
of clavicle, 175f
of corpus callosum, 361f
of epididymis, 707f
of femur, 184, 184f
of fibula, 186f
of humerus, 173, 175f, 176f
of hyoid bone, 157, 157f
of ischium, 181f
of mandible, 156f, 157
of metacarpals, 178, 179f
of metatarsals, 186, 187f
of nail, 117, 117f
of pancreas, 664f, 668
of penis, 710, 710f, 711, 716
of phalanges, 180f
of pubis, 183
of radius, 177f, 178
of rib, 165, 165f
of sphenoid bone, 152
of sternum, 164, 164f, 311f
of stomach, 649, 649f, 650f
of tibia, 186f
of tongue, 642f
of ulna, 177f
of uterus, 729f, 734
of vertebrae, 159, 160f, 161f, 162f
Body cavities, 40f, 41–42, 41f, 44f
Body composition, 781t
Body membranes, 42–45, 85
Body organization, 28–29, 29f
Body proportions, 777, 777f, 778f, 780–781,
780f, 782f
Body regions, 35–40, 37f
Body support, muscular system and, 234
Body temperature
variation in, 552
water in, 51
Boil, 128, 334
Bolus, 644
Bone(s). See also Skeletal system; specific bones
demineralization of, 97, 97f
shapes of, 135–136, 136f
structure of, 135–138
surface features of, 136t
Bone cells, 138, 138f, 139f
Bone growth, 140–144, 140f, 141, 141f
Bone-lining cells, 138
Bone marrow, 134, 137, 584f
Bone marrow transplant, 544
Bone neoplasms, 167
Bone scan, 167, 167f
Bone shaft, 136
Bone tissue, 95–98, 139f
Bony callus, 191
Bony labyrinth, 519, 519f, 529
Botulism, 669
Bowman’s capsule. See Glomerular capsule
BPH. See Benign prostatic hypertrophy
Brachial artery, 560f, 565, 565f
pressure point for, 321f, 572f
Brachial block, 416
Brachialis muscle, 235f, 239f, 267, 267f,
268f, 269f, 270f, 270t
Brachial plexus, 257f, 309f, 313f, 324f, 385f,
401f, 416–419, 417f, 418t
Brachial vein, 573f, 575, 575f
Brachiocephalic trunk, 314f, 549f, 559–561,
560f, 561f, 562f, 567t
Brachiocephalic vein, 574
Brachioradialis muscle, 235f, 267, 267f, 268f,
269f, 270t, 271f, 313f, 320f, 321f,
323f, 325f
Brachioradialis reflex. See Supinator reflex
Brachium, 38
bones of, 173–176
internal anatomy of, 313f, 323f, 324f
muscles of, 268f
surface anatomy of, 319–320, 323f
Brachium pontis, 375f
Bradycardia, 587, 592, 592f
Bradykinin, 447
Braille, 491
Brain, 23, 344, 360f–361f, 370f
blood supply to, 561–563, 563f, 564f
derivation of, 362t
development of, 346–347, 346f, 347f
effects of androgens on, 703t
functions of, 362t
general features of, 358–359
language and, 369–371, 371f
of newborn, 359
respiratory centers of, 623
sections of, 34f
in taxonomy, 24, 25, 26f
trauma to, 367, 377, 450
Braincase. See Cranium
Brain stem, 306f, 373–374
Brain waves, 367–368
Breast(s), 312f, 738–740, 739f, 748
Breast buds, 779
Breast cancer, 264, 335, 740, 745, 748
Breast self-examination (BSE), 319, 335,
745–746, 745f
Breathing, 256
abnormal patterns of, 630
mechanics of, 618–621, 619f
regulation of, 623, 623f
Breathing reflex, 776
Breech presentation, 775
Bridge, of nose, 303, 304f, 304t
Broad ligament, 728, 729f, 735
Broca’s area. See Motor speech area
Bronchial arteries, 566, 567t
Bronchial segments, 614–615
Bronchial tree, 610–611, 618t
Bronchial wall, 606f
Bronchioles, 445t, 611, 612f, 613f
Bronchitis, 628
Bronchogram, 612, 612f
Bronchopulmonary segments, of lungs, 616f
Bronchoscopy, 335
Bronchus, 604f, 610f, 615f
Brunner’s glands. See Duodenal glands
Brush border, 655
Buccal cavity. See Oral cavity
Buccal surface, of teeth, 642
Buccinator muscle, 250f, 251f, 251t, 253f, 305f
Bulb, of penis, 686f, 710–711, 710f
Bulbar conjunctiva, 500f, 501, 501f
Bulboreticulospinal tract, 388t, 389t
Bulbospongiosus muscle, 260, 260t, 261f,
686f, 701f
Bulbourethral ducts, 686f
Bulbourethral glands, 686f, 687, 698, 699f,
700t, 709
Bulbs of Krause, 489t, 491
Bulbus cordis, 590t
Bulimia nervosa, 645
Bundle of His. See Atrioventricular bundle
Bunion, 202
Burns, 72, 105, 122–123, 123f, 124f
Bursae, 202, 203f
Bursitis, 226, 338
Buttock, 37
internal anatomy of, 330, 330f
muscles of, 276–277
surface anatomy of, 326, 326f
Butt suture. See Plane suture

C
Cadavers, dissection of, 2, 15
history of, 4f
during Renaissance, 13, 13f
Caffeine, 358
Calcaneofibular ligament, 222, 223f
Calcaneus muscle, 133f, 174f, 185–186,
187f, 188f, 287f, 329f
tendon of, 285f
Calcification, 140
Calcitonin, 457t, 466, 467, 467t, 468
Calcitrol, 114
Calcium, 135
deficiency, 97
Calculus. See Urinary stones
Callus, 109, 323f
Calyces, 677f
Canaliculi, 98, 138f, 140
Cancellous bone. See Spongy bone
Cancer, 73, 73f
of breast, 264, 335, 740, 745, 748
cervical, 119
etymology of term, 30
of lung, 615, 630f
pancreatic, 669
of respiratory system, 628
of skin, 110, 112, 119–121
uterine, 747
Cancer cells, 584
Canine teeth, 148f, 154, 304f, 640f, 642,
643f, 644t
Capacitation, 756
CAPD. See Continuous ambulatory
peritoneal dialysis
Capillaries, 540, 555–557, 556f, 557f, 563
Capillary network, of respiratory system, 613f
Capitate bone, 178, 179f, 180f
Capitulum, 176, 176f
Capoid (Kalahari bushmen), 27f
Capsular space, 680
Carbohydrates, 51, 52, 52t
Carboxypeptidase, 654t
Carbuncle, 128
Carcinogens, 73
Cardia, 649, 650f
Cardiac arrhythmia, 587
Cardiac catheterization, 550
Cardiac center, of medulla oblongata, 377
Cardiac cycle, 551
Cardiac impression, 614, 615f
Cardiac muscle, 99, 100f, 100t, 234, 435,
436–437
Cardiac output, 552
Cardiac plexus, 441
Cardiac septum, congenital defects of, 590
Cardiac tamponade, 335
Cardiac veins, 551, 573f
Cardiac vessels, 547
Cardinal ligament, 735
Cardiogenic area, 589
Cardiovascular assessment, 587–592
Cardiovascular regulation, hypothalamus
and, 372–373
Cardiovascular system, 540
Carina, 610, 610f
Carotene, 110
Carotid bodies, 561, 623
Carotid canal, 146t, 148f, 151
Carotid hemorrhage, 307
Carotid sheath, 307, 574
Carotid sinus, 560f, 561, 562f
Carotid triangle, 308f, 308t
Carpal bones, 133f, 174f, 179f, 180f, 181t
Carpal extensor retinaculum, 325f
Carpal tunnel syndrome, 338
Carpometacarpal joint, 225t
Carpus, 38, 178
articulation of, 204f
flexion of, 269–271
muscles that move, 268–272, 273t
surface anatomy of, 323f
Carrier molecules, 54
Cartilage, 95, 97t
alar, 305f, 605
articular, 137, 202, 206
arytenoid, 609
corniculate, 609, 609f
costal, 95, 133f, 164f, 165, 165f, 174f
cricoid, 142f, 306, 306f, 609, 610f
cuneiform, 609, 609f
elastic, 95, 97f
epiglottic, 608
fibrocartilage, 95, 96f, 97f
greater alar, 305f, 605f
hyaline, 95, 96f, 97f
hyoid, 142f
lateral, 605, 605f
lateral alar, 305f
Meckel’s, 142f
septal, 605
styloid, 142f
thyroid, 142f, 306, 306f, 307f, 608, 610f
tracheal, 610f, 611f
zone of calcified, 143
zone of hypertrophic, 143
zone of proliferating, 142
zone of resting, 142
Cartilaginous joints, 197, 199–200, 205t
Case study
body organization, 22, 45
clinical
appendicular skeleton, 172, 191
articulations, 196, 229
autonomic nervous system, 434, 451
body organization, 22, 45
central nervous system, 343, 396
circulatory system, 537, 598
cytology, 48, 74
developmental anatomy, 789
digestive system, 634, 671
endocrine system, 454, 483
female reproductive system, 725
growth and development, 754
histology, 77, 103
history of anatomy, 1, 20
integumentary system, 105, 127
male reproductive system, 697, 722
muscular system, 233, 289
peripheral nervous system, 400, 430
regional anatomy, 296, 339
respiratory system, 602, 630
sensory organs, 487, 533
skeletal system, 131, 168
urinary system, 675, 694
Cataracts, 530, 531–532
Catecholamines, 472
Catheterization, of heart, 587
CAT scan. See Computerized axial tomography
Cauda equina, 384, 385f
Caudal. See Inferior
Caudate lobe, of liver, 660–661, 661f
Caudate nucleus, 365f, 368, 370f
Causasoid, 27f
Cavernous sinus, 574f
Cavities. See Dental caries
CCK. See Cholecystokinin
Cecal diverticulum, 666
Cecum, 635f, 638f, 656, 657f
Celiac plexus, 440, 441
Celiac trunk, 560f, 566, 567t, 568f
Celial ganglia, 440
Cell(s), 28
components of, 53, 53t, 54f
diversity of, 49
as functional units, 49
shapes of, 49, 50f
sizes of, 49
structure of, 52–63, 53t, 54f
surfaces of, 49
trauma to, 72
Cell body, 101, 348, 349f, 350f
Cell cycle, 65–70, 70f
Cell division, 69–70
Cell membrane, 53–57, 53t, 54f, 55f
ionic charge of, 54
movement through, 55t, 56f
permeability of, 54
pressure differences between, 54
structure of, 54
Cell theory, 16, 49
Cellular adaptations, 70–72
Cellular biology, 17
Cellular chemistry, 50–52, 52t
Cellular level, organization at, 28
Celsus, 11, 13
Cementum, 644, 645f
Center, in reflex arc, 427, 427f
Central artery, 505f, 507
Central canal
of bone tissue, 138–140
of spinal cord, 358, 381, 382f, 384, 386f
Central (haversian) canal, 97–98
Central chemoreceptors, 623
Central nervous system (CNS), 343–399,
344f, 345, 345t, 359f. See also
Autonomic nervous system; Nervous
system; Peripheral nervous system
case study, 343, 396
clinical considerations, 391–396
developmental disorders of, 392
injuries to, 392–393
neoplasms of, 394
relationship with peripheral nervous
system, 355f
Central nervous system, clinical practicum, 396
Central sulcus, 360f, 363, 364f, 366f
Central vein, 505f, 507, 661, 662f, 663f
Central vessels, of retina, 516
Centrioles, 54f, 61, 61f
Centromere, 65
Centrosome, 53t, 61, 61f
Cephalic. See Superior
Cephalic phase, of gastric secretion, 651t
Cephalic vein, 313f, 321f, 573f, 575, 575f
Cephalization, 624
Cerebellar arteries, 563f
Cerebellar cortex, 375
Cerebellar peduncles, 375, 376f
Cerebellar veins, 574
Cerebellum, 306f, 360f, 361f, 362t, 375,
375f, 376f
and autonomic nervous system, 449, 450f
trauma to, 376
Cerebral angiogram, 391
Cerebral aqueduct. See Mesencephalic
aqueduct
Cerebral arterial circle, 561
Cerebral arteries, 563f
Cerebral cortex, 363, 365f, 367f, 378f
Cerebral embolism, 595
Cerebral gyri, 363, 364f
Cerebral hypophysis, 373. See also Pituitary gland
Cerebral medulla, 365f
Cerebral palsy, 376, 394
Cerebral peduncles, 362t, 374
Cerebral sulci, 363, 364f
Cerebral thrombosis, 395
Cerebral veins, 574
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 345t, 358,
381–382, 383f
Cerebrovascular accident (CVA), 376, 395, 595
Cerebrum, 306f, 361f, 362t, 363–371, 364f,
365f, 366f
and autonomic nervous system, 449, 450f
lobes of, 363–367, 366t
relative sizes of, 26f
structure of, 363
white matter of, 368, 369f
Cerumen, 119, 303, 516
Ceruminous glands, 119, 516
Cervical canal, 734
Cervical cancer, 119
Cervical curve, 158f, 159
Cervical enlargement, of spinal cord, 384, 385f
Cervical lymph nodes, 307, 584, 584f
Cervical muscles, 309f
Cervical nerves, 401f, 413, 621t
Cervical plexus, 385f, 401f, 415–416, 415f,
416t, 417f
Cervical region, 35
Cervical rib, 334
Cervical spinal nerve, 385f
Cervical vertebrae, 159, 160–161, 160f,
163t, 306f
Cervix
of neck, 306
of uterus, 727f, 729f, 734
Cesarean section, 775
Chalazion, 532
Chancroid, 721t
Cheeks, 640
Chemoreceptors, 489, 490, 561, 623
Chest, of neonate, 299t
Chest cavity. See Thoracic cavity
Cheyne-Stokes breathing, 630
Chief cells. See Principal cells
Childhood, 777–778, 781t
Chilitis, 672
Chimpanzee, brain of, 26f
Chin, 303, 304f, 304t
China, and history of anatomy, 8
Chlamydia, 721t
Choana, 604f, 605f, 606
Choking, 608, 627, 628f
Cholecystokinin (CCK), 457t, 476t
Cholera, 9
Cholesterol, 52
Cholinergic, 444
Cholinergic stimulation, 445
Cholinesterase, 358
Chondritis, 230
Chondroblasts, 141
Chondrocranium, 141, 142f
Chondrocytes, 95, 140
Chordae tendineae, 549f, 550
Chorda tympani nerve, in taste sensation,
498f, 499
Chorea, 389
Chorion, 757, 764–765
Chorion frondosum, 765
Chorionic villus biopsy, 765
Choroid, 500f, 504–505, 505f, 508t, 516
Choroid plexus, 370f, 373, 382
Chromaffin, 471
Chromatids, 64f, 704
Chromatin, 53t, 54f, 63
Chromatophilic substances, 348, 349f
Chromosomal abnormalities, 72–73
Chromosomes, 63, 64f, 65
Chronic meningitis, 395
Chronic pain, 492
Chronic prostatitis, 722
Chronic renal failure, 693
Church, influence on study of anatomy, 11, 12
Chyme, 649
Chymotrypsin, 654t
Cilia, 53t, 61, 63f, 83, 606f
Ciliary arteries, 507
Ciliary body, 500f, 504f, 505, 505f, 506f,
508t, 512f, 516
Ciliary ganglion, 441
Ciliary glands, 501
Ciliary muscles, 445t, 503t, 505, 506f
Ciliary processes, 505
Cineradiography, 18
Circle of Willis. See Cerebral arterial circle
Circular fibers, 506f
Circular layer, of pharyngeal muscles, 647
Circular movements, 207–209, 209f
Circular muscles. See also Sphincteral muscles
of stomach, 650f
Circulation, fetal, 580–581, 581f, 582t
Circulatory routes, 550–551
Circulatory system, 32f, 537–601, 539f
case study, 537, 598
clinical considerations, 587–598
clinical practicum, 598
components of, 540
development of, 588–591
functions of, 538–539
relation to lymphatic system, 583f
relation to other body systems, 538f
trauma to, 596–598
Circumcision, 711
Circumduction, 209, 209f
Circumflex artery, 551, 552f
Circumflex branches, 548f
Cirrhosis, 579, 670
Cisterna, 57
Cisterna chyli, 582, 584f
Cisternal puncture, 391
Class Mammalia, 24, 27t
Claustrum, 365f, 369, 370f
Clavicle, 133f, 173, 174f, 175f, 181t, 307,
307f, 308f, 309f, 311f
Clavicopectoral triangle, 311f, 319, 319f
Clavicular notch, 164, 164f
Cleavage, 757, 758f, 760t
Cleft lip, 155, 166, 333, 626, 627f
Cleft palate, 155, 166, 333, 624, 626, 627f, 669
Clinical considerations
appendicular skeleton, 189–191
autonomic nervous system, 450–451
axial skeleton, 165–168
central nervous system, 391–396
circulatory system, 587–598
cytology, 70–74
developmental anatomy, 785–789
digestive system, 669–671
endocrine system, 480–483
histology, 101–103
integumentary system, 119–127
joints, 224–229
male reproductive system, 714–722, 744–751
muscular system, 285–289
regional anatomy, 330–339
respiratory system, 626–630
sensory organs, 527–533
urinary system, 688–694
Clinical practicum
appendicular skeleton, 193
autonomic nervous system, 451
axial skeleton, 168–169
central nervous system, 396
circulatory system, 598
developmental anatomy, 790
digestive system, 672
endocrine system, 484
female reproductive system, 751
integumentary system, 128
joints, 229–230
male reproductive system, 722
muscular system, 292–293
peripheral nervous system, 432
regional anatomy, 340
respiratory system, 631
sensory organs, 534
urinary system, 694–695
Clinical procedures, terminology of, 34–35
Clitoris, 716, 727f, 727t, 737f, 738, 743
Cloaca, 667, 690
Cloacal membrane, 667
Closed fractures, 189
Clostridium botulinum, 669
Clostridium tetani, 250
Clubfoot, 189, 189f, 338
Coarctation, 595
Coccygeal cornua, 163, 163f
Coccygeal nerves, 401f, 413
Coccygeal trauma, 163
Coccygeal vertebrae, 159
Coccygeus muscle, 260, 260t, 261f, 281f
Coccyx, 133f, 158f, 159, 162–163, 162f, 163f,
163t, 174f, 181f, 182f, 326f, 330f
Cochlea, 30, 517f, 519f, 520, 520f, 521f,
522f, 529, 529f
Cochlear duct, 519f, 520, 520f, 521f, 529
Cochlear nerve, 410, 410f, 517f, 519f, 520f, 521f
Cochlear window, 158f, 517f, 518f, 520
Codfish, brain of, 26f
Codons, 68–69, 68f, 69f
Coelom, 41, 44f
Coitus, 698, 726
Cold receptors, 491–492
Cold sore, 128
Colitis, 672
Collagen, 51, 74
Collagenous fibers, 91
Collarbone. See Clavicle
Collateral branches, of axons, 348, 349f
Collateral ligaments, 218, 219f, 222f, 274f
Collecting duct. See Papillary duct
Colles’ fracture, 178, 190, 338
Colliculi, of midbrain, 361f
Colloid, 467
Colloid substances, 57
Colon, 638f
Coloration
of hair, 116
of skin, 109–110, 300
Color blindness, 513, 784–785
Color vision, 513
Colostomy, 672
Coma, 377
Comatose, 392
Comedo, 128
Comminuted fractures, 189, 190f
Commissural fibers, 368, 369f
Commissures, of eye, 500
Common bile duct, 635f, 652, 654f, 663f, 664f
Common carotid artery, 307, 314f
pressure point for, 572f
Common cold, 628
Common fibular nerve, 333f, 423, 424t
Common flexor tendon, 272f
Common hepatic artery, 566, 567t, 568f
Common hepatic duct, 663f
Common iliac artery, 560f, 567t, 581f, 736f
Common iliac vein, 573f, 576
Common nerve pathways, 492
Communicating veins, 577f
Communication, skin and, 114
Compact bone, 97, 98f, 136, 138–140, 139f
Compensatory hypertrophy, 72
Complete fractures, 189
Compound fractures, 189
Compound glands, 87, 88f, 89t
Compounds, 50–51, 51t
Compression fracture, 161
Computerized axial tomography (CT scan/
CAT scan), 18, 19f, 33, 391, 587
Concha, 517f
Conchal crest, 156f
Concussion, 392
Condoms, 750f
Conducting division, of respiratory system, 603
Conducting passages, 604–612, 612f
Conduction, of nerve impulse, 488
Conduction aphasia, 371
Conduction deafness, 533
Conduction myofibers, 552, 553f
Conduction system, of heart, 551–552, 553f
Conductivity, 357
Condylar process, 147f, 156f, 157
Condyle, 136t
Condyloid canal, 148f, 149f, 151
Condyloid joint, 202, 204f, 205t
Cone cells, 506, 510f, 513
Congenital bilateral absence of ductus
deferens, 722
Congenital cataracts, 530
Congenital deafness, 530
Congenital defects, 789
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia, 336
Congenital dislocation of hip, 338
Congenital heart defects, 593
Congenital megacolon, 336
Congenital syphilis, 334
Congenital uterine abnormalities, 746, 746f
Conjoined twins, 786
Conjugated proteins, 51
Conjunctiva, 302f, 302t, 501, 504f, 505f,
506f, 516
Conjunctival sac, 500f, 501
Conjunctivitis, 532
Connecting stalk, 768
Connective tissue, 78, 89–98
characteristics of, 89–90
classification of, 89–90
dense irregular, 92, 93f, 95t
dense regular, 92, 92f, 95t
elastic, 92, 93f, 95t
embryonic, 90, 90f
loose, 91, 91f, 95t
reticular, 92, 94f, 95t
Connective tissue proper, 90–94, 95t
Conoid tubercle, 173, 175f
Constipation, 660
Constriction, of pupil, 510–511
Constrictor muscles, of pharynx, 647, 647f
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
(CAPD), 693
Continuous capillary, 556f, 557, 557f
Contraception, 475, 749–751, 750f
Contraceptive sponge, 750f
Contractions, 234
of cardiac muscle, 437
of skeletal muscles, 243, 245f, 246f
of smooth muscle, 437
Contrecoup fracture, 334
Conus medullaris, 384, 385f
Convergence, of eyeball, 511
Convergent muscles, 238, 239t
Convolutions, 363, 364f
Convulsion, 293
Copulation, 698
Coracoacromial ligament, 216f
Coracobrachialis muscle, 259f, 264f, 266t,
267, 268f, 270f, 313f
Coracoclavicular ligament, 216f
Coracohumeral ligament, 216, 216f
Coracoid process, 173, 175f
Coranoid fossa, 176f
Corn, 128, 327, 330f
Cornea, 302f, 302t, 500f, 504, 504f, 505f,
506f, 508t, 512f
Corniculate cartilage, 609, 609f
Cornification, 108
Corona glandis, 710f, 711
Coronal plane, 33, 33f, 34f
Coronal suture, 144, 145f, 146, 147f, 148f
Corona radiata, 729, 730f, 733f, 755
Coronary arteries, 560f
Coronary artery bypass surgery, 594f
Coronary circulation, 550–551, 552f
Coronary embolism, 595
Coronary sinus, 551, 552f, 589
Coronary sulcus, 547, 549f, 550
Coronoid fossa, 176
Coronoid process, 147f, 149f, 156f, 157,
177, 177f
Corpora cavernosa
of clitoris, 738
of penis, 710f, 711
Corpora quadrigemina, 370f, 374, 376f
Corpus albicans, 732, 733f
Corpus callosum, 306f, 361f, 363, 365f,
368, 370f
Corpus cavernosum penis, 686f
Corpuscles of touch, 489t, 490–491
Corpus luteum, 475, 732, 733f
Corpus spongiosum penis, 686f, 710f, 711
Corpus striatum, 368, 370f
Corrugator supercilli muscle, 250f, 251f,
251t, 305f
Cortex, of cerebellum, 370f
Cortex layer, 359
Cortical nephrons, 682, 683f
Corticoids. See Corticosteroids
Corticospinal tracts, 386, 389f
Corticosteroids, 471
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH),
462, 463
Cortisol, 457f, 471, 472
Costal angle, 165, 310, 311f
Costal cartilage, 95, 133f, 164f, 165,
165f, 174f
Costal groove, 165, 165f
Costal margin, of rib cage, 165, 310, 311f, 312
Costal notches, 164, 164f
Costal surface, of lung, 614
Costal tuberosity, 173, 175f
Costocervical trunk, 565
Costochondral joint, 165f
Costoclavicular ligament, 215, 215f
Costovertebral joint, 225t
Coughing, 83, 622t
Cowper’s glands. See Bulbourethral glands
Coxal joint, 205f, 220, 220f, 225t
muscles of, 275–277, 278t, 281t
Coxarthrosis, 230
Crabs, 721t
Cramped muscle, 286
Cranial. See Superior
Cranial bones, 132t, 144, 145–153
Cranial cavity, 40f, 44f, 45f, 144, 149f
Cranial dura mater, 378
septa of, 380t
Cranial encephalocele, 333, 392
Cranial meningocele, 392
Cranial nerves, 401, 401f, 402f, 403–413,
404t–405t. See also specific nerves
neurological assessment of, 412, 413t
and parasympathetic division
of ANS, 441
Cranial region, 35
Cranial root, of accessory nerves, 412, 412f
Craniosacral division, of autonomic nervous
system. See Parasympathetic
division, of autonomic nervous
system
Craniotomy, 169
Cranium, 35, 301
Cremasteric reflex, 430t
Cremaster muscle, 700, 701f, 710f
Crest, of bones, 136t
Cretinism, 481
Crib death, 628
Cribriform foramina, 146t, 153, 153f
Cribriform plate, of ethmoid bone, 148f,
150f, 153, 153f, 154f
Crick, Francis, 66
Cricoid cartilage, 142f, 306, 306f, 609, 610f
Cricothyroid muscle, 255f
Crista ampullaris, 526, 526f
Cristae, 58, 60f
Crista galli, 148f, 149f, 150f, 153, 153f, 154f
Crossed extensor reflex, 428–430, 429f
Cross-sectional plane. See Transverse plane
Crown, of tooth, 644, 645f
Crown-rump length, 773
Crura, 738
Crural muscles, 281–285, 285f
Crural region, 40
Crus, of penis, 686f, 710–711, 710f
Crutch paralysis, 419
Crying, 502, 622t
Crying reflex, 776
Cryptorchidism, 336, 715, 715f
CSF. See Cerebrospinal fluid
CT scan. See Computerized axial tomography
Cubital fossa, 38, 320, 321f
Cubital lymph nodes, 584
Cubital region, 38
Cuboid bones, 186, 187f, 188f
Cumulus oophorus, 729, 730f, 733f
Cuneiform bones, 186, 188f
Cuneiform cartilage, 609, 609f
Cupola, of lung. See Apex, of lung
Cupula, 526, 526f
Curettage, 102
Cushing’s syndrome, 483
Cuspids. See Canine teeth
Cutaneous prepatellar bursae, 221, 221f
Cutaneous receptors, 114, 489t
Cuticle. See Eponychium
CVA. See Cerebrovascular accident
Cyanosis, 110, 300, 592, 628
Cyclic AMP, 459, 459f
Cyclopia, 530
Cycloplegic drugs, 527
Cyst(s), dermal, 119
Cystic duct, 663f, 664f
Cystic fibrosis, 626, 672, 790
Cystic vein, 579
Cystitis, 687, 692
Cystoscopy, 692, 692f
Cytokinesis, 70
Cytology, 17, 48–76
case study, 48, 74
cell cycle, 65–70
cellular chemistry, 50–52
cellular structure, 52–63
clinical considerations, 70–74
introduction to, 49
Cytoplasm, 53, 53t, 54f, 57–61
Cytosine, 65, 68
Cytotrophoblast, 759

D
Dandruff, 128
Dark Ages, and history of anatomy, 12
Dartos, 700
Daughter cells, 705f
David (Michelangelo), 2, 3f
da Vinci, Leonardo, 13, 14f
Deafness
conduction, 533
congenital, 530
perceptive, 533
Death
autopsy and, 18–19
somatic, 102
Decibels (dB), 522
Decidua basalis, 765
Deciduous teeth, 642, 644t
Decubitus ulcers, 111, 112f, 128
Decussation, 386
Deep artery, of penis, 710f
Deep brachial artery, 565, 565f
Deep digital flexor muscle, 271, 272f, 273t
tendon of, 274f, 325f
Deep dorsal vein, of penis, 710f
Deep fascia, 236, 238t, 710f
Deep femoral artery, 560f, 568, 570f
Deep femoral vein, 576, 578f
Deep fibular nerve, 423, 425f
Deep iliac circumflex artery, 568, 569f
Deep infrapatellar bursae, 221, 221f
Deep palmar arch, 575
Deep palmar arch artery, 565f, 566
Deep transversus perinei muscles, 261f
Deep veins, 572, 573f
Defecation, 635, 659t
Defecation reflex, 659
Defibrillation, 592
Definitive hair, 117
Deglutition, 635, 648–649, 659t
de Graaf, Regnier, 15
De Humani Corporis Fabrica (Vesalius), 14, 14f
Dehydration, 51
Delirium, 392
Delivery, and molding of fetal head, 144
Delta waves, 368t
Deltoid ligament, 222, 223f
Deltoid muscle, 235f, 259f, 264f, 265f, 266t,
267, 267f, 268f, 269f, 270f, 308f, 310,
311f,313f, 316f, 319f,320f, 323f, 324f
Deltoid region, 38
Deltoid tuberosity, 176, 176f
de’ Luzzi, Mondino, 13, 15
Demifacet, for rib, 161f
Dendrites, 101, 348, 349f, 350f
Dendritic spinules, 348
Dendritic zone, 348
Dens, of axis, 160f, 161
Dense bone. See Compact bone
Dense irregular connective tissue, 92, 93f, 95t
Dense regular connective tissue, 92, 92f, 95t
Dental alveoli, 154, 199f, 644, 645f
Dental caries, 645, 669–670, 669f
Dental cusps, 642, 644
Dental formula, 642
Dental pulp, 645f
Dentate nuclei, 375
Denticulate ligament, 381f
Dentin, 644, 645f
Dentistry, 302
Dentoalveolar joint, 198
Deoxyribose, 67f
Deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA), 52t, 64f, 67f
replication of, 66f
structure of, 65–66, 65f
Depolarization, 357, 357f
Depressed fracture, 190
Depression
of bones, 136t
mental, 396
as type of movement, 209, 210f
Depressor anguli oris muscle, 250f, 251f,
251t, 305f
Depressor labii inferioris muscle, 250f, 251f, 251t
Dermabrasion, 128
Dermal cysts, 119
Dermatitis, 107t, 119, 128
Dermatoglyphics, 110
Dermatology, 128
Dermatomes, 426, 426f
Dermis, 107f, 108f, 110–112
Descending aorta, 549f, 560f
Descending colon, 635f, 638f, 656, 657f
Descending limb, of nephron loop, 680f,
682, 683t
Descending tracts, of spinal cord, 384, 387f,
388t, 389t
Descriptive terminology, 33–35
Detached retina, 506
Detrusor muscle, 687
Development, prenatal
of appendicular skeleton, 192, 192f
of axial skeleton, 141
of brain, 346–347, 346f, 347f
case study, 754
of circulatory system, 588–591
of digestive system, 665–668, 665f
of ear, 528–529
of endocrine system, 477–478
of eye, 515–516, 515f
of female reproductive system, 743
of integumentary system, 120–121
of male reproductive system, 716–719
of muscular system, 248–249, 248f, 249f
of peripheral nervous system, 426, 426f
of respiratory system, 624–626
of spinal cord, 390, 390f
of synovial joints, 206, 206f
of tissues, 79–80
of urinary system, 689–690
Developmental anatomy, 17
case study, 789
clinical considerations, 785–789
clinical practicum, 790
Developmental disorders, 789
of abdomen, 336
of central nervous system, 392
of digestive system, 669
of ears, 527–531
of eyes, 527–530
of female reproductive system, 746
of head, 333
of hip, 338
of lower extremity, 338
of male reproductive system, 714–715
of neck, 333
of respiratory system, 626
of shoulder, 337
skeletal, 166, 189
of thoracic region, 334–335
of upper extremity, 337
of ureters, 691
of urethra, 691
of urinary bladder, 691
of urinary system, 688–691
Diabetes insipidus, 463, 481
Diabetes mellitus, 471, 482
Diapedesis, 542
Diaphragm, 24, 40f, 41, 42f, 43f, 258, 258f,
276f, 314f, 317f, 318f, 618, 620f, 635f
Diaphragm (contraceptive), 750f
Diaphragma sellae, 380t
Diaphragmatic surface, of lung, 615f
Diaphysis, 136
Diarrhea, 639, 660, 670
Diarthroses, 197
Diastole, 552
Diastolic pressure, 559
Diencephalon, 347, 362t, 365f,
372–373, 376f
Dieting, 94. See also Nutritional disorders
Diffusion, 56f
facilitated, 55t
simple, 55t
Digastric fossa, 149f
Digastric muscle, 255f, 256, 257f, 257t,
308f, 309f
Digestion, 51, 635
Digestive enzymes, 654t
Digestive system, 32f, 634–674, 635f
case study, 634, 671
and circulatory system, 539
clinical considerations, 669–671
clinical practicum, 672
developmental disorders of, 669
development of, 665–668, 665f
introduction to, 635–636
Digestive tract. See Gastrointestinal tract
Digit(s), 38, 40
bones of, 178, 179f, 187f
muscles that move, 273t
in taxonomy, 24
Digital arteries, 565f, 566, 570f, 571
Digital rays, 192, 768
Dihybrid cross, 784, 784f
Dilation stage, of labor, 775, 776f
Diphyodont, 642
Diploe, 136, 137f
Diploid chromosomes, 782
Diplopia, 511f, 532
Directional terms, 34, 36t
Disaccharides, 52
Discontinuous capillary, 557, 557f
Disease atrophy, 72
Dislocated articular facet, 226
Dislocation of joints, 225–226
Displaced fracture, 190
Dissection, of cadavers, 2, 15
history of, 4f
during Renaissance, 13, 13f
Distal, 36t
Distal convoluted tubule, 679f, 680f, 682, 683t
Distal interphalangeal joints, 322f
Distal phalanx, 179f, 180f, 187f
Distal radioulnar joint, 225t
Distal tibiofibular joint, 225t
Disuse atrophy, 72, 102
Diverticulitis, 671
Diverticulosis, 670–671
Dizygotic twins, 785–786, 787f
Dizziness, 527
DNA. See Deoxyribose nucleic acid
Dominant alleles, 783, 783t
Dopamine, 351, 390, 463
Dorsal. See Posterior
Dorsal arch, 570
Dorsal artery, of penis, 710f
Dorsal calcaneocuboid ligament, 223f
Dorsal cuneonavicular ligament, 223f
Dorsal hollow nerve cord, 23, 23f
Dorsal interosseous muscle, 271f, 274f, 275,
275t, 290f
Dorsal motor nucleus, 411
Dorsal nerve, of penis, 710f
Dorsal pedal artery, 560f, 570, 570f
pressure point for, 329f, 572f
Dorsal pedal vein, 578f
Dorsal talonavicular ligament, 223f
Dorsal tarsometatarsal ligament, 223f
Dorsal vein, of penis, 710f
Dorsiflexion, 207, 208f, 212f
Dorsum
of foot, 40
of hand, 38
Dorsum sellae, 149f, 153f
Double helix, 65, 65f, 66f
Double-jointed, 200
Double uterus, 746, 746f
Double vagina, 746f
Double vision, 511f, 532
Down syndrome, 73, 763
Dropsy, 1
Drug(s), cytologic effects of, 57, 72
Drug abuse, 391–392
Dry skin, 107t
DSR scan. See Dynamic spatial
reconstructor scan
Dual innervation, 446–447
antagonistic effects, 446, 447f
complementary effects, 446
cooperative effects, 446
Ductus arteriosus, 581, 581f, 582t, 590
Ductus deferens, 698, 699f, 700t, 701f,
707–708, 708f, 710f, 716
Ductus venosus, 580, 581f, 582t
Duodenal glands, 652
Duodenal papilla, 652, 654f, 663f, 664f
Duodenojejunal flexure, 652, 653f
Duodenum, 456, 635f, 638f, 649f, 650f, 652,
653f, 654f, 655f, 663f, 664f
Duplication of ureters, 691
Dural sheath, 379
Dural sinuses, 378, 378f
Dura mater, 360f, 378–379, 378f, 379f, 380t,
381f, 385f
Dutch, and history of anatomy, 8
Dutrochet, René H., 16
Dwarfism, 166, 462, 480, 481f
Dynamic spatial reconstructor (DSR) scan,
18, 19f, 391
Dysentery, 669
Dyslexia, 394
Dysmenorrhea, 747
Dysplasia, 748
Dyspnea, 621, 622t
Dysuria, 691

E
Ear(s), 517f. See also Hearing; Inner ear;
Middle ear; Outer ear
developmental disorders of, 527–531
development of, 528–529
disorders of, 527–533
of neonate, 299t
Eardrum. See Tympanic membrane
Earlobe, 303, 516, 517f
Earwax. See Cerumen
Eccrine sweat glands, 118, 118f
ECG. See Electrocardiogram
Ectoderm, 80, 80t, 760, 761f
Ectopic pacemakers, 592
Ectopic pregnancy, 734, 746–747, 785, 786f
Eczema, 128
Edema, 1, 92, 582, 592
EEG. See Electroencephalogram
Effector, in reflex arc, 427, 427f
Efferent ductules, 702f, 703, 716
Efferent glomerular arterioles, 678, 680f, 681f
Efferent lymphatic vessels, 583
Efferent nerves, 356f
Efferent neuron, 352
Egg cells. See Oocytes
Egypt, and history of anatomy, 5–8
Ejaculate. See Semen
Ejaculation, 712, 713–714, 713f
Ejaculatory ducts, 686f, 687, 698, 699f, 700t,
708, 716
EKG. See Electrocardiogram
Elastic arteries, 555, 556f
Elastic cartilage, 95, 97f
Elastic connective tissue, 92, 93f, 95t
Elastic fibers, 91
Elasticity, of muscle, 234
Elastin, 74
Elbow, surface anatomy of, 321f
Elbow joint, 204f, 213f, 217, 218f, 219f, 225t
muscles of, 267–268, 270t
Electrical defibrillation, 592
Electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG), 552–554,
553f, 587, 595f
Electroencephalogram (EEG), 367–368,
368t, 391
Electrolytes, 51, 52t, 373
Electromagnetic spectrum, 511, 513f
Electromyography (EMG), 285
Electronic Monitoring of Fetal Heart Rate
and Uterine Contractions (FHRUC)
Monitoring, 787–789, 789f
Electron microscope, 17, 17f, 78
Elements, 50
Elevation, 209, 210f
Embalming, 7, 13
Embedding, 102
Embolism, 595
Embryo, 762, 763f, 764f, 773f. See also
Development
bone development in, 141, 141f
changes by week, 767–769, 769f, 770f, 771f
chordate, 23f
connective tissue of, 90, 90f
skull of, 142, 142f
Embryoblast, 80, 757
Embryology, 762
Embryonic disc, 760
Embryonic period, 762–769
Emetics, 651
EMG. See Electromyography
Emission, 712, 713, 713f
nocturnal, 714
Emmetropia, 531f
Emphysema, 615, 628, 630f
Enamel, 645, 645f
Encephalitis, 394
Encephalomyelitis, 394
Endemic goiter, 481, 481f
Endocarditis, 335, 547
Endocardium, 547, 547t
Endochondral ossification, 95, 140, 141,
141f, 192
Endocrine cells (G cells), 651
Endocrine disorders, 480
Endocrine glands, 455, 455f, 457t
Endocrine organs, 456f
Endocrine system, 31f, 454–486. See also
specific components
case study, 454, 483
clinical considerations, 480–483
clinical practicum, 484
control of, 373
development of, 477–478
glands of, 456
and nervous system, 455, 455t
placenta in, 765–766, 766t
Endocrinology, 480
Endocytosis, 55t
Endoderm, 80, 80t, 760, 761f
Endolymph, 519, 526f
Endometriosis, 748
Endometrium, 729f, 736
Endomysium, 236, 237f
Endoneurium, 352
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER), 53t
rough, 54f, 57, 58f
smooth, 54f, 57, 58f
Endorphins, 359
Endosteum, 137
Endothelium, 81, 555, 556f
Endothermic animals, 540
Energy deficit, 72
Enkephalins, 359
Entamoeba histolytica, 669
Enteritis, 337, 670
Enterokinase, 654t
Enuresis, 692
Enzymes, 52
digestive, 654t
proteolytic, 757
synthetase, 69
Eosin and hematoxylin stain, 542
Eosinophils, 542, 542f, 544t
Ependymal cells, 350f, 351, 351t
Ependymomas, 394
Epicanthic fold, 501
Epicardium, 546, 547t
Epicondyles, 136t, 185
Epicranius muscle, 251t
Epidermal derivatives, 115–119
Epidermis, 106–110, 107f, 108f, 109t
Epididymis, 698, 699f, 700t, 701f, 702f, 707,
707f, 710f, 716
Epidural anesthesia, 775
Epidural space, 379, 379f
Epigastric region, 38f, 38t
Epiglottic cartilage, 608
Epiglottis, 604f, 605f, 608, 609f, 641f, 642f
Epilepsy, 363, 393–394
Epimysium, 236, 237f
Epinephrine, 246, 440, 446f, 457t, 458, 472, 473t
Epiphyseal line, 137
Epiphyseal plate, 137, 142–143, 142f, 143f
Epiphysiolysis, 169
Epiphysis, 137
Epiploic appendages, 657f, 659
Episiotomy, 260, 737
Epispadias, 691, 691f
Epistaxes, 627
Epithalamus, 373
Epithelial tissue, 78, 79–89, 86t
Epithelium
glandular, 87–89
keratinized stratified squamous, 85, 86t
membranous, 79–81
nonkeratinized stratified squamous,
85, 86t
pseudostratified ciliated columnar, 83,
84f, 86t
respiratory, 83
simple, 81–83, 86t
simple ciliated columnar, 83, 83f, 86t
simple columnar, 81–83, 82f, 86t
simple cuboidal, 81, 82f, 86t
simple squamous, 81, 86t
stratified, 83–85, 86t
stratified cuboidal, 85, 85f, 86t
stratified squamous, 83–85, 84f, 86t
transitional, 85, 86f, 86t
Epitympanic recess, 517, 518f
Eponychium, 117, 117f
Eponyms, elimination of, 17
Equilibrium, 526f
mechanics of, 425f, 523–527
neural pathways for, 526–527
ER. See Endoplasmic reticulum
Erasistratus, 11
Erb-Duchenne palsy, 338
Erb’s point, 338
Erection
female, 738
male, 711f, 712–713, 712f
Erector spinae muscle, 262, 262f, 263t, 310
ERV. See Expiratory reserve volume
Erythema, 110, 128, 592
Erythroblastosis fetalis, 765
Erythrocytes, 98, 99f, 540–541, 541f,
542f, 544t
circulation of, 538–539
shape of, 50f
Erythropoiesis, 544
Erythropoietin, 457t
Esophageal arteries, 566, 567t
Esophageal atresia, 669
Esophageal hiatus, 648
Esophageal plexus, 441
Esophagus, 306f, 314f, 604f, 605f, 635, 635f,
636t, 641f, 648, 648f, 649f, 650f, 659t
Esotropia, 532
Estradiol-17β, 457t
Estriol, during pregnancy, 766
Estrogen, 472, 741, 766t
Estrogens, 474–475
Ethmoidal crest, 156f
Ethmoidal sinus, 605f, 607, 607f
Ethmoid arch, 150f
Ethmoid bone, 147f, 153, 153f, 605
Ethmoid sinus, 151f, 153
Ethylene glycol poisoning, 48
Eupnea, 622t
Eustachian tube. See Auditory tube
Eustachius, 15
Evaporative cooling. See Sweating
Eversion, 209, 210f
Examination, 102
Ex anopsia, 511
Excretory lacrimal ductules, 501f
Excretory system, and circulatory system, 539
Exercise, and muscle aging, 289
Exhalation. See Expiration
Exocoelomic membrane, 763
Exocrine glands, 87, 88f, 89t, 455, 455f, 639f
Exocytosis, 55t
Exophthalmos, 482, 482f
Exotropia, 532
Expiration, 256, 618, 619–620, 619f, 621t
muscles of, 258f, 620f
Expiratory portion, of rhythmicity area, 623
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV), 621t, 622f
Expulsion stage, of labor, 775, 776f
Exstrophy of urinary bladder, 691
Extensibility, of muscle, 234
Extension, 207, 208f, 211f, 212f
Extensor carpi brevis muscle, tendons of, 272f
Extensor carpi longus muscle, tendons of, 272f
Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle, 267f,
271, 271f, 273t, 325f
tendon of, 325f
Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle, 267f,
269f, 271, 271f, 273t, 320f, 321f
tendon of, 325f
Extensor carpi radialis muscle, tendons of, 272f
Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle, 267f, 272,
272f, 273t, 321f, 325f
Extensor digiti minimi muscle, 271f, 272,
273t, 325f
tendon of, 322f, 325f
Extensor digitorum brevis muscle, 285, 291f, 329f
Extensor digitorum communis muscle, 271f,
272, 272f, 273t, 325f
tendon of, 325f
Extensor digitorum longus muscle, 235f, 283,
283f, 284f, 286t, 332f
tendon of, 329f, 332f
Extensor digitorum muscle, 267f, 272f, 321f
tendon of, 274f, 322f
Extensor hallucis brevis muscle, 291f
Extensor hallucis longus muscle, 283, 283f,
284f, 286t
tendon of, 329f, 332f
Extensor indicis muscle, 271f, 272f
tendon of, 325f
Extensor pollicis brevis muscle, 271f, 272,
272f, 273t
tendon of, 274f, 322f, 325f
Extensor pollicis longus muscle, 272, 272f, 273t
tendon of, 322f, 325f
Extensor retinaculum, 271f
External, 36t
External abdominal oblique muscle, 235f,
258, 258f, 259f, 260t, 264f, 265f,
312f, 313, 313f, 316f, 317f, 323f,
324f, 620f
External acoustic canal, 302, 516, 517f, 529
External acoustic meatus, 147f, 148f, 149f,
151, 152f, 158f, 516
External anal sphincter, 260, 261f, 657, 658f
External carotid artery, 560f, 561, 562f, 563–564
External hydrocephalus, 381
External iliac artery, 560f, 566, 567t, 568,
568f, 569f, 581f
External iliac vein, 573f, 576, 578f
External intercostal muscles, 258, 258f, 259f,
264f, 311f, 313f, 618, 620f
External jugular vein, 307, 309f, 324f, 572,
573f, 574
External occipital protuberance, 148f, 152, 315f
External otitis, 533
External respiration, 603
External spermatic fascia, 701f, 710f
External urinary sphincter, 686f, 687
Exteroceptors, 489–490
Extraembryonic membranes, 762–765, 763f, 764f
Extramedullary tumors, 394
Extrapyramidal tracts, 389, 389f
Extrinsic eye muscles, 502, 503t
Extrinsic laryngeal muscles, 609
Extrinsic ocular muscles, 502f, 514, 516
Extrinsic tongue muscles, 252, 255f, 255t
Eye(s)
accessory structures of, 499–502
autonomic nervous system effects on, 445t
comparison with camera, 499t
developmental disorders of, 527–530
development of, 515–516, 515f
diseases of, 532
disorders of, 527–530
diagnosis of, 527
functional impairments of, 531–532, 531f
human, comparison with other species, 499
infections of, 532
movements of, 502, 503f, 513–514
muscles of, 502, 503t
of neonate, 299t
Eyeball
blood supply to, 507
cavities of, 508
chambers of, 508
convergence of, 511
function of, 509–511
internal anatomy of, 511f
structure of, 504–508, 504f, 506f, 508t
trauma to, 508
Eyebrows, 302, 302f, 302t, 500, 500f, 501f
Eyelashes, 302, 302f, 302t, 500, 500f, 501, 501f
Eyelids, 302, 302f, 302t, 500, 501f, 516
Eye movement test, 504

F
Face, surface anatomy of, 301–303, 301f
Facet, of bone, 136t, 161, 161f
Facial artery, 305f, 309f, 562f, 563
pressure point for, 572f
Facial bones, 132t, 144, 154–157
Facial expressions, 252f
muscles of, 301–302
Facial muscles, 24, 28, 250, 250f, 251f, 251t
Facial nerve (VII), 250, 360f, 402f,
404t–405t, 409, 409f, 410f, 413t,
498f, 499, 517f
Facial region, 35
Facial vein, 305f, 574f
Facilitated diffusion, 55t
Fainting, 392
Falciform ligament, 314f, 317f, 637, 638f, 660
Fallopian tubes. See Uterine tubes
Fallopius, 15
False labor, 775
False pelvis, 180, 183f
False ribs, 164f, 165
False vocal cords. See Vestibular folds
Falx cerebelli, 375, 380t
Falx cerebri, 363, 378f, 380t
Familial cretinism, 790
Family Hominidae, 24, 27t
Farsightedness. See Hyperopia
Fascia, 91, 236, 237f, 238t
Fasciculus, 236, 237f, 352
Fasciculus cuneatus, 388t, 389t
Fasciculus gracilis, 388t, 389t
Fat, 52, 134. See also Adipose tissue
Fat body, 259f
Fauces, 640, 641f
Fecal fistula, 336
Feeding center, 373
Female
comparison with male physique, 780, 780f
distribution of hair in, 115f
growth rate of, 726, 728f
hypodermis of, 297, 298f
infertility in, 747
orgasm in, 738
puberty in, 726
sexual maturation of, 779
Female condoms, 750f
Female infertility, 747
Female reproductive system, 32f, 701f,
725–753, 727f, 729f
case study, 725
clinical practicum, 751
comparison with male, 743t
developmental disorders of, 746
development of, 716, 717f, 718f, 743, 743f
diseases of, 720–721
disorders of, 747f
Female sterilization, 744
Femoral artery, 331f, 560f, 568, 570f, 571f
pressure point for, 572f
Femoral circumflex vein, 578f
Femoral hernia, 293
Femoral nerve, 331f, 401f, 420t, 421, 422f, 571f
Femoral region, 40
Femoral ring, 571f
Femoral triangle, 326, 327f, 568, 571f
Femoral vein, 331f, 571f, 573f, 576, 578f
Femur, 133f, 174f, 184–186, 184f, 185f, 188t
Fenestrae, 680, 681f, 682f
Fenestrated capillary, 556f, 557, 557f
Fertilization, 755–756, 755f, 757f, 758f
Fetal circulation, 580–581, 581f, 582t
Fetal head, molding of, 144
Fetal issue transplantation, 103
Fetal length, 773
Fetal monitoring, 786–789
Fetal period, 772–774
Fetal skull, 145f
Fetoscopy, 787, 788f
Fetus, 769, 771f, 772, 773f
changes by week, 772–774
external appearance of, 772f
Fever blister, 128
FHR-UC. See Electronic Monitoring of Fetal
Heart Rate and Uterine
Contractions Monitoring
Fibrillation, 293, 592, 592f
Fibrils, 53t, 61
Fibrin, 126f
Fibrinogen, 125–126, 126f, 545, 545t
Fibroadenoma, 748
Fibroblasts, 91, 126
Fibrocartilage, 95, 96f, 97f
Fibrocystic disease. See Dysplasia
Fibromyositis, 287
Fibrous capsule. See Renal capsule
Fibrous digital sheath, 325f
Fibrous joints, 197–198, 205t
Fibrous layer, of vagina, 737
Fibrous pericardium, 546
Fibrous tunic, of eyeball, 504–508, 504f, 508t
Fibula, 133f, 174f, 185, 185f, 186f, 188t, 328f
Fibular artery, 570, 570f
Fibular collateral ligament, 221f
Fibular nerve, 425f
Fibular notch, 185
Fight-or-flight response, 444, 473, 474f
Filiform papillae, 497, 497f, 642, 642f
Filtration, 55t, 56f
Filtration slits, 681f, 682f
Filum terminale, 384
Fimbriae, 727f, 729f, 734
Fimbriated fold, 640f
Fingerprints, 110, 110f
Fingers. See also Digits
flexion of, 269–271
muscles that move, 268–272
First-class lever, 210, 213f
First-degree burns, 122, 123f
First-degree frostbite, 123
First dorsal interosseous muscle, 274f, 321f, 325f
First lumbrical muscle, 274f
First meiotic division, 704, 704t, 705f, 706f
First rib, 164f
First sound, of heartbeat, 554
First trimester, of pregnancy, 785
Fissure, 136t
Fissured fractures, 189, 190f
Fissure of Rolando. See Central sulcus
Fissure of Sylvius. See Lateral sulcus
Fistula, 313
Fixation, 102
Fixed action pattern, 345
Flaccid paralysis, 393
Flagella, 53t, 61, 63f, 704, 706f
Flat bones, 136, 136f
Flatfoot, 188
Flexion, 207, 208f, 211f, 212f, 269–271
Flexion creases, 110, 323f
Flexion lines, 110
Flexor carpi radialis muscle, 269, 271f, 273t
tendon of, 321f, 323f, 325f
Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, 267f, 269, 271f,
273t, 325f
tendon of, 274f, 323f
Flexor digiti minimi muscle, 271f, 274f, 275,
275t, 290f, 325f
Flexor digitorum brevis muscle, 290f
Flexor digitorum longus muscle, 284–285,
285f, 286t, 287f, 288f
Flexor digitorum profundis muscle, 272f. See
also Deep digital flexor muscle
tendons of, 274f
Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle. See
Superficial digital flexor muscle
Flexor hallucis brevis muscle, 290f
Flexor hallucis longus muscle, 284, 285f,
286t, 288f
Flexor pollicis brevis muscle, 271f, 274f, 275,
275t, 325f
Flexor pollicis longus muscle, 271, 271f,
272f, 273t
tendon of, 274f
Flexor reflex, 428, 429f
Flexor retinaculum, 269, 271f, 274f, 285f, 287f
Flexure, 658f
Floating ribs, 164f, 165
Fluoroscopic analysis, 587
Fold, of buttock, 326, 326f
Folia, 375
Follicles, 729–730, 729f, 730f, 733f
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 462,
464t, 741
Follicular cells, 467, 743
Follicular epithelium, 729
Follicular hyperkeratosis, 107t
Fontanels, 144, 300
Food poisoning, 669
Foot, 224. See also Pes
muscles of, 281–285, 285, 286t, 290f, 291f
surface anatomy of, 327, 329f
Footdrop, 339
Foramen, 136t
of skull, 144–145, 146t
Foramen cecum, 149f, 478
Foramen lacerum, 146t, 148f, 149f, 152
Foramen magnum, 146t, 148f, 149f, 151
Foramen of Magendie. See Median aperture
Foramen of Monro. See Interventricular
foramen
Foramen ovale, 146t, 148f, 149f, 152, 153f,
580–581, 581f, 582t, 589
Foramen rotundum, 146t, 149f, 152, 153f
Foramen spinosum, 146t, 149f, 152, 153f
Foramina of Luschka. See Lateral apertures
Forearm. See Antebrachium
Forebrain. See Prosencephalon
Foregut, 624, 665–666, 666f
Foreskin. See Prepuce
Formed elements, 98, 99f, 540–542,
541f, 544t
Fornix, 500f, 729f, 736
Fosamax. See Alendronate
Fossa, 136t
Fourth ventricle, of brain, 361f, 374, 376,
381, 382f
Fovea capitis femoris, 184, 184f
Fovea centralis, 505f, 506
Fracture hematoma, 190
Fractures, 189–191
of clavicle, 173
closed, 189
Colles’, 178, 190, 338
comminuted, 189, 190f
complete, 189
compound, 189
compression, 161
contrecoup, 334
depressed, 190
displaced, 190
of fibula, 185
fissured, 189, 190f
greenstick, 189, 190f
impacted, 189
of long bone, 137, 200
nondisplaced, 190
oblique, 189, 190f
open, 189
partial, 189, 190f
pathologic, 189
Pott’s, 185, 190
of radius, 178
of scaphoid, 178
simple, 189
of skull, 198
of spine, 161
spiral, 189, 190f
stress, 339
transverse, 189, 190f
traumatic, 189
treatment for, 190–191, 191f
Fraternal twins. See Dizygotic twins
Freckles, 109
Free border of nail, 117, 117f
Free nerve endings, 489t, 491
Frenulum, 710f, 711
Frequency, of sound, 522
Frog, brain of, 26f
Frontal bone, 133f, 142f, 145–146, 145f,
147f, 148f, 149f, 150f, 174f, 306f
Frontal fontanel. See Anterior fontanel
Frontalis muscle, 235f, 250f, 251f, 251t,
305f, 324f
Frontal lobe, 360f, 361f, 363, 364f, 366f, 366t
Frontal plane. See Coronal plane
Frontal process, of maxilla, 154f, 155f
Frontal sinus, 45f, 146, 148f, 151f, 154f,
306f, 605f, 607, 607f
Frontal sulcus, 364f
Frostbite, 72, 123
FSH. See Follicle-stimulating hormone
Functional heart murmur, 554
Functional proteins, 52
Functional syncytium, 437
Fundus
of stomach, 649, 649f, 650f
of uterus, 729f, 734
Fungiform papillae, 497, 497f, 642, 642f
Funiculi, 386
Funnel chest, 312, 334
Furuncle, 128

G
Gage, Phineas P., 450
Galactosemia, 790
Galea aponeurotica muscle, 250f, 251f, 378f
Galen, 11–12
Gallbladder, 317f, 635, 635f, 638f, 661f,
662–663, 663f, 664f
Gallstones, 663, 664f
Gametes, 474, 698
Gamma globulin, 545, 545t
Ganglion, 348
Ganglionic gliocytes, 351, 351t
Ganglionic neurons, 506
Gangrene, 102, 123, 128
Gaseter. See Belly, of muscle
Gas exchange, 603
Gastric folds, 650, 650f
Gastric glands, 650, 651f
Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), 476t
Gastric juice enzyme, 654t
Gastric phase, of gastric secretion, 651t
Gastric pits, 650, 651f
Gastric secretion, 651t
Gastrin, 457t, 476t
Gastrocnemius muscle, 235f, 280f, 281f, 283,
283f, 284f, 285f, 286t, 287f, 288f,
289f, 328f, 329f, 332f, 333f
Gastrocolic reflex, 659
Gastroileal reflex, 659
Gastrointestinal activity, control of,
hypothalamus and, 373
Gastrointestinal hormones, 476t
Gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), 635, 636t
autonomic nervous system effects
on, 445t
disorders of, 670–671, 671f
innervation of, 639–640
irritation of, 639
layers of, 637–639, 639f
mechanical activity in, 659t
organs of, 635
pathogens of, 669
G cells. See Endocrine cells
General anesthesia, 392
General interpretative area, 366f
General senses, 488
Genes, 782–783
Genetics, medical, 72–73
Genetic sex, 716
Genetic transcription, 67–68, 67f, 68f
Genetic translation, 68, 68f, 69f
Geniculate ganglion, 409
Geniculostriate system, 513
Genioglossus muscle, 252, 255f, 255t
Geniohyoid muscle, 255f, 257t
Genital herpes, 721t
Genitalia. See also Female reproductive
system; Male reproductive system
external
differentiation of, 718f
female, 737f
of neonate, 299t
Genital tract, 743
Genital tubercle, 716, 743
Genitofemoral nerve, 420t
Genotype, 783
Genu, of corpus callosum, 361f, 370f
German Anatomical Society, 17
Germinal epithelium, 704, 728, 733f
Germinal layer, 120
Germ layers, 761f
derivatives of, 80t
formation of, 760
Gestation, 760, 775
GH. See Growth hormone
Gigantism, 166, 462, 480, 481f
Gingiva, 644, 645f
Gingivitis, 672
GIP. See Gastric inhibitory peptide
GI tract. See Gastrointestinal tract
Glabellar reflex, 431f
Glands. See also specific glands
autonomic nervous system effects on, 445t
Glandular epithelium, 87–89, 89t, 435
Glans clitoris, 738
Glans penis, 686f, 699f, 710, 710f, 711, 716
Glaucoma, 530, 532
Glenohumeral joint, 215–217, 216f, 217f,
225t, 264–267, 266t
Glenohumeral ligament, 216
Glenoid cavity, 173, 175f
Glenoid labrum, 216, 216f, 217f
Glial cells, 101. See also Neuroglia
Gliding joint, 202, 204f, 205t
Gliomas, 394
Glisson, Francis, 15
Globulin, 545, 545t
Globus pallidus, 365f, 369, 370f
Glomerular capsule, 679f, 680, 680f, 681f, 683t
Glomerular filtration, 682f
Glomerulonephritis, 692
Glomerulus, 678, 680f, 681f, 683t
Glossopalatine arch, 640f, 641
Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), 402f, 405t,
410–411, 410f, 413t, 498f, 499
Glottis, 608, 609f
Glucagon, 457t, 470, 663
Glucocorticoids, 457t, 471, 473t
Gluteal arteries, 569f
Gluteal cleft. See Natal cleft
Gluteal fascia, 265f
Gluteal lines, 183
Gluteal region, 37
internal anatomy of, 330f
muscles of, 265f
surface anatomy of, 326, 326f
Gluteal surface, 183
Gluteal tuberosity, 184f
Gluteus maximus muscle, 235f, 261f, 265f,
276, 277, 278t, 280f, 281f, 316f,
326f, 330f, 331f
Gluteus medius muscle, 235f, 265f, 276, 277,
278t, 279f, 280f, 330f
Gluteus minimus muscle, 276, 277, 278t, 330f
Glycogen, 52
Glycoproteins, 51
GnRH. See Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
Goblet cells, 61, 83, 87, 87f, 610, 637, 650
Goiter, 468, 468f, 481, 482f
Golgi complex (Golgi apparatus), 53t, 54f, 58, 59f
Golgi tendon organs, 493
Gomphoses, 198, 199f, 205t
Gonadal arteries, 567t, 568f
Gonadal ridge, 716, 743
Gonadocorticoids, 472, 473t
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH),
462, 741
Gonadotropins, 462
Gonads
differentiation of, 717f
endocrine functions of, 456
female, 474–475, 726
male, 474, 698
Gonorrhea, 720–721, 721t
Goose, brain of, 26f
Gorilla, hands of, 26f
Gout, 790
Gouty arthritis, 227
G1 phase, 69–70, 70f
G2 phase, 69–70, 70f
Graafian follicle. See Vesicular ovarian follicle
Gracilis muscle, 235f, 276f, 277, 278f, 279f,
280f, 281f, 281t, 287f, 289f, 328f, 331f
tendon of, 285f
Grand mal epilepsy, 393–394
Granular endoplasmic reticulum. See Rough
endoplasmic reticulum
Granulation tissue, 126
Granulocytes, 542, 544t
Granulosa cells, 730f
Graves’ disease, 481–482
Gray commissure, 384, 386f
Gray matter
of brain, 359, 365f
of spinal cord, 384
Gray rami communicantes, 439, 439f
Gray ramus, 414
Great auricular nerve, 315f
Great cardiac vein, 552f
Greater alar cartilage, 305f, 605f
Greater auricular nerve, 416t
Greater cornua, 157, 157f
Greater curvature, of stomach, 650, 650f
Greater multangular. See Trapezium bone
Greater occipital nerve, 309f, 315f
Greater omentum, 42f, 43–45, 317f, 637, 638f
Greater palatine foramen, 146t, 148f, 155, 156f
Greater palatine groove, 155f
Greater pelvis, 180, 183f
Greater sciatic notch, 182f, 183
Greater trochanter, of femur, 182f, 184,
184f, 326f, 330f
Greater tubercle, of humerus, 175f, 176, 176f
Greater wing, of sphenoid bone, 147f, 148f,
149f, 150f, 152, 153f
Great saphenous vein, 329f, 571f, 573f, 576,
578f, 579
Grecian period, and history of anatomy, 8–10
Greek language, and anatomical
terminology, 2
Greenstick fractures, 189, 190f
Gristle, 95
Gross anatomy, 17
Ground substance, 90
Growth, 29, 30f. See also Development
rates of, male vs. female, 726, 728f
Growth hormone (GH), 166, 462,
464t, 480
Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone
(GH-IH), 462
Growth hormone-releasing hormone
(GH-RH), 462
Growth-inhibiting substances, 70
Guanine, 65, 68
Gubernaculum, 716
Gums. See Gingiva
Gustatory cells, 496–497, 497f
Gustatory microvilli, 497, 497f
Gustatory pathway, 498f, 499
Gustatory receptors, 496
Gustatory sense, 496–499
Gut, 635, 637f
Gynecological examination, 744–746
Gynecology, 744

H
Hair, 107f, 115–117, 116f
distribution of, male vs. female, 115f
nutritional deficiencies and, 107t
in taxonomy, 24
Hair bud, 121
Hair bulb, 107f, 115, 116f, 121
Hair cells
of ear, 57, 526f
of saccule, 515, 515f
of spiral organ, 521f
of utricle, 515, 515f
of vestibular organ, 524, 524f
Hair color, 116
Hair cortex, 115–116
Hair follicle, 107f, 115, 116f, 121
Hairline, 301
Hair matrix, 121
Hair medulla, 115
Hair papilla, 121
Hair root, 115, 116f
Hair shaft, 115, 116f
Halitosis, 672
Hallux, 188
Hallux valgus, 202
Hamate bone, 178, 179f, 180f
Hamlet (Shakespeare), 2
Hammertoe, 327, 330f
Hamstring injuries, 281
Hamstring muscles, 280, 326f
Hand. See also Manus
bones of, 178, 179f, 180f
extension of, 271–272
flexion of, 269–271
internal anatomy of, 325f
muscles of, 268–272, 273–275, 273t,
274f, 275t
pronation of, 268
supination of, 268
surface anatomy of, 321f, 322, 322f, 323f
Hard palate, 604f, 605f, 640f, 641, 641f
Harvey, William, 15, 16f
Haustral churning, 659, 659t
Haustrum, 657, 657f, 658f
Haversian canal. See Central canal
Haversian systems, 138
H bands, 245f
hCG. See Human chorionic gonadotropin
hCS. See Human chorionic
somatomammotropin
Head, 35
arteries of, 307, 561–564, 562f
cavities within, 42, 45f
clinical considerations, 330–334
developmental disorders involving, 333
diseases of, 334
internal anatomy of, 303–304, 305f,
306f, 324f
surface anatomy of, 301–303
trauma to, 333–334
veins of, 572–574, 574f, 576f
Head (anatomical)
of bones, 136t
of condylar process, 156f
of epididymis, 707f
of femur, 182f, 184, 184f
of fibula, 185, 186f, 328f
of humerus, 173, 175f, 176f
of metacarpals, 178, 179f
of metatarsals, 186, 187f
of pancreas, 664f, 668
of phalanges, 180f
of radius, 177f, 178
of rib, 165, 165f
of spermatozoa, 704, 706f
of tibia, 185f
of ulna, 177, 177f
Headaches, 392, 564
Hearing, 516–527. See also Ear
air pressure in, 519
neural pathways for, 523, 523f
Hearing loss, 533
Heart, 540, 545–554
autonomic nervous system effects on, 445t
catheterization of, 587
chambers of, 547–550, 589f
conduction system of, 551–552, 553f
description of, 545–546
development of, 588f, 589, 589f, 590t
feedback mechanisms of, 553f
innervation of, 553f
location of, 36, 545–546, 546f
serous membranes surrounding, 43f
structure of, 548f–549f
in taxonomy, 24
valves of, 547–550, 548t, 551f
Heart attack, 551
Heartbeat, variation in, 552
Heartburn, 648, 672
Heart cords, 589
Heart disease, 593–595
Heart murmur, 335, 554, 593
Heart sounds, 554, 554f
Heart tube, 589
Heart wall, 546–547, 547t
Heat exhaustion, 113
Heat production, muscular system and, 234
Heat receptors, 491–492
Heat stroke, 113
Heavy metals, exposure to, 116
Heel, 40
Height, losses in, 163
Heimlich maneuver, 608, 627, 628f
Helicobacter pylori, 670
Helicotrema, 520
Helix, 303, 516, 517f
Hemarthrosis, 230
Hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) stains, 102
Hematuria, 691–692
Heme, 541
Hemiazygos vein, 576, 577f
Hemiplegia, 393
Hemispheres, of cerebellum, 375
Hemivertebrae, 334
Hemocytoblasts, 544
Hemodialysis, 691f, 693
Hemoglobin, 110, 541
Hemophilia, 785
Hemopneumothorax, 602
Hemopoiesis, 134, 135f, 543f, 544
Hemorrhage, 570
control of, 596–597, 597f
Hemorrhoidal vessels, 658f
Hemorrhoids, 596, 657, 672
Hemothorax, 335
Heparin, 91
Hepatic artery, 581f, 662f
Hepatic buds, 666
Hepatic ducts, 662, 663f, 664f
Hepatic flexure, 317f, 656, 657f
Hepatic plate, 661, 662f, 663f
Hepatic porphyria, 790
Hepatic portal system, 579, 580f
Hepatic portal vein, 579, 580f, 581f, 662f
Hepatic sinusoids. See Liver sinusoids
Hepatic triad, 662f
Hepatic veins, 573f, 580f
Hepatitis, 670
Hepatitis A, 670
Hepatitis B, 670
Hepatocytes, 661
Hepatomas, 670
Hepatopancreatic ampulla, 652, 654f
Herbs, Chinese beliefs in, 8
Hereditary hemochromatosis, 790
Hereditary leukomelanopathy, 790
Hermaphroditism, 714–715
Hernia
congenital diaphragmatic, 336
femoral, 293
hiatal, 293, 336, 670
inguinal, 293
umbilical, 293, 313
Herniated disc, 24, 24f, 226, 423, 425f
Herophilus, 11
Herpes zoster, 414
Hertz (Hz), 522
H & E stains. See Hematoxylin and eosin stains
Heterodont dentition, 24, 642
Heterografts, 102
Heterotransplant, 124
Heterozygous, 783
Hiatal hernia, 293, 336, 670
Hiccuping, 622t
Hidden border of nail, 117, 117f
Hilum, 583, 614, 677, 728
Hindbrain. See Rhombencephalon
Hindgut, 667, 668f
Hinge joint, 202, 204f, 205t
Hip, 40
congenital dislocation of, 338
developmental conditions involving, 338
diseases of, 339
dislocation of, 338, 339
internal anatomy of, 331f
muscles of, 276f
trauma to, 339
Hip joint. See Coxal joint
Hippocrates, 8–9
Hippocratic Oath, 8, 10f
Hirschsprung’s disease, 336
Hirsutism, 115
Histamine, 91
Histology, 77–104
case study, 77, 103
clinical considerations, 101–103
connective tissue, 89–98
definition of, 17, 28
Histopathology, 102
Histotechnology, 102
Hives, 128
Hodgkin’s disease lymphomas, 596
Holocrine glands, 88f, 89, 89t
Homer, 8
Hominidae, 24
Homologous chromosomes, 782, 782f, 783f
Homologous structures, 716, 726, 743t
Homo sapiens, 23, 24, 27t
Homotransplant, 102
Homozygous, 783
Homozygous dominant, 783
Homozygous recessive, 783
Homunculus, 16
Hooke, Robert, 16, 49
Hordeola, 532
Horizontal plane. See Transverse plane
Horizontal plates, of palatine bone, 155, 156f
Hormonal disorders, skeletal effects, 166–167
Hormonal hypertrophy, 72
Hormones, 52, 456–459. See also specific hormone
classes of, 458t
definition of, 455
secretion of, 459–460, 460f
Horse, brain of, 26f
Horseshoe kidney, 691
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), 479,
759, 759f, 766t
Human chorionic somatomammotropin
(hCS), 766t
Human Genome Project, 73
Humans
brain of, 26f
characteristics of, 25–28, 25f
classification of, 23–28, 27t
eyes of, 499
hands of, 26f
races of, 27f
vivisection of, 10, 11
Humeral condyle, 176
Humeroradial joint, 217
Humeroulnar joint, 217
Humerus, 133f, 173–176, 174f, 175f, 181t
muscles of, 264–267, 267f
Humoral theory, 8–9
Hunchback. See Kyphosis
Hunger contractions, 659t
Hunger regulation, hypothalamus and, 373
Huntington’s chorea, 790
Hyaline cartilage, 95, 96f, 97f
Hyaline membrane disease, 620, 626
Hyaloid artery, 516
Hyaloid vein, 516
Hyaluronidase, 756
Hydrocele, 722
Hydrocephalism, 382f
Hydrocephalus, 333, 381, 392
Hydrocortisone. See Cortisol
Hydrogen peroxide, 60
Hydrolysis, 51
Hydronephrosis, 693
Hydroregulation, skin and, 112
Hydroureter, 693
Hygiene, 119
Hymen, 736, 737f, 743
Hymenal tag, 300
Hyoglossus muscle, 252, 255f, 255t, 257f
Hyoid bone, 132, 157, 157f, 256, 306, 308f,
309f, 641f
Hyoid cartilage, 142f
Hyperextension, 207, 211f, 212f
Hyperglycemia, 470
Hyperkeratoses
follicular, 107t
seborrheic, 110
Hyperopia, 531, 531f
Hyperpigmentation, 107t
Hyperplasia, 72
Hypertension, 559, 587, 595–596
Hyperthermia, 72
Hyperthyroidism, 481–482, 482f
Hypertrophic zone, 142–143
Hypertrophy, 287
compensatory, 72
hormonal, 72
Hyperventilation, 622t
Hypodermis, 107f, 112
comparison of male and female, 297, 298f
Hypogastric region, 38f, 38t
Hypoglossal canal, 146t, 148f, 151
Hypoglossal nerve (XII), 402f, 405t, 412,
412f, 413t, 498f
Hypoglossal nucleus, 376
Hypoglycemia, reactive, 482
Hyponychium, 117, 117f
Hypophyseal pouch, 478
Hypophysectomy, 480
Hypopituitarism, 480
Hypospadias, 691, 691f
Hypotension, 335
Hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system,
464, 466f
Hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract, 463
Hypothalamus, 306f, 362t, 370f, 372–373,
448–449, 449f, 456, 456f, 457t
Hypothenar eminence, 275, 321f, 323f
Hypothenar muscles, 275t
Hypothermia, 72, 113
Hypothyroidism, 334, 481
Hypoventilation, 622t
Hysterectomy, 747
Hysterosalpingogram, 744, 744f
H zone, 241–242, 243f

I
I bands, 241, 242, 242f, 243f, 245f
ICSH. See Interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
Identical twins. See Monozygotic twins
Ileocecal valve, 653, 656, 657f
Ileum, 317f, 638f, 653, 653f, 657f
Iliac crest, 181, 181f, 182f, 276f, 313, 326f, 330f
Iliac fossa, 181f, 183
Iliac tuberosity, 182f, 183
Iliacus muscle, 275, 276f, 278t, 279f, 281f, 331f
Iliad (Homer), 8
Iliococcygeus muscle, 261f
Iliocostalis cervicis muscle, 256f, 262f, 263t
Iliocostalis lumborum muscle, 262f, 263t
Iliocostalis muscle, 262
Iliocostalis thoracis muscle, 262f, 263t, 265f
Iliofemoral ligament, 220, 220f
Iliohypogastric nerve, 420t
Ilioinguinal nerve, 420t
Iliolumbar artery, 568, 569f
Iliopsoas muscle, 235f, 276, 276f, 278f, 279f
Iliotibial tract, 235f, 276, 277, 279f, 280f,
282f, 284f, 328f
Ilium, 133f, 174f, 181–183, 181f, 182f
Immunosuppressive drugs, for tissue
transplants, 102
Impacted fractures, 189
Imperforate anus, 669
Imperforate hymen, 743
Impetigo, 129
Implantable contraceptives, 751
Implantation, 757–759, 758f, 759f, 760f
abnormal sites of, 785, 786f
artificial, 785
Impotence, 715
Incisive foramen, 146t, 148f, 154, 155f
Incisors, 148f, 154, 304f, 640f, 642, 644t
Incontinence, urinary, 692, 694
Incus, 157, 158f, 517, 518f
Indian subcontinent, people of, 27f
Induced abortion, 748
Induced tissue, 768
Induction, 768
Inductor tissue, 768
Infancy, 777, 781t. See also Development;
Neonate
Infections
benign viral, 119
cytologic effects of, 72
of eyes, 532
of nasal cavity, 154
of paranasal sinuses, 154
of skin, 119
of urinary system, 692
Inferior, 36t
Inferior angle, of scapula, 173, 175f, 310
Inferior articular process, 160, 161f, 162f
Inferior cerebellar peduncles, 375
Inferior colliculi, 362t, 374, 376f
Inferior concha, 501f
Inferior constrictor muscle, 647, 647f
Inferior epigastric artery, 317f, 568, 569f
Inferior extensor retinaculum muscle, 283f,
285f, 291f, 332f
Inferior gemellus muscle, 277, 330f
Inferior gluteal artery, 568, 569f
Inferior gluteal line, 182f, 183
Inferior gluteal nerve, 424t
Inferior horn, 365f
Inferior labial frenulum, 640f
Inferior lacrimal canaliculi, 502
Inferior lacrimal punctum, 501f
Inferior limb buds, 768
Inferior lobe, of lung, 604f, 614, 615f, 616f
Inferior meatus, of palatine bone, 156f
Inferior mesenteric artery, 560f, 566, 567t,
568f, 569f
Inferior mesenteric ganglia, 440
Inferior mesenteric vein, 579, 580f
Inferior nasal concha, 147f, 150f, 154f, 155,
306f, 605f, 606
Inferior nasal meatus, 501f, 605f
Inferior oblique muscle, 252, 254f, 254t, 404,
502, 502f, 503t
Inferior olivary nuclei, 377
Inferior orbital fissure, 146t, 147f, 150f, 155
Inferior parathyroid glands, 469
Inferior peduncle, 376f
Inferior phrenic artery, 566, 567t, 568f
Inferior phrenic vein, 579
Inferior ramus
of ischium, 181f, 182f
of pubis, 181f, 182f, 183
Inferior rectal artery, 568f, 569f
Inferior rectus muscle, 252, 254f, 254t, 404,
502, 502f, 503t, 505f
Inferior sagittal sinus, 574f
Inferior suprarenal arteries, 568f
Inferior surface, of rib, 165f
Inferior thyroid veins, 577f
Inferior trunk, of brachial plexus, 416
Inferior vena cava, 314f, 548f, 549f, 550,
552f, 572, 573f, 578f, 579, 580f, 581f
Inferior vermis, 375f
Inferior vesicular artery, 568, 569f
Infertility
female, 747
male, 700, 715–720
Inflammation, 126
Inflammatory skin disorders, 119, 122f
Influenza, 628
Infraglenoid tubercle, 175f
Infrahyoid muscles, 256
Infraorbital foramen, 146t, 147f, 150f, 155, 155f
Infraspinatus muscle, 217, 235f, 265f, 266t,
267, 267f, 310, 315f, 316f, 323f, 324f
Infraspinous fossa, 173, 175f
Infundibulum, 460, 461f, 478, 729f, 732
Ingestion, 635
Ingrown toenail, 327, 330f
Inguinal canal, 708
Inguinal hernia, 293
Inguinal ligament, 279f, 312f, 317f, 318, 578f
Inguinal nodes, 583, 584f
Inhalation. See Inspiration
Inheritance, 58, 782–785, 783f, 783t
Inhibitory fibers, 377
Injury. See also Fractures; Trauma
cellular, 72
to knee, 207
to respiratory system, 627–628
skeletal, 189–191
Inner ear, 517f, 519–521, 519f, 528, 528f
Inner-ear cavity, 144
Innervation, 239. See also Nervous system
dual, 446–447
of gastrointestinal tract, 639–640
of heart, 553f
of ovaries, 728–729
of skin, 111
of ureters, 688f
of urethra, 688f
of urinary bladder, 688f
of uterus, 736
Inorganic compounds, 50
Insertion, 236, 236f
Inspection, 34
Inspiration, 256, 618–619, 619f, 621t
muscles of, 258f, 620f
Inspiratory portion, of rhythmicity area, 623
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), 621t, 622f
Instincts, 345
Insula, 365f, 366t, 367
Insulin, 457t, 470–471, 663
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 482
Integration, 345
Integumentary system, 31f, 105–130. See also Skin
clinical considerations, 119–127
clinical practicum, 128
development of, 120–121
Intensity, of sound, 522
Intention tremor, 389
Interatrial septum, 547, 553f
Intercalated discs, 99, 436
Intercarpal joint, 225t
Interclavicular ligament, 215, 215f
Intercondylar eminence, 185, 186f
Intercondylar fossa, 184f, 185
Intercostal arteries, 560f
Intercostal muscles, 258, 259f, 264f
Intercostal nerves, 621t
Intercostal spaces, 164f, 165
Intercostal veins, 576, 577f
Interlobar arteries, 677, 680f
Interlobar veins, 678, 680f
Interlobular arteries, 677, 680f
Interlobular veins, 678, 680f
Intermediate commissure, 370f
Intermediate cuneiform bone, 186, 187f
Intermediate mass, 361f
Intermediate muscles, of hand, 275, 275t
Internal, 36t
Internal abdominal oblique muscle, 258,
258f, 259f, 260t, 264f, 317f, 620f
Internal acoustic meatus, 148f, 149f, 152f
Internal anal sphincter, 657, 658f
Internal anatomy
of abdomen, 315, 317f, 318f
of antebrachium, 325f
of brachium, 313f, 323f, 324f
of buttock, 330, 330f
of eyeball, 511f
of gluteal region, 330f
of hand, 325f
of head, 303–304, 305f, 306f, 324f
of hip, 331f
of leg, 332f, 333f
of lower extremity, 330
of neck, 306f, 307, 309f, 324f
of shoulder, 313f, 322, 323f, 324f
of thigh, 331f
of thorax, 313–315, 313f, 314f, 324f
of trunk, 313–315, 316f
of upper extremity, 322
Internal carotid artery, 307, 360f, 560f, 561,
562f, 563, 563f
Internal hydrocephalus, 381
Internal iliac artery, 560f, 566, 567t, 568,
568f, 569f, 570f, 581f, 736f
Internal iliac vein, 573f, 576, 578f
Internal intercostal muscles, 258, 258f, 259f,
264f, 313f, 618, 620f
Internal jugular vein, 307, 314f, 573f, 574, 574f
Internal obturator nerve, 424t
Internal occipital crest, 149f
Internal pudendal artery, 568, 569f
Internal respiration, 603
Internal spermatic fascia, 701f
Internal surface, of rib, 165f
Internal thoracic artery, 560f, 564–565, 567f
Internal thoracic vein, 573f
Internal tunic, of eyeball, 504f, 505–507, 508t
Internal urinary sphincter, 686f, 687
International Congress of Anatomists, 17
Interneurons, 352
Interosseous borders, 177f
Interosseous ligaments, 198, 223f
Interosseous membrane, 272f
Interosseous talocalcaneal ligament, 223f
Interphalangeal joints, 218, 219f, 225t
Interphase, 69–70, 70f, 71f
Interpretation, of nerve impulse, 488
Intersegmental reflex arc, 428
Interstitial cells, 474, 700t, 702f, 703
Interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
(ICSH), 462, 464t
Interstitial fluid, 92, 540
Interstitial systems, 140
Intertarsal joint, 225t
Intertendinous connections, 325f
Intertrochanteric crest, 184, 184f
Intertrochanteric line, 184, 184f
Intertubercular groove, 176, 176f
Interventricular aqueduct, 382f
Interventricular foramen, 381, 382f
Interventricular septum, 547, 549f,
553f, 589
Interventricular sulci, 547
Intervertebral discs, 24, 24f, 158, 158f, 161f, 162f
compression of, 95, 163
Intervertebral foramen, 161f, 162f
Intervertebral foramina, 158f, 159
Intervertebral joints, 199f, 225t
Intestinal crypt, 655, 655f
Intestinal juice enzyme, 654t
Intestinal phase, of gastric secretion, 651t
Intestinal wall, 653f
Intestine, autonomic nervous system effects
on, 445t
Intracranial tumors, 394
Intraembryonic mesoderm, 768
Intramedullary tumors, 394
Intramembranous ossification, 141
Intraocular pressure, 508
Intraspinal tumors, 394
Intrauterine device (IUD), 750f, 751
Intravenous pyelogram (IVP), 692
Intravertebral tumors, 394
Intrinsic eye muscles, 503t
Intrinsic factor, 651, 652
Intrinsic laryngeal muscles, 609
Intrinsic ocular muscles, 514
Intrinsic tongue muscles, 252
Introns, 68
Inversion, 209, 210f
In vitro fertilization, 785
Iodine, 468
Iodine-deficiency goiter, 468
Ion(s), 51
Ionic charge, of cell membrane, 54
Ipsilateral reflex, 428, 428f
Iris, 302f, 302t, 445t, 447f, 500f, 501f, 504f,
505, 505f, 506f, 508t, 512f, 516
Iron-deficiency anemia, 541
Irregular bones, 136, 136f
Irritability
of muscle, 234
of neurons, 357
IRV. See Inspiratory reserve volume
Ischemia, 594, 594f, 595f
Ischial tuberosity, 182f, 183, 701f
Ischiocavernosus muscle, 260, 260t, 261f, 701f
Ischiofemoral ligament, 220, 220f
Ischium, 133f, 174f, 181f, 182f, 183
Islam, and history of anatomy, 12
Islets of Langerhans. See Pancreatic islets
Isograft, 102
Isometric contractions, 243, 246f
Isotonic contractions, 243, 246f
Isthmus, 466
Isthmus of uterus, 734
IUD. See Intrauterine device
IVP. See Intravenous pyelogram

J
Janssen, Zacharius, 15
Japan, and history of anatomy, 8
Jaundice, 110, 300, 592, 670
Jaw articulation, in taxonomy, 24
Jawbone. See Mandible
Jejunum, 317f, 638f, 652, 653f
Joint(s), 196–232, 225t. See also specific joints
classification of, 197
cracking, 202
diseases of, 226–227
dislocation of, 225–226
disorders of, treatment of, 227–229
kinds of, 205t
trauma to, 225–226, 229f
Joint capsule, 200, 206
Joint cavity, 200, 206
Joint kinesthetic receptors, 493
Joint prostheses, 228f, 229
Joints
case study, 196, 229
clinical considerations, 224–229
clinical practicum, 229–230
Jugular foramen, 146t, 149f, 151
Jugular fossa, 148f
Jugular notch, 164, 164f, 307, 307f, 311f
Juxtamedullary nephrons, 682, 683f

K
Kaitai Shinsho, 8
Kalahari bushmen, 27f
Karyotype, 782, 782f
Keratin, 51–52, 85, 108
Keratinization, 108
Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium,
85, 86t
Keratinocytes, 108
Keratitis, 532
Keratohyalin, 108
Keratoplasty, 504
Keratosis, 129
Kidneys, 457t, 676f, 677f, 678f, 679f
appearance of, 677
congenital anomalies involving, 691, 691f
development of, 689–690, 689f, 690f
endocrine functions of, 456
gross structure of, 677
microscopic structure of, 677–682
position of, 677, 678f
transplantation of, 693
trauma to, 692
Kidney stone. See Renal stone
Kinesiology, 197
Kinesthetic sense, 492–493
Kinocilium, 524, 524f
Klinefelter’s syndrome, 715
Klüver-Bucy syndrome, 514
Knee, 40, 185f
injury to, 207
surface anatomy of, 327f, 328f
Kneecap. See Patella
Knee-jerk reflex, 428, 428f, 430t, 431f
Knee joint. See Tibiofemoral joint
Kupffer cells, 661
Kyphosis, 226

L
Labial frenulum, 640, 640f
Labial surface, of teeth, 642
Labia majora, 686f, 701f, 716, 727f, 727t,
737, 737f, 743
Labia minora, 686f, 701f, 716, 727f, 727t,
737, 737f, 743
Labioscrotal swelling, 716
Labor, 775, 776f
induction of, 463
Labyrinth, 519
Laceration, 125f
Lacrimal apparatus, 501f, 502
Lacrimal bone, 147f, 150f, 154f, 155
Lacrimal canaliculus, 501f
Lacrimal caruncle, 302f, 302t, 500, 501f
Lacrimal duct, 516
Lacrimal fluid, 502
Lacrimal gland, 445t, 501f, 502, 516
Lacrimal groove, 155f
Lacrimal puncta, 502
Lacrimal sac, 501f
Lacrimal secretions, 302
Lacrimal sulcus, 155
Lactase, 654t
Lacteals, 582, 655
Lactic acid, accumulation of, 239
Lactiferous ducts, 739, 739f
Lactiferous sinus, 259f, 739, 739f
Lacuna, 95, 98, 138f, 139f, 140
Lamarck, Jean, 16
Lambdoid suture, 144, 145f, 147f, 148f,
149f, 151
Lamellae, 98, 138
Lamellated corpuscles, 489t, 491
Lamina, 159, 160f, 161f, 162f
Lamina propria, 637
Laminectomy, 160, 169
Langerhans cells. See Nonpigmented granular
dendrocytes
Language, 369–371, 371f
Lanugo, 116, 300, 773
Laparoscope, 785, 786f
Laparoscopy, 744
Laparotomy, 313
Lap suture. See Squamous suture
Large artery, 556f
Large intestine, 635, 636t, 656–659, 657f,
658f, 659t
mechanical activities of, 659
regions of, 656–659
structures of, 656–659
Large vein, 556f
Laryngeal muscles, 609
Laryngeal nerve, in taste sensation, 498f
Laryngeal prominence, 306, 608
Laryngitis, 608, 628
Laryngopharynx, 605f, 608, 641f, 647
Laryngotracheal bud, 624
Larynx, 256, 604f, 608–609, 608f, 610f, 618t
Lateral, 36t
Lateral alar cartilage, 305f
Lateral angle, of scapula, 173, 175f
Lateral apertures, 381
Lateral border, of scapula, 173, 175f
Lateral cartilage, 605, 605f
Lateral cervical ligament. See Cardinal ligament
Lateral collateral ligament, 222, 222f
Lateral commissure, 302f, 302t, 500, 501f
Lateral condyle, 184, 184f
of tibia, 185, 186f
Lateral cord, of brachial plexus, 416
Lateral corticospinal tract, 387, 388t, 389t
Lateral crural muscles, 283, 284f
Lateral cuneiform bone, 186, 187f
Lateral cutaneous femoral nerve, 420t
Lateral epicondyle
of femur, 184f, 185f, 327f, 328f
of humerus, 176, 176f, 320f, 321f
of tibia, 185
Lateral epicondylitis, 177, 338
Lateral femoral circumflex artery, 568, 570f
Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, 401f
Lateral flexion, 211f
Lateral funiculus, 386, 386f
Lateral genicular arteries, 570f
Lateral geniculate, 513
Lateral horn, 384, 386f, 390
Lateral ligament, of temporomandibular
joint, 214, 214f
Lateral malleolus, 185, 186f, 284f, 291f, 329f
Lateral membranous ampullae, 519f
Lateral meniscus, 221f, 222f
Lateral patellar retinaculum, 221, 221f
Lateral plantar artery, 570–571, 570f
Lateral plantar nerve, 423, 424t, 425f
Lateral plantar vein, 578f
Lateral plate
of pterygoid process, 148f
of sphenoid bone, 154f
Lateral process, of breast, 312f
Lateral pterygoid muscle, 250, 253f, 253t
Lateral pterygoid process, 148f, 153f
Lateral rectus muscle, 252, 254f, 254t, 406,
502, 502f, 503t
Lateral sacral artery, 568
Lateral sacral crest, 163f
Lateral semicircular canal, 519f
Lateral spinothalamic tract, 388t, 389t,
491, 493
Lateral sulcus, 360f, 363, 364f, 366f
Lateral superior artery, 569f
Lateral ventricle, 306f, 361f, 363, 365f, 381, 382f
Latin, and anatomical terminology, 2
Latissimus dorsi muscle, 235f, 259f, 264–265,
264f, 265, 265f, 266t, 267, 268f,
269f, 270f, 310, 311f, 313f, 315f,
316f, 320f, 323f, 324f
Laughing, 622t
Lazy eye, 511
Learning, 345, 363
Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy, 58
Leeuwenhoek, Antoni van, 15–16
Left atrioventricular valve, 548t, 549f, 550
Left atrium, 548f, 549f, 550, 552f
Left auricle, 561f
Left brachiocephalic vein, 314f, 561f, 573f, 577f
Left bronchus, 314f
Left bundle branch, 553f
Left colic flexure. See Splenic flexure
Left common carotid artery, 314f, 549f, 559,
560f, 561f, 567t
Left common iliac artery, 566, 568f, 569f
Left coronary artery, 550, 552f, 559, 567t
Left costal margin, of rib cage, 312
Left gastric artery, 566, 567t, 568f
Left gastric vein, 579, 580f
Left gastroepiploic artery, 568f
Left gastroepiploic vein, 579, 580f
Left hemisphere, of brain, 363, 366f
Left hepatic vein, 579
Left hypochondriac region, 38f, 38t
Left inguinal region, 38f, 38t
Left internal jugular vein, 561f
Left lateral region, 38f, 38t
Left lobe, of liver, 314f, 317f, 660, 661f
Left lung, 314f, 604f, 614, 616f
Left ovarian vein, 579
Left principal bronchus, 604f, 610, 610f, 612f
Left pulmonary artery, 548f, 549f, 550, 561f
Left pulmonary vein, 548f, 549f, 561f
Left subclavian artery, 314f, 549f, 559, 560f,
561f, 564, 567t
Left subclavian vein, 572, 573f, 584f
Left suprarenal vein, 579
Left testicular vein, 573f, 579
Left ventricle, 314f, 548f, 549f, 550, 552f
Leg, 40. See also Lower extremity
bones of, 185
internal anatomy of, 332f, 333f
surface anatomy of, 327, 329f
Lens, 500f, 504f, 505, 505f, 506f, 507f, 508t,
510, 512f
Lens capsule, 505, 506f, 512f, 516
Lens fovea, 515
Lens placode, 515
Lens vesicle, 516
Lentiform nucleus, 365f, 368–369, 370f
Leonardo da Vinci, 13, 14f
Lesions, 119
Lesser cornua, 157, 157f
Lesser curvature, of stomach, 650, 650f
Lesser multangular. See Trapezoid bone
Lesser occipital nerve, 315f, 416t
Lesser omentum, 42f, 43–45, 637, 638f
Lesser palatine foramen, 146t, 155, 156f
Lesser pelvis, 180, 183f
Lesser sciatic notch, 182f, 183
Lesser splanchnic nerve, 440
Lesser trochanter, of femur, 182f, 184, 184f
Lesser tubercle, of humerus, 176, 176f
Lesser wing, of sphenoid bone, 147f, 148f,
149f, 150f, 152, 153f
Leukemia, 542, 593
Leukocytes, 98, 99f, 540, 541f, 542, 544t
circulation of, 539
shape of, 50f
size of, 49
Leukocytosis, 542, 593
Leukopenia, 593
Leukopoiesis, 544
Levator anguli oris muscle, 250f, 251f, 251t
Levator ani muscle, 260, 260t, 261f, 281f,
658f
Levator costarum muscle, 262f
Levator labii superioris muscle, 250f, 251f,
251t, 305f
Levator palpebrae superioris muscle, 252,
254f, 404, 500, 500f, 502f
Levator scapulae muscle, 256f, 257f, 259f, 264,
265f, 266t, 267f, 308f, 309f, 315f
Levers, 210–211, 213f
Levodopa, 351, 390
Leydig cells. See Interstitial cells
LH. See Luteinizing hormone
LH surge, 741
Lifting, proper procedure for, 262
Ligaments, 92, 202
Ligamentum arteriosum, 548f, 561f
Ligamentum capitis femoris, 220, 220f
Ligamentum denticulatum, 379
Ligamentum nuchae, 307, 309f
Ligamentum teres, 661, 729f, 735
Light
refraction of, 509–510, 512f
transmission of, 509
Light microscope, 17, 17f, 78
Limb buds, 192, 192f
Limbic system, and autonomic nervous
system, 449, 450f
Linea alba, 258, 259f, 311f, 312, 312f,
313, 317f
Linea albicans, 111, 111f
Linea aspera, 184, 184f
Linear bone growth, 137
Linea semilunaris, 312f, 313
Lines of tension, on skin, 110, 111f
Lingual artery, 562f, 563
Lingual frenulum, 305f, 640f, 642
Lingual nerve, in taste sensation, 498f
Lingual surface, of teeth, 642
Lingual tonsils, 605f, 608, 641f, 642
Lipase, 654t
Lipids, 51, 52, 52t
Lipid solubility, 54
Lipoproteins, 51
Lips, 303, 304f, 304t, 640, 640f, 641f
Liver, 314f, 317f, 318f, 635, 635f, 638f,
660–662, 661f, 662f
autonomic nervous system effects on, 445t
disorders of, 670
effects of alcohol on, 579
location of, 660f
Mesopotamian views on, 7, 7f
Liver cells. See Hepatocytes
Liver lobules, 661, 662f, 663f
Liver sinusoids, 661, 662f, 663f
Liver spots, 110
Lobar bronchus, 604f, 610, 610f
Lobes
of liver, 660
of lungs, 604f, 616f
of mammary glands, 739, 739f
Lobules
of lungs, 616f
of mammary glands, 739, 739f
of testis, 701f, 702
Lobus nervosa, 460, 478
Lobus nervosus, 457t
Local anesthetics, 392
Local effects, 122
Lockjaw, 250
Locomotion, bipedal, 25–27
Long bones, 135–136, 136f, 137f
growth of, 140f
structure of, 136–137
Longissimus capitis muscle, 255, 256f, 262f,
263t, 309f
Longissimus cervicis muscle, 256f, 262f,
263t, 309f
Longissimus muscle, 262
Longissimus thoracic muscle, 256f, 262f,
263t, 265f
Longitudinal arch, 188, 188f, 327, 329f
Longitudinal cerebral fissure, 363, 364f, 365f
Longitudinal muscle, of stomach, 650f
Long plantar ligament, 223f
Loop of Henle. See Nephron loop
Loose connective (areolar) tissue, 91,
91f, 95t
Lordosis, 226
Lower esophageal sphincter, 648
Lower extremity, 40
arteries of, 566–571, 570f
bones of, 132t, 134, 178, 188t
developmental conditions involving, 338
diseases of, 339
internal anatomy of, 330
of neonate, 299t
surface anatomy of, 326–327
trauma to, 339
veins of, 576–579, 578f
Lower nerve block, 157
Lower respiratory system, 603
development of, 624, 626f
Lower spinal nerves, in expiration, 621t
Lumbago, 287
Lumbar arteries, 566, 567t
Lumbar curve, 158f, 159
Lumbar enlargement, of spinal cord, 384, 385f
Lumbar nerves, 401f, 413
Lumbar nodes, 583
Lumbar plexus, 385f, 401f, 420t, 421, 421f
Lumbar puncture, 391, 391f
Lumbar region, 37
Lumbar splanchnic nerve, 440
Lumbar veins, 579
Lumbar vertebrae, 159, 161–162, 162f,
163t, 164f
Lumbosacral plexus, 421, 424f
Lumbosacral trunk, 421
Lumbricales muscle, 272f, 274f, 275, 275t,
290f, 325f
Lumen, 556f
Lunate bone, 178, 179f, 180f
Lung cancer, 615, 630f
Lungs, 314f, 614–615, 615f, 616f, 618t
autonomic nervous system effects on,
445t, 448t
location of, 36
position of, 614f, 617f
respiratory division of, 612
serous membranes surrounding, 43f
Lung tissue, 613f
Lung volume, 619f
Lunula, 117, 117f
Luteinizing hormone (LH), 462, 464t, 741
Luxation, 225–226
Lymph, 540, 582
Lymphadenitis, 596
Lymphangitis, 596
Lymphatic capillaries, 582
Lymphatic nodules, 583
Lymphatic system, 31f, 582–586, 584f
disorders of, 596
relation to circulatory system, 540, 583f
Lymphatic vessels, 540, 582, 583f
Lymph ducts, 582
Lymph nodes, 540, 583–584, 584f, 585f,
587t, 740, 741f
Lymphoblasts, 544
Lymphocytes, 542, 542f, 544t
Lymphoid organs, 584–586, 584f, 587t
Lymphoid tissue, 544
Lymphoma, 596
Lysosomes, 53t, 54f, 59, 60, 60f
Lysozyme, 502

M
Macrophagic cells, 108
Macula, 515, 515f
Macula lutea, 506–507
Macular degeneration, 532
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 18, 19f
Major calyx, 677, 679f, 682
Major vestibular glands, 738
Male
comparison with female physique, 780, 780f
distribution of hair in, 115f
growth rates of, 726, 728f
hypodermis of, 297, 298f
sexual maturation of, 779
Male infertility, 700, 715–720
Male pseudohermaphroditism, 714
Male reproductive system, 32f, 697–724,
699f, 700t, 701f
case study, 697, 722
clinical considerations, 714–722, 744–751
clinical practicum, 722
comparison with female, 743t
developmental disorders of, 714–715
development of, 716–719, 717f, 718f
diseases of, 720–721
Male sterility, 720
Malignant melanoma, 121, 123
Malignant neoplasms, 73
Malleus, 30, 157, 158f, 517, 518f
Malpighi, Marcello, 15
Malposition of teeth, 669f
Maltase, 654t
Mamillary body, 370f
Mammalia, 24
Mammary alveoli, 739
Mammary ducts, 739, 739f
Mammary gland lobule, 259f
Mammary glands, 25f, 119, 119f, 259f, 726,
727t, 738–740, 739f, 740f, 741f. See
also Breast(s)
development of, 121, 121f
diseases of, 748
lymphatics of, 584f
Mammary lobes, 259f
Mammary region, 35–36
Mammary ridge, 25f
Mammary tissue, following weaning, 59
Mammography, 748, 749f
Mandible, 133f, 142f, 145f, 147f, 148f, 156f,
157, 174f, 306f, 308f
Mandibular condyle, 149f
Mandibular foramen, 146t, 149f, 156f, 157
Mandibular fossa, 146, 148f, 149f, 152f
Mandibular margin, 156f
Mandibular nerve, 404t, 405, 406
Mandibular nerve block, 406
Mandibular notch, 147f, 156f, 157
Manic-depressive psychosis, 393
Manometer, 391
Manubrium, 164, 164f, 306f
Manus, 38. See also Hand
articulations of, 204f
bones of, 178, 179f, 180f
Marfan’s syndrome, 790
Marginal artery, 552f
Massage, 491
Masseteric tuberosity, 156f
Masseter muscle, 235f, 250, 250f, 251f,
253f, 253t
Mass movements, 659, 659t
Mast cells, 91
Mastectomy, 264, 748
Mastication, 635, 659t
muscles of, 250, 253f, 253t
Mastoidal air cells, 517
Mastoid cells, 151
Mastoid fontanels. See Posterolateral
fontanels
Mastoid foramen, 148f, 149f, 151
Mastoiditis, 151, 519
Mastoid part, of temporal bone, 151, 152f
Mastoid process, 147f, 148f, 149f, 151,
152f, 308f
Masturbation, 720
Matrix, 78
Maxilla, 133f, 142f, 145f, 147f, 148f,
150f, 154–155, 154f, 155f,
174f, 306f
Maxillary artery, 562f, 563–564
Maxillary nerve, 404t, 405, 406
Maxillary nerve block, 406
Maxillary sinus, 150f, 151f, 155, 155f, 605f,
607, 607f
McBurney’s point, 312f, 313
Meatal plug, 529
Mechanoreceptors, 489, 490
Meckel’s cartilage, 142f
Meckel’s diverticulum, 336
Medial, 36t
Medial border, of scapula, 173, 175f
Medial collateral ligament, 222f
Medial commissure, 302f, 302t, 500, 501f
Medial condyle, 184, 184f, 185, 186f
Medial cord, of brachial plexus, 416
Medial cuneiform bone, 186, 187f
Medial epicondyle
of femur, 184f, 327f, 328f
of humerus, 176, 176f, 320f, 321f
of tibia, 185
Medial femoral circumflex artery, 568, 570f
Medial genicular arteries, 570f
Medial lemniscus, 493
Medial malleolus, 185, 291f, 329f
Medial meniscus, 221f, 222f
Medial patellar retinaculum, 221, 221f
Medial plantar artery, 570–571, 570f
Medial plantar nerve, 423, 424t, 425f
Medial plate
of pterygoid process, 148f
of sphenoid bone, 154f
Medial pterygoid muscle, 250, 253f, 253t
Medial pterygoid process, 148f, 153f
Medial rectus muscle, 252, 254f, 254t, 404,
502, 502f, 503t
Medial reticulospinal tract, 388t, 389t
Medial talocalcaneal ligament, 223f
Median aperture, 381
Median cubital vein, 321f, 573f, 575, 575f
Median eminence, 464
Median furrow, 309, 310
Median nerve, 322, 401f, 418t, 419, 420f
Median palatine suture, 148f
Median sacral crest, 162, 163f
Median umbilical ligament, 685, 764
Median vein, 321f
Mediastinal surface, of lungs, 614
Mediastinum, 41, 41f, 44f, 614, 617f
Medical genetics, 72–73
Medium-sized artery, 556f
Medium-sized vein, 556f
Medulla oblongata, 360f, 361f, 362t, 370f,
374f, 375f, 376–377, 376f, 377f,
385f, 448, 448t
Medullary cavity, 136–137
Megakaryoblasts, 544
Megakaryocytes, 542
Meiosis, 703–704, 704t, 705f, 757f
Meissner’s corpuscles. See Corpuscles of touch
Meissner’s plexus. See Submucosal plexus
Melancholy, 9
Melanin, 108, 109, 121
Melanoblasts, 121
Melanocytes, 108, 109f
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH),
463, 464t
Melanoma, 112, 129
Melatonin, 457t, 475–476
Membranous ampulla, 519f, 520
Membranous epithelia, 79–81
Membranous labyrinth, 519, 519f
Membranous part, of urethra, 686f, 687, 709
Memory, 345
Menarche, 726, 779
Menes, 7
Méniere’s disease, 533
Meningeal branch, of spinal nerve, 414
Meningeal layer, of dura mater, 378, 378f
Meningeal veins, 574
Meninges, 345t, 358, 378–381, 379f, 381f
Meningiomas, 394
Meningitis, 154, 394
Meningomyelocele, 166f
Meniscus, 95, 202, 206
Menopause, 726
Menorrhagia, 747
Menses, 736
Menstruation, 726, 740–741, 742f, 742t, 747
Mental artery, 305f
Mental foramen, 146t, 147f, 156f, 157
Mental illness, 393
Mentalis muscle, 250f, 251f, 251t, 305f
Mental nerve, 305f
Mental protuberance, 149f, 156f
Mental retardation, 392
Mental spine, 156f
Mental vein, 305f
Mentolabial sulcus, 304f
Meridional fibers, 506f
Merkel cells. See Tactile cells
Merocrine glands, 87, 88f, 89t
Mesencephalic aqueduct, 361f, 374, 381, 382f
Mesencephalon, 347, 362t, 373–374
Mesenchyme, 90, 90f, 120, 141, 768
Mesenteric lymph nodes, 584f
Mesenteric patches, 584, 653
Mesentery, 42f, 45, 318f, 636, 637f, 638f, 652
Mesocolon, 636, 638f, 657f
Mesoderm, 80, 80t, 760, 761f
Mesonephric duct, 716
Mesonephros, 689, 690
Mesopotamia, and history of anatomy, 5–8
Mesothelium, 81
Mesovarium, 728, 729f
Messenger RNA (mRNA), 67, 69, 69f
Metabolism, 49
Metacarpal arteries, 566
Metacarpal bones, 133f, 174f, 179f, 180f,
181t, 205f
Metacarpophalangeal joints, 204f, 218, 219f,
225t, 322f
Metacarpus, 38, 178
Metanephrogenic mass, 690
Metanephros, 689, 690
Metaphase, 70, 71f, 704t, 705f, 757f
Metaplasia, 72
Metarterioles, 555
Metastases, 73, 394, 584
Metatarsal bones, 133f, 174f, 187f, 188f,
188t, 329f
Metatarsophalangeal joints, 186
Metatarsus, 40, 186
Metencephalon, 347, 362t, 374–376
Metopic suture, 145
Metrorrhagia, 747
MI. See Myocardial infarction
Michelangelo, 2
Microcephaly, 333, 392
Microcirculation, 557f
Microglia, 348–351, 350f
Micromelia, 192, 337
Microscope and microscopy
and cytology, 49
development of, 15–16
types of, 17f
Microscopic anatomy, 17
Microtubules, 53t, 54f, 61, 62f
Microvilli, 54–57, 56f, 653–655, 655f
Micturition, 676, 687–688, 688t
Midbrain. See Mesencephalon
Midclavicular line, 310
Middle Ages, and history of anatomy, 12
Middle cerebellar peduncles, 375
Middle cerebral artery, 563, 563f
Middle concha, 501f
Middle constrictor muscle, 647, 647f
Middle ear, 517–519, 517f, 528, 530f
Middle-ear cavity, 42, 45f, 144, 158f
Middle lobe, of lung, 604f, 614, 615f, 616f
Middle meatus, of palatine bone, 156f
Middle nasal concha, 147f, 150f, 153, 153f,
154f, 605f, 606
Middle peduncle, 376f
Middle phalanx, 179f, 180f, 187f
Middle rectal artery, 568, 568f, 569f
Middle sacral artery, 566
Middle superior artery, 569f
Middle suprarenal arteries, 568f
Middle trunk, of brachial plexus, 416
Middle turn, of cochlea, 520f
Middle vesicular artery, 568, 569f
Midgut, 666–667, 667f
Midgut loop, 666
Midsagittal (median) plane, 33
Migraine headaches, 392
Milia, 300
Milk teeth. See Deciduous teeth
Mineralocorticoids, 471, 473t
Minerals, 52t, 134–135
Minor calyx, 677, 677f, 679f, 682
Minor vestibular glands, 738
Miscarriage, 748
Mitochondria, 53t, 54f, 58, 60f, 242f, 247f
Mitosis, 65, 70, 70f, 71f, 706f
Mitral valve. See Left atrioventricular valve
Mixed glands, 456, 663
Mixed nerves, 352, 401, 403
Mnemonic devices, 403
Modified radical mastectomy, 748
Molars, 148f, 154, 640f, 642, 643f, 644t
Molding, of fetal head, 144
Molecules, 28, 50
Mongolian spots, 300
Mongoloid (Thailand), 27f
Monoblasts, 544
Monocytes, 542, 542f, 544t
Monohybrid cross, 784
Mononucleosis, 593
Monosaccharides, 52
Monosomy, 73
Monosynaptic reflex arc, 428
Monozygotic twins, 785–786, 788f
Mons pubis, 701f, 737, 737f
Morphogenesis, 756
Morula, 79, 757, 760t
Motor area, of cerebral cortex, 367f, 370f, 371f
Motor end plates, 244, 247f
Motor nerves, 352, 355f, 356f, 401, 403
Motor neuron axon, 247f
Motor neurons, 239, 345t, 349f, 352, 427, 427f
Motor root, of trigeminal nerve, 405
Motor speech area, 364f, 366f, 369–371, 371f
Motor unit, 244–246
Mounting, 102
Mouth. See Oral cavity
Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, 629f
Mouth-to-nose resuscitation, 629f
Movement, 211f
muscular system and, 234
skeleton and, 134
M phase, 70
MRI. See Magnetic resonance imaging
mRNA. See Messenger RNA
MS. See Multiple sclerosis
MSH. See Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
Mucocutaneous corpuscles, 491
Mucoid connective tissue, 90, 767
Mucosa, 637, 639f
of stomach, 650f, 651f
of ureters, 684
of urinary bladder, 685
of uterine tube, 734
Mucosal layer, 736
Mucous cells, 645, 651f
Mucous connective tissue, 90
Mucous glands, autonomic nervous system
effects on, 445t
Mucous membranes, 42–43, 85, 303
Müller, Johannes, 16
Müllerian duct. See Paramesonephric duct
Multicellular glands, 87–89, 88f, 89t
Multifidus muscle, 262f
Multiple pregnancy, 785–786, 787f, 788f
Multiple sclerosis (MS), 395
Multipolar neurons, 352, 356f
Multiunit smooth muscle, 437, 437t
Mummies, Egyptian, 7, 7f
Mumps, 670
Muscarine, 445
Muscle(s). See also Cardiac muscle; Skeletal
muscle; specific muscle
aging of, 288–289, 292f
condition of, 285
diseases of, 287–288
etymology of term, 30
functional conditions of, 286–287
functions of, 234
naming of, 246–247
neoplasms of, 288
soreness of, 239
trauma to, 92
Muscle atrophy, 102, 286
Muscle cells, 70
Muscle cramp, 286
Muscle fibers
architecture of, 238
development of, 248–249, 248f
skeletal, 240–243, 241f, 242f, 243f
Muscle tissue, 78, 99, 100f, 100t, 234
Muscular arteries, 555
Muscular dystrophy, 287, 339
Muscularis
of ureters, 684
of urinary bladder, 687
of uterine tube, 734
of vagina, 737
Muscularis mucosa, 637
Muscular system, 31f, 233–295. See also
specific muscles
case study, 233, 289
clinical considerations, 285–289
clinical practicum, 292–293
development of, 248–249, 248f, 249f
Musculocutaneous nerve, 418t, 419, 419f
Musculotendinous cuff, 217, 267
Mutations, 73
Myalgia, 293
Myasthenia gravis, 288
Myelencephalon, 347, 362t, 376–377
Myelin, 349f, 351
Myelination, 351, 352f, 353f
Myelin layer, 351, 352f, 353f
Myeloblasts, 544
Myenteric plexus, 637
Mylohyoid muscle, 255f, 256, 257f, 257t,
308f, 309f
Myoblasts, 248
Myocardial disease, 594
Myocardial infarction (MI), 335, 595
Myocardial ischemia, 335, 594, 594f, 595f
Myocardium, 436–437, 546, 547t
Myofibrils, 241, 241f, 242f, 243f, 244f, 247f
Myofilaments, 61, 241, 241f, 243f
Myoglobin, 58
Myokymia, 293
Myoma, 293
Myometrium, 729f, 736
Myoneural junction. See Neuromuscular
junction
Myopathy, 293
Myopia, 531, 531f
Myosin, 241
Myosin myofilaments, 243f
Myotomes, 248
Myotomy, 293
Myotonia, 293
Myringotomy, 533, 533f
Myxedema, 481

N
Nail(s), 117, 117f, 300, 322f
Nail bed, 117, 117f, 300
Nail fold, 117, 117f
Nail groove, 117, 117f
Nail matrix, 117, 117f
Nares. See Nostrils
Nasal bones, 142f, 145f, 147f, 148f, 150f,
154f, 155, 605, 605f
Nasal cavity, 42, 45f, 144, 154, 154f, 154t,
501f, 604f, 605, 605f, 641f
Nasal crest, 155f, 156f
Nasal fossa, 144, 153, 605
Nasalis muscle, 250f, 251f, 251t
Nasal meatus, 606
Nasal notch, 155f
Nasal region, of face, 301, 303, 304f, 304t
Nasal septum, 144, 501f, 605
Nasal spine, 155f
Nasal vestibule, 605, 605f
Nasolacrimal canal, 146t, 155
Nasolacrimal duct, 501f, 502, 605f
Nasopharynx, 605f, 606, 607, 641f, 647
Natal cleft, 326, 326f
Nausea, 527, 652, 672
Navel. See Umbilicus
Navicular bone, 186, 187f, 188f. See also
Scaphoid bone
Nearsightedness. See Myopia
Neck, 35
arteries of, 307, 561–564, 562f
clinical considerations, 330–334
developmental disorders involving, 333
diseases of, 334
of humerus, 176, 176f
internal anatomy of, 306f, 307, 309f, 324f
muscles of, 254–256, 257f, 257t, 259f, 265f
of neonate, 299t
surface anatomy of, 306–307, 307f
trauma to, 333–334
triangles of, 307, 307f, 308f, 308t
Neck (anatomical)
of condylar process, 156f
of femur, 182f, 184, 184f
of fibula, 186f
of humerus, 176, 176f
of radius, 177f
of rib, 165, 165f
of tooth, 645f
of urinary bladder, 685
veins of, 572–574, 574f
Necrosis, 102, 595
Negative feedback system, 459, 459f
Negroid (Africa), 27f
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 720
Neonatal period, 776, 781t
Neonate. See also Development
brain of, 359
flexion position of, 299, 299f
general appearance of, 299–300
palpable structures of, 300
surface anatomy of, 298–300, 299t
Neoplasms. See also Cancer; Tumors
benign, 73
of bone, 167
of central nervous system, 394
malignant, 73
metastatic, 394
of muscle, 288
primary, 394
secondary, 394
of skin, 119–121
uterine, 747
Nephritis, 692
Nephron, 677, 679f, 680–682, 683t
Nephron loop, 679f, 680f, 682, 683t
Nerve(s), 345t. See also specific nerves
classification of, 352–354, 356f
structure of, 356f
Nerve block, 157, 391–392, 406, 775
Nerve cells. See Neurons
Nerve fiber, 101, 348
Nerve impulse, 357
conduction of, 384, 488
interpretation of, 488
transmission of, 357–358
Nerve plexus, 345t, 415–423
Nervous layer, of retina, 505
Nervous system, 32f. See also Autonomic
nervous system; Central nervous
system; Peripheral nervous system
degenerative diseases of, 395–396
disorders of, 393–395
and endocrine system, 455, 455t
functions of, 345
organization of, 345
senescence of, 395
Nervous tissue, 78, 100–101, 343–399
Neural crest, 347
Neural folds, 346
Neural groove, 346
Neural pathways
for equilibrium, 526–527
for hearing, 523, 523f
for somatic sensation, 493–494, 495f
for visual sense, 513–514
Neural plate, 346
Neural tube, 347
Neurocranium, 141, 142f
Neuroendocrine reflexes, 463
Neuroepithelium, 80
Neurofibril(s), 348, 349f
Neurofibril nodes, 349f, 351
Neuroglia, 101, 101f, 346, 348–351, 351t
Neurohypophysis, 373, 460, 461f, 463f,
464t, 477
Neurolemmal sheath, 351
Neurolemmocytes, 347, 348, 349f, 351t
Neurological assessment, 391, 412, 413t
Neurology, 344–345
Neuromuscular cleft, 244, 247f
Neuromuscular junction, 244, 247f
Neuromuscular spindles, 493
Neurons, 101, 101f, 345, 345t, 348, 350f
classification of, 352–354
damage to, 70
development of, 346
mitotic activity of, 348
myelination of, 351, 352f, 353f
regeneration of, 354f
shape of, 50f
size of, 49
Neuropeptides, 359
Neuropores, 347
Neurosis, 393
Neurosyphilis, 395
Neurotendinous receptors, 493
Neurotransmitters
of autonomic nervous system, 444, 446f
diseases involving, 396
Neutrophils, 542, 542f, 544t
Nevi, 119, 129
Ngatatjara man, 27f
Nicotine, harmful effects of, 559
Nipples, 25f, 259f, 310, 311f, 312f, 739, 739f
Nissl bodies. See Chromatophilic substances
Nitrogenous bases, 65–66, 67f
NMR. See Nuclear magnetic resonance
Nociceptors, 490, 491–492
Nocturnal emission, 714
Nodes of Ranvier. See Neurofibril nodes
Nonarticulating prominences, of bones, 136t
Nondisplaced fractures, 190
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, 596
Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 482
Nonkeratinized stratified squamous
epithelium, 85, 86t
Nonpigmented granular dendrocytes, 108
Nonrespiratory air movements, 621, 622t
Norepinephrine, 440, 444, 446f, 457f, 458,
472, 473t
Normal amenorrhea, 747
Norplant, 750f
Nose, 605–607, 605f, 618t. See also Nasal cavity
Nostrils, 303, 304f, 304t, 604f, 605, 605f, 606
Notochord, 23, 23f, 767
Nucha, 306
Nuchal ligament, 160
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 18
Nuclear membrane (envelope), 53t, 54f, 63
Nuclear pores, 63
Nuclease, 654t
Nucleic acids, 52t
Nucleolemma cisterna, 63
Nucleolus, 53, 53t, 54f, 63, 349f
Nucleoplasm, 57
Nucleoproteins, 51
Nucleotides, 65–66
Nucleus
in brain, 359
of cell, 53, 54f, 63, 64f
of neurons, 348, 349f, 488
Nucleus ambiguus, 376, 411
Nucleus cuneatus, 377
Nucleus gracilis, 377
Nucleus pulposus, 23, 24, 24f
Nurse cells. See Sustentacular cells
Nutrient foramen, 137, 176, 176f
Nutritional disorders. See also specific disorders
skeletal effects, 166–167
skin effects of, 107t

O
Obesity, 636t, 778
Oblique fissure, of lung, 615f
Oblique fractures, 189, 190f
Oblique line, 156f
Oblique muscle(s), 252, 502, 503t
Oblique muscle layer, of stomach, 650, 650f
Oblique popliteal ligament, 221, 221f
Obliquus capitis inferior muscle, 256f, 262f
Obliquus capitis superior muscle, 256f, 262f
Obturator artery, 568, 569f, 570f
Obturator externus muscle, 277, 278f
Obturator foramen, 181f, 182f, 183, 183f
Obturator internus muscle, 261f, 277,
281f, 330f
Obturator nerve, 420t, 421, 422f
Occipital artery, 309f, 315f, 562f, 563
Occipital bone, 133f, 142f, 145f, 147f, 148f,
149f, 151–152, 174f, 309f
Occipital condyle, 148f, 149f, 151
Occipital fontanel. See Posterior fontanel
Occipitalis muscle, 235f, 251f, 251t
Occipital lobe, 360f, 361f, 364f, 366–367,
366f, 366t
Occipital vein, 574f
Occipitomastoid suture, 149f
Ocular muscles, 252, 254f, 254t, 503f
Ocular region, of face, 301, 302, 302f, 302t
Oculomotor nerve (III), 402f, 403–404,
404t, 408f, 413t
Odontoid process. See Dens, of axis
Oily skin, 107t
Olecranon, 177, 177f, 320f, 321f
Olecranon bursa, 217
Olecranon fossa, 176, 176f
Olfaction, 496f
Olfactory bulb, 402f, 403, 406f, 496, 496f
Olfactory hairs, 495, 496f
Olfactory nerve (I), 402f, 403, 404t, 406f,
413t, 496
Olfactory nerve fibers, 496f
Olfactory pathway, 406f
Olfactory pit, 624
Olfactory placode, 624
Olfactory receptor cells, 495, 496f
Olfactory sense, 495–496
Olfactory tract, 360f, 402f, 403, 406f, 496
Oligodendrocytes, 348, 350f, 351, 351t
Oligodendrogliomas, 394
Oligospermia, 714
Oliguria, 692
Omoclavicular triangle, 308f, 308t
Omohyoid muscle, 255f, 256, 257f, 257t,
259f, 267f, 308f, 309f
Omos, 38
Omotracheal triangle, 308f, 308t
Ontogeny, 690
Oocytes, 58, 698, 729, 729f, 733f, 757f
primary, 729, 731f, 733f
secondary, 730, 730f, 731f, 732f, 733f
Oogenesis, 733f
Oogonia, 729, 743
Oophoritis, 748
Open fractures, 189
Openings, of bones, 136t
Ophthalmic artery, 562f, 563
Ophthalmic nerve, 404t, 405, 406
Ophthalmic vein, 574
Ophthalmology, 302, 527
Ophthalmoscope, 511f, 527
Opponens digiti minimi muscle, 274f, 275,
275t, 290f, 325f
Opponens pollicis muscle, 274f, 275, 275t
Opposable thumbs, 26f, 27
Optic canal, 147f, 150f, 152, 153f
Optic chiasma, 370f, 402f, 403, 407f, 513
Optic cup, 516
Optic disc, 504f, 507, 511f
Optic fissure, 516
Optic foramen, 146t, 149f
Optic fovea, 529
Optic nerve (II), 360f, 361f, 402f, 403, 404t,
407f, 408f, 413t, 504, 504f, 505f, 516
Optic radiation, 513
Optic tract, 403, 407f, 513
Optic vesicle, 515
Optometrist, 527
Optometry, 302, 527
Oral cavity, 42, 45f, 85, 144, 303, 305f, 306f,
605f, 635, 635f, 636t, 640, 640f,
641f, 659t
Oral contraceptives, 749, 750f
Oral membrane, 665
Oral orifices, 640, 640f
Oral pit, 665
Oral region, of face, 301, 303, 304f, 304t
Oral vestibule, 605f
Ora serrata, 505, 505f
Orbicularis oculi muscle, 235f, 250f, 251f,
251t, 305f, 500, 500f
Orbicularis oris muscle, 235f, 250f, 251f,
251t, 253f, 305f
Orbit, of eye, 42, 45f, 144, 145, 150f, 151t,
301, 499
Orbital fat body, 305f
Orbital muscle, 250f
Orbital plate
of ethmoid bone, 147f, 150f, 153f
of frontal bone, 150f
Orbital process, of palatine bone, 156f
Orbital surface, of palatine bone, 156f
Orbitosphenoid, 142f
Orchiectomy, 722
Orchitis, 722
Order Primates, 24, 27t
Organ(s), 28, 42
Organelles, 28, 53, 57–61
Organic compounds, 50
Organ of Corti. See Spiral organ
Organs of Ruffini, 489t, 491
Orgasm
female, 738
male, 713–714
Origin, of muscles, 236, 236f
Oronasal membrane, 624
Oropharynx, 605f, 608, 641f, 647
Orthopedics, 169
Orthopnea, 622t
Os coxae, 133f, 174f, 180, 182f, 188t
Osmosis, 55t, 56f
Os penis, 713
Ossification, 141, 143t
Ossification zone, 143
Osteitis, 169
Osteoarthritis, 226–227
Osteoblastoma, 170
Osteoblasts, 138, 138f, 140
Osteochondritis, 170
Osteoclasts, 138, 138f
Osteocytes, 50f, 97–98, 138, 138f, 139f
Osteogenic cells, 138
Osteogenic sarcoma, 167
Osteoids, 140–142
Osteology, 132
Osteomalacia, 166
Osteomas, 167
Osteomyelitis, 170, 334
Osteonecrosis, 170
Osteons, 138, 138f, 139f
Osteopathology, 170
Osteoporosis, 167–168, 339
Osteotomy, 170
Otic capsule, 529
Otic ganglion, 441
Otocyst, 529
Otolithic membrane. See Statoconial
membrane
Otoliths. See Statoconia
Otorhinolaryngologist, 302
Otorhinolaryngology, 527
Otosclerosis, 533
Otoscope, 527
Outer ear, 516, 517f, 528, 530f
Ova. See Oocytes
Oval window. See Vestibular window
Ovarian arteries, 566, 567t, 733f, 736f
Ovarian cortex, 728
Ovarian cycle, 729–732, 758f
Ovarian follicles, 475
Ovarian fossa, 728
Ovarian ligament, 728, 729f
Ovarian medulla, 728
Ovarian tumors, 746
Ovarian veins, 733f
Ovary(ies), 456, 456f, 457t, 474–475, 726,
727f, 727t, 729f, 733f
blood supply to, 728–729
function of, 728–732
innervation of, 728–729
palpation of, 729
position of, 728–729
problems involving, 746–747
structure of, 728–729
Overriding aorta, 594f
Oviducts. See Uterine tubes
Ovulation, 726, 730–732, 732f, 733f,
740–741, 742t
Oxygen utilization, 603
Oxyphil cells, 469
Oxytocin, 457t, 463, 464t, 775

P
Pacemaker, 592. See also Sinoatrial node
Pacinian corpuscles. See Lamellated corpuscles
Paget’s disease, 166–167
Pain receptors, 489t, 490, 491–492
Palatal rugae. See Transverse palatine folds
Palate, 641
Palatine bone, 148f, 154f, 155, 156f
Palatine process, of maxilla, 148f, 150f,
154, 155f
Palatine tonsils, 305f, 605f, 608, 640f, 641,
641f, 642f
Palatine uvula, 640f, 641, 641f
Palatoglossal arch, 305f
Palatoglossus muscle, 252, 255f, 255t
Palatopharyngeal arch, 305f
Paleopathology, 3–4
Palmar arch, 575, 575f
Palmar interossei muscles, 275, 275t
Palmaris longus muscle, 269, 271f, 273t
tendon of, 274f, 321f, 323f, 325f
Palmar ligaments, 218, 219f
Palmar plates, 274f
Palmar region, 38
Palpation, 34, 297, 300
Palpebrae. See Eyelids
Palpebral conjunctiva, 500f, 501
Palpebral fissure, 302f, 302t, 500, 501f
Palpebral muscle, 250f
Pancreas, 456, 456f, 470f, 635, 635f, 638f,
654f, 663–669
autonomic nervous system effects on, 445t
description of, 469–470
development of, 478
endocrine function of, 469–471
Pancreatic acinar cells, 664f, 668
Pancreatic buds, 666
Pancreatic cancer, 669
Pancreatic duct, 652, 654f, 663f, 664f
Pancreatic islets, 457t, 469–470, 470f, 478,
482, 663, 664f, 668
Pancreatic juice, 478, 663, 664f
Pancreatic juice enzyme, 654t
Pancreatic vein, 579
Pancreatoduodenal artery, 568f
Panhypopituitarism, 480
Papanicolaou (Pap) smear, 746
Papilla, 111, 642, 642f
Papillary constrictor muscle, 503t
Papillary dilator muscle, 503t
Papillary duct, 679f, 680f, 682, 683t
Papillary muscle, 549f
Papilloma, 129
Papule, 129
Parafollicular cells, 467
Parallel muscles, 238, 239t
Paralysis, 293, 393
Paralysis agitans. See Parkinson’s disease
Paramesonephric duct, 716, 743
Paranasal ducts, 607
Paranasal sinuses, 144, 151f, 154, 605f, 607,
607f, 618t
Paranoia, 393
Paraplegia, 393
Parasympathetic division, of autonomic
nervous system, 436, 440–443, 442f,
443t, 444t, 446–447
Parathyroid gland, 456, 456f, 457t, 468–469,
468f, 469f, 481–482
Parathyroid hormone (PTH), 457f, 457t,
469, 469f
Paraventricular nuclei, 463
Parietal bone, 133f, 142f, 145f, 146, 147f,
148f, 149f, 174f
Parietal cells, of stomach, 650, 651f
Parietal lobe, 360f, 361f, 363–366, 364f,
366f, 366t
Parietal pericardium, 43, 43f, 545–546
Parietal peritoneum, 42f, 43, 317f, 636,
637f, 638f
Parietal pleura, 43, 43f, 615
Parietal portion, of serous membrane, 636
Parkinson’s disease, 351, 358, 390, 396
Parotid duct, 305f, 645
Parotid gland, 635f, 645, 646f, 647t
Pars distalis, 457t, 460, 461f, 462f, 478
Pars intermedia, 460, 478
Pars tuberalis, 460, 461f, 478
Partial fractures, 189, 190f
Parturition, 775, 776f
Patella, 40, 133f, 174f, 185, 185f, 186f, 188t,
327f, 328f, 332f
Patellar ligament, 220, 221f, 278f, 279f,
283f, 327f, 332f
Patellar reflex. See Knee-jerk reflex
Patellar region, 40
Patellar surface, 184f, 185
Patellar tendon, 276f, 278f, 279f, 283f, 327f
Patellofemoral joint, 220
Patellofemoral stress syndrome, 207
Patent foramen ovale, 334, 593
Patent urachus, 336, 690
Pathogens, cytologic effects of, 72
Pathologic fractures, 189
Pathology, 78
PBI test. See Protein-bound iodine test
Pectineus muscle, 235f, 276f, 277, 278f,
279f, 281f, 281t
Pectoral girdle, 133f, 173, 174f
bones of, 132t, 134, 181t
muscles acting on, 266t
Pectoralis major muscle, 259f, 264–265,
264f, 265, 266t, 268f, 270f, 308f,
311f, 312f, 313f, 319f, 320f, 324f
Pectoralis minor muscle, 264, 264f, 266t,
268f, 313f, 324f
Pectoralis muscle, 235f
Pectus carinatum. See Pigeon breast
Pectus excavatum. See Funnel chest
Pedicels, 681f, 682, 682f
Pedicle, 159, 160f, 161f, 162f
Pellagrous dermatitis, 107t
Pelvic brim, 180, 182f, 183f
Pelvic cavity, 40f, 41–42, 41f, 44f
Pelvic curve, 158f, 159
Pelvic diaphragm, 260
Pelvic examination, 744–746
Pelvic foramina, 162, 163f
Pelvic girdle, 133f, 174f, 178, 180–183
bones of, 132t, 134, 181f, 182f, 188t
female, 183, 183f, 183t
male, 183, 183f, 183t
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), 637,
734, 748
Pelvic inlet, 180, 182f, 183f
Pelvic muscles, 276f
Pelvic outlet, 180
female, 261f
male, 261f
muscles of, 260, 260t, 261f
Pelvic region, 37
Pelvic surface, of sacrum, 181f
Pelvimetry, 183
Pelvis, 180
arteries of, 566–571, 569f
female, 685f
male, 685f
regions of, 38t
surface anatomy of, 318
trauma to, 692
Pendular movements, 656, 659t
Penis, 698, 699f, 700t, 710–711, 710f, 711f
autonomic nervous system effects on, 445t
trauma to, 711
Pennate muscles, 238, 239t, 246
Pepsin, 654t
Peptic ulcers, 337, 651, 670
Peptidase, 654t
Perceptive deafness, 533
Percussion, 34, 297
Percutaneous muscle biopsy, 102
Perforating canals, 140
Perforating cutaneous nerve, 424t
Perforating fibers, 137
Pericapsulitis, 217
Pericardial arteries, 566, 567t
Pericardial cavity, 41, 41f, 43, 43f, 44f, 546
Pericardial fluid, 546
Pericardial membranes, 43
Pericarditis, 335, 546, 594
Pericardium, 314f
Perichondrium, 95, 206
Periderm, 120
Perikaryon, 101
Perilymph, 519, 529
Perilymphatic space, 529
Perimetrium, 729f, 735
Perimysium, 236, 237f
Perineal muscles, 260
Perineal raphe, 700, 701f
Perineum, 37, 309, 700
female, 39f, 701f, 737, 737f
male, 39f, 701f
surface anatomy of, 318
Perineurium, 352
Periodontal disease, 198, 645, 670
Periodontal membrane, 644, 645f
Periodontitis, 669f
Periosteal bone collar, 142
Periosteal bud, 142
Periosteal layer, of dura mater, 378, 378f
Periosteum, 97, 137, 251f
Peripheral chemoreceptors, 623
Peripheral ganglia, 439–440
Peripheral nervous system (PNS), 344f, 345,
345t, 355f, 400–433, 401f
case study, 400, 430
clinical practicum, 432
cranial nerves, 403–413
development of, 426, 426f
introduction to, 401–403
nerve plexuses, 415–423
relationship with central nervous
system, 355f
spinal nerves, 413–415
Peripheral vision, 513
Peristalsis, 635, 656, 659t
Peristaltic contraction, 648–649, 649f
Peristaltic movements, 659
Peritoneal cavity, 42f, 43, 636, 637, 637f
Peritoneal lavage, 22
Peritoneal membranes, 43, 636, 638f
Peritoneum, 636
Peritonitis, 337, 637, 656, 671
Peritubular capillaries, 678, 680f
Permanent teeth, 642, 643f, 644t
Pernicious anemia, 541, 652
Peroneal artery, 570
Peroneal nerve. See Common fibular nerve
Peroneus brevis muscle, 283, 283f, 284f,
286t, 287f, 288f, 333f
Peroneus longus muscle, 235f, 283, 283f, 284f,
286t, 287f, 288f, 290f, 332f, 333f
tendon of, 329f
Peroneus tertius muscle, 283, 283f, 284f,
286t, 291f, 332f
tendon of, 332f
Peroxisomes, 53t, 60–61
Perpendicular plate, of ethmoid bone, 147f,
148f, 150f, 153, 153f
Pes, 40. See also Foot
bones of, 185–188, 187f
Pes planus, 188
Pestinate muscles, 547
Petit mal epilepsy, 393
Petrous part, of temporal bone, 149f, 151, 152f
PET scan. See Positron emission
tomography scan
Peyer’s patches. See Mesenteric patches
pH, 51, 85
Phagocytic cells, 59, 92
Phagocytosis, 55t, 61, 62f
Phalanges, 38, 133f, 174f, 178, 179f, 180f,
181t, 187f, 188, 188f, 188t
Phallus, 743
Phantom pain, 492
Pharyngeal pouches, 23, 23f
Pharyngeal tonsils, 605f, 607, 641f
Pharyngopalatine arch, 640f, 641
Pharynx, 24, 604f, 607–608, 618t, 635, 635f,
636t, 640, 641f, 645–648, 647f, 659t
Phasic receptors, 490
Phenobarbital, cytologic effects of, 57
Phenotype, 783
Phenylketonuria (PKU), 790
Pheochromocytomas, 483
Philtrum, 304f, 304t
Phimosis, 711
Phlebitis, 596
Phlegm, 9
Phobias, 393
Phosphate group, 65
Phospholipids, 52
Phosphorus, and bones, 135
Photoreceptors, 57, 489
Photorefractive keratectomy, 531
Phrenic nerves, 314f, 416, 416t, 621t
Phylogeny, 23, 690
Phylum Chordata, 23, 23f, 27t
Physical protection, of skin, 112
Physiological contracture, 286
Physiological dead space, 622t
Physiological jaundice of the newborn, 670
Physiology, definition of, 2
Pia mater, 378f, 379, 379f, 381f
PID. See Pelvic inflammatory disease
Pigeon breast, 312, 334
Pigmented layer, of retina, 505
Pigmented moles (nevi), 119, 129
Piles, 657
Pineal gland, 370f, 373, 456, 456f, 457t,
475–476
Pinna, 301
Pinocytosis, 55t, 61, 62f
Piriformis muscle, 261f, 265f, 277, 281f, 330f
Piriformis nerve, 424t
Pisiform bone, 178, 179f, 180f, 325f
Pitch, of sound, 522, 523
Pituitary cachexia, 480
Pituitary dwarfism, 480, 481f
Pituitary gland, 360f, 362t, 370f, 372f, 373,
456, 456f, 457t, 460–464, 461f
blood supply to, 563, 563f
description of, 460–462
development of, 477–478, 477f
disorders of, 480–481
Pituitary hormones, 462, 464t, 465f
Pituitary stalk, 370f, 460, 461f
Pivot joint, 202, 204f, 205t
PKU. See Phenylketonuria
Placenta, 456, 478–479, 580, 764f
circulation of blood within, 766f
endocrine functions of, 765–766, 766t
exchange of molecules across, 765
in taxonomy, 24
Placental stage, of labor, 775, 776f
Placenta previa, 785
Placode, 529
Plagiocephaly, 333
Planes of reference, 33, 33f
Plane suture, 198
Plantar aponeurosis muscle, 269, 290f
Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament, 223f
Plantar flexion, 207, 208f, 211f, 212f
Plantar interosseous muscle, 290f
Plantaris muscle, 284, 284f, 286t, 287f,
288f, 289f
tendon of, 285f, 287f
Plantar ligaments, 223f, 290f
Plantar reflex, 430t, 431f
Plantar surface, 40
Plasma membrane. See Cell membrane
Plasma proteins, 545t
Platelets, 98, 99f, 540, 541f, 542, 542f, 544t
Platysma, 250f, 251f, 251t, 257f, 264f, 324f
Pleurae, 43, 615, 617f, 618t
Pleural cavity, 41, 41f, 43, 43f, 44f, 615
Pleural membranes, 617f
Pleurisy, 615, 628
Plicae circulares, 653, 653f
PMN leukocytes. See Polymorphonuclear
leukocytes
Pneuma, 603
Pneumonia, 628
Pneumotaxic area, of brain, 374, 374f, 623
Pneumothorax, 335, 622t, 627, 627f
Podocytes, 681f, 682
Poisons
cytologic effects of, 72
gastrointestinal effects, 669
Polar body, 730
Polarization, 357
Poliomyelitis, 288, 339, 394
Pollex, 178
Polycythemia, 542, 593
Polydactyly, 189, 189f, 337, 338
Polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes, 542
Polypeptide, formation of, 69
Polyribosomes, 68
Polysaccharides, 52
Polysomes, 68
Polysynaptic reflex arc, 428, 429f
Polythelia, 25f
Polyuria, 692
Pons, 360f, 361f, 362t, 370f, 374, 374f, 375f
Popliteal artery, 560f, 568, 570f
pressure point for, 572f
Popliteal bursae, 221f, 222f
Popliteal fossa, 40, 221, 284, 289f, 326f,
327, 328f
Popliteal ligaments, 221f
Popliteal nodes, 583
Popliteal vein, 573f, 576, 578f
Popliteus muscle, 284, 286t, 288f
Portal system, 464, 563, 579
Positron emission tomography (PET) scan,
18, 19f, 359, 362f
Postcentral gyrus, 363, 364f, 493
Posterior, 36t
Posterior arch, of atlas, 160f
Posterior auricular artery, 562f, 563
Posterior cardiac vein, 549f, 551
Posterior cavity, 40f, 41, 44f
of eye, 505f, 508
Posterior cerebellar artery, 563f
Posterior cerebral artery, 561, 563f
Posterior cervical triangle, 307, 307f, 308f, 308t
Posterior chamber, of eye, 500f, 505f, 508, 512f
Posterior commissure, 370f, 373
Posterior communicating artery, 561, 563f
Posterior cranial fossa, 149f
Posterior cruciate ligament, 221, 221f, 222f
Posterior crural muscles, 283–285, 287f, 288f
Posterior division
of brachial plexus, 416
of lumbar plexus, 421
of sacral plexus, 421
Posterior ethmoidal foramina, 150f
Posterior fontanel, 144, 145f
Posterior funiculus, 386, 386f
Posterior gluteal line, 182f, 183
Posterior horns, 384, 386f, 390
Posterior humeral circumflex artery, 565, 565f
Posterior inferior iliac spine, 182f, 183
Posterior intercostal arteries, 566, 567f, 567t
Posterior interventricular artery, 551, 552f
Posterior lobe, of cerebellum, 375f
Posterior median sulcus, 384, 386f
Posterior membranous ampullae, 519f
Posterior pituitary gland. See Lobus nervosa
Posterior ramus, of spinal nerves, 414, 414f
Posterior root, of spinal nerves, 386f, 414, 414f
Posterior sacral foramen, 162, 163f
Posterior semicircular canal, 519f
Posterior spinocerebellar tract, 388t, 389t
Posterior sternoclavicular ligament, 215, 215f
Posterior superior iliac spine, 182f, 183
Posterior surface, of stomach, 650
Posterior talocalcaneal ligament, 223f
Posterior talofibular ligament, 222, 223f
Posterior tibial artery, 560f, 570, 570f
pressure point for, 329f
Posterior tibial vein, 573f, 576, 578f
Posterior tibiofibular ligament, 223f
Posterior tibiotalar ligament, 223f
Posterior trunk, of internal iliac artery, 569f
Posterior tubercle, 161
Posterior vagal trunk, 441
Posterolateral fontanels, 144, 145f
Postganglionic neuron, 435–436
Postmature infant, 777
Postnatal growth, periods of, 775–781, 781t
Postsynaptic neuron, 358
Posture, muscular system and, 234
Pott’s fracture, 185, 190
Pouch of Douglas. See Rectouterine pouch
Precapillary sphincter muscles, 555–557
Precentral gyrus, 363, 364f
Precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA), 67
Preembryonic period, 757–762, 760t
Preganglionic neuron, 435
Pregnancy
ectopic, 734, 746–747, 785, 786f
erector spinae muscle in, 262
multiple, 785–786, 787f, 788f
termination of, 748
trimesters of, 785
uterus in, 735f
vulva in, 738
Pregnancy tests, 759
Prehensile hands, 24, 26f
Premature infant, 777
Premature synostosis, 333
Premolars, 148f, 154, 304f, 640f, 642,
643f, 644t
pre-mRNA. See Precursor messenger RNA
Prepuce, 699f, 710f, 711, 737
Presbyopia, 531
Prescientific period, anatomy in, 2–4
Pressure cuff, 558–559, 558f
Pressure points, 321f, 323f, 329f, 570, 572f
Pressure receptors, 490–491
Presynaptic neuron, 358
Primary amenorrhea, 747
Primary curves, 159
Primary fissure, 375f
Primary follicles, 729, 730f, 733f
Primary germ layers, 80, 760
Primary growth, 73
Primary neoplasms, 394
Primary oocytes, 729, 731f, 733f
Primary ossification center, 142
Primary sex cords, 716, 743
Primary sex organs, 698, 726
Primary spermatocytes, 703, 704, 706f
Primates, 24
Primitive gut, 665
Primitive line/streak, 767, 768f
Primitive node, 767, 768f
Primordial follicles, 729, 730f, 743
Principal artery, of thumb, 565f
Principal bronchus, 604f
Principal cells
of parathyroid gland, 469
of stomach, 650, 651f
P-R interval, 553
Process, 136t
Proctodeum, 667
Proerythroblasts, 544
Profunda vein, 640f
Progesterone, 457t, 472, 474–475, 741, 766t
Projection fibers, 368, 369f
Prolactin, 463, 464t
Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH), 463
Prolapse, of uterus, 748
Proliferation zone, 142
Proliferative phase, of ovulation, 741, 742f
Promontory, 158f
Pronation, 209, 268
Pronator quadratus muscle, 268, 272f, 273t,
274f, 325f
Pronator teres muscle, 268, 271f, 272f, 273t
Pronephric duct, 690
Pronephros, 689, 690
Prophase, 70, 71f, 703, 704t, 705f
Proprioceptors, 375, 490, 492–493, 494f
Prosencephalon, 347, 362t
Prostaglandins, 775
Prostate, 686f, 687, 698, 699f, 700t,
708–709, 709f, 710f
disorders of, 722
palpation of, 709
Prostatectomy, 722
Prostatic carcinoma, 722
Prostatic part, of urethra, 686f, 687, 709
Prostatitis, 722
Prostheses, joint, 228f, 229
Prostroatory vestibular nystagmus, 527
Protection, in circulatory system, 539
Protein-bound iodine (PBI) test, 480
Protein hormones, 457f, 458, 458t, 459, 459f
Proteins, 52t
in adults, 51
functional, 52
plasma, 545t
structural, 51–52
synthesis of, 68, 68f
Proteolytic enzymes, 757
Protoplasm, 57
Protraction, 209, 210f
Proximal, 36t
Proximal convoluted tubule, 679f, 680f,
681f, 682, 683t
Proximal interphalangeal joints, 322f
Proximal phalanx, 179f, 180f, 187f
Proximal radioulnar joint, 217, 225t
Proximal tibiofibular joint, 222f, 225t
Pruritus, 129
Pseudohermaphroditism, 714
Pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy, 790
Pseudopolar neurons, 352
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar
epithelium, 83, 84f, 86t
Pseudounipolar neurons, 356f
Psoas major muscle, 276, 276f, 278t, 279f, 281f
Psoas minor muscle, 276f, 279f, 281f
Psoriasis, 129
Psychomotor epilepsy, 393
Psychosis, 393
Pterygoid canal, 153f
Pterygoid hamulus, 153f
Pterygoid plexus, 574f
Pterygoid processes, 148f, 152, 153f
Pterygoid tuberosity, 156f
Pterygopalatine ganglion, 441
PTH. See Parathyroid hormone
Puberty, 29, 726, 778–779
Pubescence, 778
Pubic arch, 183f
Pubic region, 37, 38f, 38t
Pubic tubercle, 181f, 182f, 183
Pubis, 133f, 174f, 181f, 182f, 183
Pubococcygeus muscle, 261f
Pubofemoral ligament, 220, 220f
Pudendal cleft, 727t, 737
Pudendal nerve, 424t
Pudendal nerve block, 775
Pulmonary alveoli, 612–614, 613f, 618t, 624
Pulmonary arteriole, 613f
Pulmonary artery, 581f, 615f
Pulmonary capillary, 613f
Pulmonary circulation, 550
Pulmonary disorders, 621
Pulmonary embolism, 595
Pulmonary ligament, 615, 615f
Pulmonary plexus, 441
Pulmonary respiration, 256
Pulmonary semilunar valve. See Pulmonary
valve
Pulmonary stenosis, 593, 594f
Pulmonary trunk, 548f, 549f, 550, 552f, 561f
Pulmonary valve, 548t, 549f, 550
Pulmonary vein, 550, 581f, 615f
Pulmonary ventilation. See Breathing
Pulmonary venule, 613f
Pulmonic area, 554, 554f
Pulp, 645
Pulp cavity, 645
Pulse pressure, 559
Puncture wound, 125f, 126f
Punnett square, 784, 784f
Pupil, of eye, 302f, 302t, 501f, 505, 505f,
509f, 510–511
Pupillary reflex, 514
Purkinje fibers. See Conduction myofibers
Pustule, 129
Putamen, 365f, 369, 370f
P wave, 553
Pyelitis, 687
Pyelonephritis, 687
Pyloric sphincter, 649, 650f
Pyloric stenosis, 336, 669
Pylorus, 649–650, 649f, 650f
Pyogenic granuloma, 669f
Pyorrhea, 672
Pyramid, 518f
Pyramidalis muscle, 317f
Pyramidal process, 156f
Pyramidals, 264f
Pyramidal tracts. See Corticospinal tracts
Pyramids, of medulla oblongata, 376
Pyuria, 692

Q
QRS complex, 553–554
Quadrate lobe, of liver, 661, 661f
Quadratus femoris muscle, 277, 278f, 330f
Quadratus femoris nerve, 424t
Quadratus lumborum muscle, 262f, 263,
263t, 276f
Quadratus plantae, 290f
Quadriceps femoris muscle, 280, 282t, 327f
Quadriplegia, 393
Quickening, 206, 248, 773

R
Racial groups, body proportion differences
among, 780–781, 782f
Radial artery, 560f, 565, 565f
pressure point for, 321f, 323f, 572f
Radial collateral ligament, 217, 219f
Radial fossa, 176f
Radial keratotomy, 531
Radial nerve, 324f, 401f, 416, 418f, 418t
Radial notch, 177, 177f
Radial recurrent artery, 565
Radial vein, 321f, 573f, 575, 575f
Radiate sternocostal ligament, 215f
Radiation, cytologic effects of, 72
Radical mastectomy, 264, 748
Radiocarpal joint, 225t
Radiograms, 587
Radiographic anatomy, 18–19, 18f, 19f
Radioimmunoassay (RIA), 480
Radius, 133f, 174f, 177f, 178, 181t, 198f, 325f
Rami communicantes, 414, 439, 439f
Ramus
definition of, 136t
of ischium, 183
of mandible, 149f, 156f, 157
Range of motion, of synovial joints, 200
RAS. See Reticular activating system
Rathke’s pouch. See Hypophyseal pouch
Reactive hypoglycemia, 482
Receptive relaxation, 659t
Receptors
cutaneous, 488, 489t
in reflex arc, 427, 427f
Recessive alleles, 783, 783t
Reciprocal inhibition, 430
Rectal arteries, 568f, 569f
Rectouterine folds, 735
Rectouterine pouch, 727f, 735
Rectum, 635f, 638f, 657, 657f, 658f, 685f, 727f
Rectus abdominis muscle, 235f, 258, 258f,
259f, 260t, 264f, 311f, 312f, 313,
313f, 317f, 620f
Rectus capitis posterior major muscle, 256f, 262f
Rectus capitis posterior minor muscle, 256f, 262f
Rectus femoris muscle, 276f, 278f, 279f, 280,
281f, 282f, 282t, 327f, 328f, 331f
tendon of, 331f
Rectus muscles, 252, 502, 503t
Rectus sheath, 259f, 264f
Recurrent laryngeal nerve, 411
Red blood cells. See Erythrocytes
Red bone marrow, 134, 137
Red-green color blindness, 513, 784–785
Red nucleus, 374
Red pulp, 585, 586f
Referred pain, 491–492, 492f, 493f
Reflex arc, 427, 427f
Reflexes
kinds of, 427–430, 430t, 431f
neonatal, 776
spinal cord and, 384
testing of, 35, 430
Refraction, of light, 509–510, 512f
Regeneration, of neurons, 354f
Regeneration tube, 351
Regional anatomy
case study, 296, 339
clinical considerations, 330–339
clinical practicum, 340
Regional approach, to anatomy, 29
Regulatory system, and circulatory
system, 539
Regurgitation. See Vomiting
Relaxin, 775
Releasing factors, 459–460
Rembrandt, 15f
Renaissance, and history of anatomy, 13–15
Renal adipose capsule, 677
Renal agenesis, 691
Renal arteries, 566, 567t, 581f, 676, 677,
678f, 679f, 680f
Renal biopsy, 692
Renal blood vessels, 677–679, 680f
Renal calyx, 678f, 679f
Renal capsule, 677, 678f, 679f
Renal columns, 677, 678f, 679f
Renal corpuscle, 680, 681f, 683t
Renal cortex, 677, 678f, 679f, 680f
Renal ectopia, 691
Renal failure, 693
Renal fascia, 677
Renal medulla, 677, 678f, 679f, 680f
Renal papilla, 677, 679f, 682
Renal pelvis, 677, 678f, 679f, 680f, 682
Renal pelvises, 677f
Renal ptosis, 677
Renal pyramids, 677, 678f, 679f
Renal stone, 684, 684f
Renal tubules, 679f
Renal vein, 573f, 579, 581f, 676, 677, 678,
678f, 679f, 680f
Repolarization, 357
Reproductive structures, categories of, 698
Reproductive system
female (See Female reproductive system)
male (See Male reproductive system)
Reserve zone, 142
Residual volume (RV), 621t, 622f
Resorption zone, 143
Respiration. See also Respiratory system
definition of, 603
muscles of, 256–258, 258f
Respiratory bronchioles, 611, 613f
Respiratory capacities, 620, 621t, 622f
Respiratory centers, of brain, 374, 374f, 377, 623
Respiratory distress syndrome, 620
Respiratory division, of respiratory system,
603, 612, 613f
Respiratory epithelium, 83
Respiratory system, 32f, 602–633, 604f
basic structure of, 603
case study, 602, 630
circulatory system, 538–539
clinical considerations, 626–630
clinical practicum, 631
conducting passages, 604–612, 612f
control of, 628–630
developmental disorders of, 626
development of, 624–626
disorders of, 628
epithelial tissue of, 606f
functions of, 603
injury/trauma to, 627–628
lower, 603, 624, 626f
physical requirements of, 603
respiratory division of, 613f
upper, 603, 605f, 624, 625f
Respiratory volumes, 620, 621t, 622f
Resting potential, 357
Resting tremor, 390
Rete testis, 701f, 702f, 703
Reticular activating system (RAS), 377, 377f
Reticular connective tissue, 92, 94f, 95t
Reticular fibers, 91
Reticular formation, 377
Reticulospinal tracts, 389
Retina, 505–507, 505f, 508t, 511f
damage to, 532
development of, 516
layers of, 510f
photoreceptor cells of, 510f
Retinaculum, 236
Retinal detachment, 532
Retinitis pigmentosa, 790
Retraction, 209, 210f
Retroflexion, 735
Retroflexion, of uterus, 748
Retromandibular vein, 305f
Retroperitoneal organs, 636
Retroversion, of uterus, 748
Rhabdomyosarcoma, 288
Rheumatic fever, 336
Rheumatism, 287
Rheumatoid arthritis, 60, 226, 227f
Rheumatology, 230
Rhinencephalon, 449
Rhombencephalon, 347, 362t
Rhomboideus major muscle, 256f, 265f,
266t, 267f, 315f, 316f, 323f
Rhomboideus minor muscle, 256f, 265f,
266t, 267f, 315f
Rhomboideus muscle, 235f, 264
Rhythmicity area, of brain, 374f, 623
Rhythmic segmentation, 656, 659t
Rhythm method, of contraception, 749
RIA. See Radioimmunoassay
Rib(s), 133f, 165, 165f, 166f, 174f, 311f
Rib cage, 133f, 164–165, 164f, 174f
abnormalities of, 312
bones of, 132t, 134
Ribonucleic acid (RNA), 52t, 67f
structure of, 66–68
synthesis of, 66–68, 67f
Ribonucleotide, 67
Ribose, 67f
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 67
Ribosomes, 53t, 54f, 57, 58f, 69f
Rickets, 97, 114, 114f, 135, 166
Right atrioventricular valve, 314f, 548t,
549f, 550
Right atrium, 548f, 549f, 550, 552f
Right auricle, 561f
Right axillary vein, 574f
Right brachiocephalic vein, 314f, 561f, 573f,
574f, 577f
Right bundle branch, 553f
Right colic flexure. See Hepatic flexure
Right common carotid artery, 561, 561f,
562f, 567t
Right common iliac artery, 566, 570f
Right common iliac vein, 578f
Right coronary artery, 548f, 550, 552f, 559, 567t
Right costal margin, of rib cage, 312
Right external iliac artery, 570f
Right external jugular vein, 574f
Right gastric artery, 568f
Right gastric vein, 579, 580f
Right gastroepiploic vein, 579, 580f
Right hemisphere, of brain, 363
Right hepatic vein, 579
Right hypochondriac region, 38f, 38t
Right inguinal region, 38f, 38t
Right internal jugular vein, 561f
Right lateral region, 38f, 38t
Right lobe, of liver, 314f, 317f, 660, 661f
Right lung, 314f, 604f, 614, 616f
Right lymphatic duct, 582, 584f
Right marginal artery, 551
Right marginal vein, 552f
Right ovarian vein, 579
Right principal bronchi, 610, 612f
Right principal bronchus, 610f
Right pulmonary artery, 548f, 549f, 550, 561f
Right pulmonary veins, 548f, 549f, 561f
Right renal artery, 568f
Right subclavian artery, 560f, 561, 561f,
562f, 564, 567t
Right subclavian vein, 314f, 324f, 572, 573f,
574f, 584f
Right suprarenal vein, 579
Right testicular vein, 573f, 579
Right ventricle, 548f, 549f, 550, 552f
Right ventricular hypertrophy, 594f
Right vertebral artery, 560f
Rigor mortis, 102, 286
Risorius muscle, 250f, 251f, 251t, 305f
Rivlin’s ducts, 645
RNA. See Ribonucleic acid
RNA polymerase, 67
Rods, of eye, 506, 510f
Roentgen, Wilhelm Konrad, 18
Roentgenograph, 18
Roman Era
and history of anatomy, 11–12
surgical instruments in, 12f
Root
of nose, 303, 304f, 304t
of penis, 710–711, 710f
of sacral plexus, 421
of tongue, 642f
of tooth, 644, 645f
Root canal, 645, 645f
Root hair plexus, 489t, 491
Rooting reflex, 776
Rotation, 209, 209f, 211f, 212f
Rotator cuff, 217, 267
Rough endoplasmic reticulum, 54f, 57, 58f
Round ligaments. See Ligamentum teres
Round window. See Cochlear window
rRNA. See Ribosomal RNA
Rubella virus, 527–530
Rubrospinal tract, 388t, 389, 389t
Rugae, of urinary bladder, 685
Rule of nines, 123, 124f
Runner’s knee, 207
RV. See Residual volume

S
Saccadic eye movements, 514
Saccular portion, of otocyst, 529
Sacculations. See Haustrum
Saccule, 515, 519f, 520, 524
Sacral arteries, 569f
Sacral canal, 162, 163f
Sacral cornua, 163f
Sacral curve, 159
Sacral nerves, 401f, 413
Sacral plexus, 385f, 401f, 421–423, 423f, 424t
Sacral promontory, 162, 163f, 182f
Sacral region, 37
Sacral tuberosity, 162, 163f
Sacral vertebrae, 159
Sacroiliac articulation, 181f
Sacroiliac joint, 162, 182f, 225t
Sacrospinous ligament, 281f
Sacrotuberous ligament, 330f
Sacrum, 133f, 158f, 159, 162, 162f, 163f,
163t, 174f, 181f, 182f, 330f
Sacs, of eye, 57
Saddle joint, 202–203, 205f, 205t
Sagittal plane, 33, 33f, 34f
Sagittal suture, 144, 145f, 146–151
Saliva, 645
Salivary ducts, 645
Salivary enzyme, 654t
Salivary glands, 635, 645, 646f, 647t
autonomic nervous system effects on, 445t
clinical problems of, 669–670
Salmonella, 669
Salpingitis, 734, 746, 748
Salpingography, 734
Salpingolysis, 734
Salpinx, 734
Salts, 51
Salty taste, 497, 498f
Sanguine, 9
SA node. See Sinoatrial node
Saphenous nerve, 420t
Sarcolemma, 237f, 241, 241f, 242f, 243f, 247f
Sarcomeres, 241, 243f, 244f
Sarcoplasm, 237f, 241, 241f, 243f
Sarcoplasmic reticulum, 241, 242f
Sartorius muscle, 235f, 276f, 278f, 279, 279f,
280f, 281f, 282f, 282t, 285f, 287f,
289f, 327f, 328f, 331f
Satiety center, 373
Scab, 126f
Scala tympani, 520, 520f, 521f, 529
Scala vestibuli, 520, 520f, 521f, 529
Scalene muscles, 258, 258f, 619, 620f
Scalenus anterior muscle, 257f, 308f
Scalenus medius muscle, 256f, 257f, 259f, 308f
Scalenus posterior muscle, 256f
Scalp, 301, 306f
Scaphocephaly, 333
Scaphoid bone, 178, 179f, 180f. See also
Navicular bone
Scapula, 133f, 173, 174f, 175f, 181t,
309–310
muscles of, 267, 267f
Scapular notch, 173, 175f
Scar tissue, 98, 126, 127f
Schizophrenia, 393, 396
Schleiden, Matthias, 16, 49
Schwann, Theodor, 16, 49
Schwann cells. See Neurolemmocytes
Sciatica, 423
Sciatic nerve, 331f, 333f, 401f, 421, 423, 424t
Scientific period, anatomy in, 4–19
Sclera, 302f, 302t, 501f, 504, 505f, 506f,
508t, 516
Scleral venous sinus, 512f
Sclerotomes, 248
Scoliosis, 226, 226f
Scrotal dermatitis, 107t
Scrotal septum, 700, 701f
Scrotum, 698, 699f, 700, 700t, 701f, 710f, 716
disorders of, 722
trauma to, 711
Sebaceous glands, 107f, 118, 121, 301
Seborrhea, 129
Seborrheic hyperkeratoses, 110
Sebum, 118
Secondary amenorrhea, 747
Secondary curves, 159
Secondary follicles, 729, 730f, 733f
Secondary growth, 73
Secondary neoplasms, 394
Secondary oocytes, 730, 730f, 731f, 732f, 733f
Secondary ossification center, 142
Secondary sex characteristics, 698, 703t, 726
Secondary sex organs, 698, 726, 732–738
Secondary spermatocytes, 703, 704, 706f
Second-class lever, 210–211, 213f
Second-degree burns, 122, 123f
Second-degree frostbite, 123
Second-division nerve block, 157, 406
Second meiotic division, 704, 704t, 705f, 706f
Second sound, of heartbeat, 554
Second trimester, of pregnancy, 785
Secretin, 457t, 476t
Secretion granule, 54f
Secretory phase, of ovulation, 741, 742f
Sectioning, 102
Segmental bronchus, 604f, 610, 610f
Sella, etymology of term, 30
Sella turcica, 148f, 149f, 152, 153f, 154f
Semen, 708, 712, 713–714, 714, 714t
Semicircular canals, 519f, 520, 526, 529
Semicircular ducts, 517f, 519f, 520, 524
Semilunar valves, 547
Semimembranosus bursae, 221f, 222f
Semimembranosus muscle, 235f, 277, 280f,
281, 281f, 282f, 282t, 287f, 289f,
328f, 331f
tendon of, 285f
Seminal fluid. See Semen
Seminal vesicles, 698, 699f, 700t, 708, 708f,
710f, 716
Seminiferous tubules, 700t, 702, 702f, 706f, 716
Semispinalis capitis muscle, 255, 256f, 257f,
262f, 263t, 265f, 308f, 309f
Semispinalis cervicis muscle, 262f, 263t
Semispinalis thoracic muscle, 262f, 263t
Semitendinosus muscle, 235f, 277, 280f, 281,
281f, 282f, 282t, 287f, 289f, 328f,
330f, 331f, 333f
tendon of, 285f
Senescence, 781t
atrophy, 102
of nervous system, 395
Senile atrophy, 72
Sensation, 488
Senses. See also specific sense
classification of, 488–490
Sensorineural deafness, 533
Sensory adaptation, 490
Sensory area, of cerebral cortex, 367f
Sensory hair cells, 493
Sensory homunculus, 494
Sensory nerves, 352, 355f, 356f, 401, 403
Sensory neurons, 239, 345t, 349f, 352, 427, 427f
Sensory organs, 487–536. See also specific
organs
case study, 487, 533
clinical considerations, 527–533
clinical practicum, 534
Sensory perception, 488
Sensory receptors, 111, 114
Sensory root, of trigeminal nerve, 405
Septa, of testis, 701f
Septal cartilage, 605
Septal defect, 593, 593f, 594f
Septate uterus, 746f
Septicemia, 596
Septum pellucidum, 370f
Septum penis, 710f, 711
Septum secundum, 589
Serosa, 639, 639f
Serotonin, and blood clotting, 542
Serous cells, 645
Serous fluid, 43
Serous layer, of uterine tube, 734
Serous membranes, 42, 42f, 43, 43f, 85,
636–637, 637f
Serous pericardium, 546
Serrate suture, 197
Serratus anterior muscle, 235f, 259f, 264,
264f, 266t, 311f, 312f, 313f
Serratus posterior inferior muscle, 265f
Serratus posterior muscle, 309f
Serratus posterior superior muscle, 256f
Sertoli cells. See Sustentacular cells
Sesamoid bones, 132, 180f
Sex cells. See Gametes
Sex chromosomes, 782
Sex determination, 716
Sex differentiation, 703t, 717f
Sex hormones, 458, 472
female, 741
male, 698
Sex-linked inheritance, 784–785
Sexual center, 373
Sexual dysfunction, male, 715–720
Sexual intercourse, 698, 726
Sexually dimorphic characteristics, 779
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs),
720–721, 721t
Sexual reproduction, 698
Sexual response, hypothalamus and, 373
Shaft, of penis. See Body, of penis
Shakespeare, William, 2
Sharpey’s fibers. See Perforating fibers
Shin, 40
Shingles, 414
Shinsplints, 293, 339
Shivering, 113
Shock
recognition of, 597
treatment of, 597–598, 597f
Shoes, improperly fitted, 202
Short bones, 136, 136f
Short head, of biceps brachii muscle, 267
Shoulder, 38. See also Pectoral girdle
arteries of, 564–566
developmental conditions involving, 337
diseases of, 338
internal anatomy of, 313f, 322, 323f, 324f
muscles of, 259f, 264f, 265f, 268f
surface anatomy of, 319, 319f, 320f
trauma to, 338
Shoulder joint. See Glenohumeral joint
Siamese twins. See Conjoined twins
Sickle-cell anemia, 593
SIDS. See Sudden infant death syndrome
Sighing, 622t
Sight. See Eye(s); Visual sense
Sigmoid colon, 317f, 318f, 635f, 638f, 656, 657f
Sigmoid sinus, 574f
Simmonds’ disease. See Pituitary cachexia
Simple ciliated columnar epithelium, 83,
83f, 86t
Simple columnar epithelium, 81–83, 82f, 86t
Simple cuboidal epithelium, 81, 82f, 86t
Simple diffusion, 55t
Simple epithelia, 81–83
Simple epithelium, 86t
Simple fractures, 189
Simple glands, 87, 88f, 89t
Simple mastectomy, 748
Simple squamous epithelium, 81, 81f, 86t
Single-unit smooth muscle, 437, 437t
Sinoatrial node (SA node), 551–552, 553f
Sinus. See also Paranasal sinuses
of bones, 136t
Sinus bradycardia, 592f
Sinusitis, 628
Sinusoids, 557, 579, 580f
Sinus rhythm, 592f
Sinus tachycardia, 592f
Sinus venosus, 589, 590t
Skeletal developmental disorders, 166
Skeletal muscle, 99, 100f, 100t
architecture of, 238, 239t
associated connective tissue, 236, 237f
attachments of, 235–236, 236f
blood supply to, 239, 240f
contractions of, 243, 245f, 246f
development of, 248–249, 248f, 249f
groups of, 236–238
nerve supply to, 239, 240f
structure of, 235–239
Skeletal muscle cells, shape of, 50f
Skeletal muscle fibers, 240–243, 241f, 242f, 243f
Skeletal muscle pump, 558
Skeletal system, 31f, 131–171. See also
Appendicular skeleton; Axial
skeleton
aging of, 167–168, 167f
case study, 131, 168
functions of, 134–135
organization of, 132–134
Skeleton, 174f. See also Appendicular
skeleton; Axial skeleton
bones of, 132t, 133f
and fat storage, 134
and hemopoiesis, 134, 135f
and mineral storage, 134–135
movement and, 134
protection of, 134
support of, 134
Skin, 78f, 107f
absorption by, 114
aging of, 127, 127f
case study, 105, 127
coloration of, 109–110, 300
communication and, 114
functions of, 112–114
hydroregulation of, 112
innervation of, 111
layers of, 106–112
of neonate, 299t
nutritional deficiencies and, 107t
as organ, 106
pH of, 85
physical protection of, 112
sensory reception in, 114
surface patterns of, 110, 110f
synthesis in, 114
thermoregulation and, 112–113, 113f
vascular supply of, 111
Skin cancer, 110, 112, 119–121
Skin creases, 300, 300f
Skin disorders
infectious, 119
inflammatory, 119, 122f
Skin glands, 117–119, 118f
Skin grafts, 124, 125f
Skull, 132, 133f, 144–158, 174f
anterior view of, 147f
bones of, 132t
development of, 141, 142f
fetal, 145f
foramina of, 146t
fracture of, 198
frontal section of, 150f
growth of, 777, 778f
inferior view of, 148f
inferolateral view of, 149f
lateral view of, 147f
of neonate, 299t
sagittal view of, 148f
sutures of, 198f
Skull joints, 225t
Sleep apnea, 628
Sleep center, 373
Sleep response, 377
Slipped disc, 24
Slit pores, 681f, 682
Small cardiac vein, 552f
Small intestine, 318f, 457t, 476t, 478, 635,
635f, 636t, 639f, 652–656, 653f, 659t
mechanical activities of, 655–656
regions of, 652–653
structural modifications of, 653–655
Small saphenous vein, 578f, 579
Smegma, 711
Smooth chorion, 764
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, 54f, 57, 58f
Smooth muscle, 99, 100f, 234
autonomic nervous system and, 435,
437–438
multiunit, 437, 437t
of respiratory system, 613f
single-unit, 437, 437t
Smooth muscle cell, shape of, 50f
Smooth pursuit movements, 514
Sneezing, 83, 496, 622t
Snellen’s chart, 527
Soft corns, 327
Soft palate, 305f, 604f, 605f, 640f, 641, 641f
Soft spots. See Fontanels
Solar plexus, 440
Sole, of foot, 40
Sole creases, 300, 300f
Soleus muscle, 235f, 283f, 284, 284f, 285f,
286t, 287f, 288f, 329f, 332f, 333f
Solutes, 51
Solutions, 51
Solvents, 51
Somatic death, 102
Somatic motor nerve, 345t
Somatic motor neurons, 354, 356f
Somatic nervous system, and autonomic
nervous system, 435, 435t, 436f
Somatic pain, 491
Somatic reflexes, 428–430
Somatic senses, 488–489, 490–494, 495f
Somatic sensory neurons, 354, 356f
Somatomammotropin, 479
Somatotropin, 464t. See also Growth
hormone
Soul, 7
Sound waves, 522–523, 522f
Sour taste, 497, 498f
Spallanzani, Lazzaro, 15
Spastic paralysis, 393
Specialized cells, 70
Special movements, 209, 210f
Special senses, 488
Speculum, 744
Spermatic cord, 264f, 317f, 700, 701f, 702f,
707–708, 710f, 716
Spermatic ducts, 707–708
Spermatids, 703, 704, 706f
Spermatocytes, 703, 704, 706f
Spermatogenesis, 702, 703–704, 703t, 706f
Spermatogonia, 702–703, 706f
Spermatozoa, 63f, 698, 702f, 706f, 707f,
756, 756f
movement of, 83
shape of, 50f
structure of, 704–705
Spermiogenesis, 704
S phase, 69–70, 70f
Sphenofrontal suture, 148f
Sphenoidal process, 156f
Sphenoidal sinus, 45f, 148f, 151f, 154f, 306f,
605f, 607, 607f
Sphenoidal sinuses, 152
Sphenoid bone, 145f, 147f, 148f, 149f, 152,
153f, 154f
Sphenoid fontanels. See Anterolateral
fontanels
Sphenomandibular ligament, 214f, 215
Sphenopalatine notch, 156f
Sphenoparietal suture, 148f
Sphincteral muscles, 238, 239t
Sphincter of ampulla, 652, 654f, 662
Sphincter of Oddi, 652
Sphygmomanometer, 558–559, 558f, 587
Spina bifida, 166, 166f, 392
Spina bifida cystica, 392
Spina bifida occulta, 392
Spinal arteries, 563f
Spinal cavity, 44f
Spinal column, 159
Spinal cord, 23, 159, 360f, 381f, 384–390,
385f, 386f
development of, 390, 390f
structure of, 384
tracts of, 384–389
Spinal curvature, 25–27
Spinal dura mater, 378
Spinal ganglion, 386f, 414, 414f
Spinalis muscle, 262
Spinalis thoracic muscle, 262f, 263t, 265f
Spinal meningitis, 394
Spinal nerves, 24, 379f, 381f, 384, 385f,
386f, 401, 401f, 402f, 413–415
Spinal plexus, 385f
Spinal root, of accessory nerves, 412, 412f
Spindle fibers, 65
Spine
of bones, 136t
of ischium, 181f, 182f, 183
of scapula, 173, 175f, 315f, 324f
Spinous process, 160, 160f, 161, 161f, 162f, 310
Spiral fractures, 189, 190f
Spiral organ, 410, 520f, 521, 521f, 529, 529f
Spiritus, 603
Spirometer, 620, 621f
Splanchnic nerves, 439
Splanchnocranium, 141
Spleen, 445t, 584f, 585, 586f, 587t
Splenectomy, 337, 585
Splenic artery, 566, 567t, 568f, 586f
Splenic flexure, 317f, 656, 657f
Splenic vein, 579, 580f, 586f
Splenium, of corpus callosum, 361f, 370f
Splenius capitis muscle, 254, 256f, 257f,
259f, 265f, 308f, 315f
Splenius cervicis muscle, 256f, 265f
Split brain, 514
Spondylitis, 230
Spongy bone, 97, 136, 138
Spongy part, of urethra, 686f, 687, 709
Spontaneous abortion, 748
Spoon nails, 107t, 117
Sprain, 92, 203
Sprains, 224, 225, 339
Sprengel’s deformity, 337
Squamosal-dentary jaw articulation, in
taxonomy, 24
Squamous cell carcinoma, 121, 123
Squamous epithelial cell, shape of, 50f
Squamous part, of temporal bone, 146, 152f
Squamous suture, 144, 145f, 146, 147f, 148f,
149f, 197–198
Staining, 102
Stapedius muscle, 518f, 519
tendon of, 518f
Stapes, 30, 157, 158f, 517, 518f
Statoacoustic nerve. See Vestibulocochlear
nerve
Statoconia, 525, 525f
Statoconial membrane, 525
STDs. See Sexually transmitted diseases
Stelluti, Francisco, 15
Stenosis, 335, 554
Stensen, Niels, 15
Stensen’s duct. See Parotid duct
Stereocilia, 524f
Stereoscopic vision, 27
Sterility, male, 720
Sterilization, 744, 749
Sternal angle, 164f, 165, 310
Sternal extremity, 173, 175f
Sternal joint, 225t
Sternal region, 36
Sternoclavicular joint, 173, 215, 215f, 225t
Sternocleidomastoid muscle, 235f, 250f,
251f, 254, 256f, 257f, 257t, 258,
258f, 259f, 264f, 265f, 307, 307f,
309f, 315f, 619, 620f
Sternocostal joint, 225t
Sternohyoid muscle, 255f, 256, 257f, 257t,
259f, 308f, 309f
Sternothyroid muscle, 255f, 256, 257f,
257t, 308f
Sternum, 133f, 164–165, 164f, 174f
Steroid hormones, 457f, 458, 458f, 458t, 459
Steroids, 246, 703
Stethoscope, 587
Stimulus, 345, 488
Stomach, 445t, 456, 457t, 476t, 478, 635,
635f, 636t, 649–652, 649f, 650f, 659t
Stomodeum, 665
Strabismus, 532
Straight sinus, 574f
Strains, 92, 225, 226, 286
Stratified cuboidal epithelium, 85, 85f, 86t
Stratified epithelium, 83–85, 86t
Stratified squamous epithelium, 83–85, 84f, 86t
Stratum basale, 106–108, 107f, 109t, 736
Stratum corneum, 107f, 108–109, 109t
Stratum functionale, 736
Stratum germinativum, 108
Stratum granulosum, 107f, 108, 109t
Stratum lucidum, 108, 109t
Stratum papillarosum, 111
Stratum reticularosum, 111
Stratum spinosum, 107f, 109t
Stress, 473, 474f
Stress fractures, 339
Stress lines, 143, 143f
Stretch marks, 111, 111f
Stretch reflex, 428
Striate cortex, 513
Striations, 237f
Stroke, 376, 395, 595
Stroma, 91, 728
Structural proteins, 51–52
Strychnine, 358
S-T segment, 554
Sty, 532
Styloglossus muscle, 252, 255f, 255t
Stylohyoid muscle, 255f, 256, 257f, 257t, 308f
Styloid cartilage, 142f
Styloid process
of radius, 177f, 178, 321f, 322f
of temporal bone, 147f, 148f, 149f, 151, 152f
of ulna, 177, 177f, 321f, 322f
Stylomandibular joint, 214f
Stylomandibular ligament, 215
Stylomastoid foramen, 148f, 151
Stylopharyngeus muscle, 255f
Subacromial bursae, 216f, 217
Subarachnoid space, 358, 378f, 379, 379f,
381, 381f
Subclavian artery, 562f, 565f, 566f
pressure point for, 572f
Subclavian vein, 575f
Subclavius muscle, 264, 264f, 266t, 313f
Subcoracoid bursae, 216f, 217
Subcutaneous adipose tissue, surface anatomy
and, 297, 298f
Subcutaneous injections, 112
Subcutaneous prepatellar bursae, 221, 221f
Subcutaneous tissue. See Hypodermis
Subdeltoid bursae, 216f, 217
Subdural hemorrhage, 333–334
Sublingual duct, 640f
Sublingual fold, 640f
Sublingual gland, 635f, 645, 646f, 647t
Subluxation, 226
Submandibular duct, 305f, 640f, 645
Submandibular ganglion, 441
Submandibular gland, 305f, 309f, 635f, 645,
646f, 647t
Submandibular triangle, 308f, 308t
Submental triangle, 308f, 308t
Submucosa
of gastrointestinal tract, 637, 639f
of stomach, 650f, 651f
of urinary bladder, 687
Submucosal plexus, 637
Subphylum Vertebrata, 27t
Subscapular bursae, 216f, 217
Subscapular fossa, 173, 175f
Subscapularis muscle, 217, 259f, 264f, 266t,
267, 268f
Subserous fascia, 238t
Substantia nigra, 374
Subtarsal sulcus, 302f, 302t
Suckling, 641, 776
Sucrase, 654t
Suction lipectomy, 94
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), 628
Sudoriferous glands, 118–119
Sugars, 52
Sulcus, 136t
Sulcus limitans, 390
Superficial circumflex iliac artery, 571f
Superficial digital flexor muscle, 269, 271f,
273t, 325f
tendon of, 272f, 274f, 321f, 323f, 325f
Superficial epigastric artery, 571f
Superficial epigastric vein, 578f
Superficial fascia, 236, 238t, 701f
Superficial fibular nerve, 423, 425f
Superficial muscles, 235f
Superficial palmar arch, 575
Superficial palmar arch artery, 565f, 566
Superficial temporal artery, 305f, 562f, 563–564
pressure point for, 572f
Superficial temporal vein, 574f
Superficial transversus perinei muscles,
260, 261f
Superficial veins, 572, 573f
Superior, 36t
Superior angle, of scapula, 173, 175f
Superior articular facet, 160f
Superior articular process, 160, 160f, 161f,
162, 162f, 163f, 181f
Superior articular surface, 161
Superior border, of scapula, 173, 175f
Superior cerebellar arteries, 563f
Superior cerebellar peduncles, 375
Superior colliculi, 362t, 374, 376f, 513–514
Superior constrictor muscle, 647, 647f
Superior extensor retinaculum muscle, 283f,
291f, 332f
Superior gemellus muscle, 277, 330f
Superior gluteal artery, 568, 569f
Superior gluteal nerve, 424t
Superior labial frenulum, 640f
Superior lacrimal canaliculi, 502
Superior lacrimal punctum, 501f
Superior limb buds, 768
Superior lobe, of lung, 604f, 614, 615f, 616f
Superior mesenteric artery, 318f, 560f, 566,
567t, 568f
Superior mesenteric ganglia, 440
Superior mesenteric vein, 318f, 579, 580f
Superior nasal concha, 153, 153f, 154f, 606
Superior nasal meatus, 605f
Superior nuchal line, 148f, 152, 301
Superior oblique muscles, 252, 254f, 254t,
404, 502, 502f, 503t
Superior ophthalmic vein, 574f
Superior orbital fissure, 146t, 147f, 150f,
152, 153f
Superior parathyroid glands, 468–469
Superior peduncle, 376f
Superior peroneal retinaculum, 287f
Superior phrenic arteries, 566, 567t
Superior ramus, of pubis, 181f, 182f, 183
Superior rectal artery, 568f, 569f
Superior rectus muscle, 252, 254f, 254t, 404,
500f, 502, 502f, 503t, 505f
Superior sagittal sinus, 574f
Superior suprarenal arteries, 568f
Superior surface, of rib, 165f
Superior tarsal plate, 500f
Superior thyroid artery, 562f, 563
Superior thyroid vein, 574f
Superior trunk, of brachial plexus, 416
Superior vena cava, 314f, 548f, 549f, 550,
552f, 561f, 572, 573f, 574, 577f, 581f
Superior vermis, 375f
Superior vesicular artery, 568, 569f
Supination, 209, 268
Supinator muscle, 272f, 273t
Supinator reflex, 430t, 431f
Supplementary motor cerebral cortex, 371f
Supporting cells, 497, 497f
Supraclavicular fossa, 311f, 319f
Supraclavicular nerve, 309f, 416t
Supraclavicular triangle, 308f, 308t
Suprahyoid muscles, 256
Supraoptic nuclei, 463
Supraorbital foramen, 146, 146t, 147f, 150f
Supraorbital margin, 145–146, 147f, 149f, 305f
Supraorbital ridge, 301
Suprapatellar bursae, 221, 221f
Suprarenal arteries, 566, 567t, 568f
Suprarenal glands. See Adrenal glands
Supraspinatus muscle, 217, 265f, 266t, 267,
267f, 315f, 316f, 324f
Supraspinous fossa, 173, 175f
Supratrochlear artery, 305f
Surface anatomy, 17. See also specific body region
introduction to, 297
of neonate, 298–300
Surfactant, 612, 620
Surgical biopsy, 102
Surgical instruments, in Roman Era, 12f
Surgical neck, of humerus, 176, 176f
Suspensory ligament
of breasts, 739
of lens, 500f, 505, 506f
of ovaries, 728, 729f
of penis, 710f
zonular fibers of, 505f
Sustentacular cells, 703, 704
Sutural bones, 132, 152
Sutures, 197–198, 198f, 205t
Swallowing, 608, 648–649
Swayback. See Lordosis
Sweat glands, 107f, 108f, 118, 118f, 121,
301, 445t
Sweating, water in, 51
Sweat pore, 107f
Sweet taste, 497, 498f
Swimmer’s muscle, 265
Sympathetic division, of autonomic nervous
system, 436, 438f, 439f, 440f, 441f,
442f, 443t, 444t, 446–447
Sympathetic rami, 414f
Sympathetic trunk ganglion, 414, 414f
Symphyses, 199, 199f, 205t
Symphysial surface, 182f
Symphysis pubis, 180, 181f, 182f, 183f, 199f,
225t, 312, 685f, 699f, 701f, 727f
Synapse, 358
Synaptic cleft, 358
Synaptic knob. See Axon terminal
Synaptic transmission, 358, 358f
Synaptic vesicles, 244, 247f, 358
Synarthroses, 197
Synchondroses, 200, 200f, 205t
Syncytial myotubes, 248
Syncytiotrophoblast, 759, 759f
Syndactyly, 189, 337, 338
Syndesmoses, 198, 198f, 205t
Synergistic muscles, 238, 239f
Synostosis, 198, 200
Synovial fluid, 200–202
Synovial joints, 197, 200–203, 200f, 205t
development of, 206, 206f
kinds of, 202–203
movements at, 207–213
range of motion, 200
structure of, 200–202
trauma to, 203
Synovial membrane, 202, 206
Synovitis, 225, 230
Synthetase enzymes, 69
Synthetic skin, 125f
Syphilis, 334, 394–395, 720, 721f, 721t
Syringomyelia, 395
Systematic (systemic) approach,
to anatomy, 29
Systemic circulation, 550
Systemic effects, 122
System level, organization at, 28, 31f–32f
Systole, 552
Systolic pressure, 559

T
Tabes dorsalis, 395
Tachycardia, 587, 592, 592f
Tactile cells, 108
Tactile receptors, 489t, 490–491
Taeniae coli, 657, 657f
Tail
of epididymis, 707f
of pancreas, 664f, 668
Tailbone. See Coccyx
Tailor’s muscle, 279
Talipes, 189, 189f, 338
Talocrural joint, 222–224, 223f, 225t
Talus, 187f, 188f
Tanning
of animal hides, 111
of skin, 109, 110
Target cells, 455
Tarsal bones, 133f, 174f, 187f, 188t
Tarsal glands, 501
Tarsal plates, 501
Tarsier, hands of, 26f
Tarsometatarsal joints, 186, 225t
Tarsus, 40, 185–186
Taste, 496–499
Taste buds, 409, 496–497, 497f, 498f
Taste pore, 497, 497f
Tattooing, 109
Taxonomy, 23–28
Tay-Sachs disease, 395, 763, 790
Tears. See Lacrimal fluid; Lacrimal secretions
Tectal system, 513
Tectorial membrane, 521, 521f
Tectospinal tract, 388t
Teeth, 304f, 635, 635f, 642–645, 643f, 645f.
See also specific tooth
clinical problems of, 669–670
in taxonomy, 24, 28
Telencephalon, 347, 362t
Telophase, 70, 71f, 704, 704t, 705f
TEM. See Transmission electron microscope
Temporal bone, 133f, 145f, 147f, 148f, 149f,
152f, 174f, 517f
Temporal fascia, 251f
Temporalis muscle, 235f, 250, 250f, 251f,
253f, 253t, 301, 305f, 324f
Temporal lobe, 360f, 361f, 364f, 366,
366f, 366t
Temporal process, of zygomatic bone, 155
Temporal region, 301
Temporomandibular joint, 146, 214–215,
214f, 225t, 305f
Temporomandibular joint syndrome, 215
Tendinous inscriptions, 258, 259f, 311f, 312f
Tendo calcaneus, 223f, 235f, 283–284, 284f,
287f, 288f, 327, 329f, 332f, 333f
Tendonitis, 226
Tendons, 92
Tendon sheath, 202, 203f, 236
Tennis elbow, 177, 217, 338
Tenosynovitis, 338
Tensor fasciae latae muscle, 235f, 276–277,
276f, 278t, 279f, 280f, 328f, 331f
Tensor tympani muscle, 518f, 519
tendon of, 518f
Tentorium cerebelli, 367, 375, 380t
Teres major muscle, 235f, 259f, 264f,
265f, 266t, 267, 267f, 268f, 316f,
323f, 324f
Teres minor muscle, 217, 265f, 266t, 267,
267f, 316f, 323f, 324f
Terminal bronchioles, 611, 613f
Terminal cisternae, of sarcoplasmic
reticulum, 242f
Terminal ganglia, 441
Terminal hair, 116–117
Testes, 456, 457t, 474, 699f, 700t, 701f,
702–705
descent of, 716, 719f
disorders of, 722
endocrine functions of, 703
of neonate, 300
removal of, 722
structure of, 702–703
trauma to, 711
Testicular artery, 560f, 566, 567t, 569f
Testicular lobules, 702
Testosterone, 115, 457t, 474, 703
Tetanus, 250
Tetralogy, 73, 789
Tetralogy of Fallot, 335, 593, 594f
Thalamus, 306f, 362t, 365f, 370f, 372
Thalidomide, 192
Theca interna, 730, 730f
Thenar eminence, 275, 321f, 323f
Thenar muscles, 275, 275t
Therapeutic touch, 491
Thermogram, 113f
Thermoreceptors, 489t, 490, 491–492
Thermoregulation
dual innervation and, 447
hypothalamus and, 373
skin and, 112–113, 113f
Theta waves, 368t
Thickened skin, 107t
Thick filaments, 241
Thigh, 40
anterior muscles of, 275–276, 279–280, 282t
bones of, 183–185
internal anatomy of, 331f
muscles of, 275–277, 276f, 278f, 278t,
279–281, 279f, 280f, 281t, 282f
surface anatomy of, 326–327, 326f,
327f, 328f
Thin filaments, 241
Third-class lever, 211, 213f
Third-degree burns, 122, 123f
Third-degree frostbite, 123
Third-division nerve block, 157, 406
Third molars, 642, 643f, 644t
Third trimester, of pregnancy, 785
Third ventricle, 365f, 381, 382f
Thoracic aorta, 566, 567t
Thoracic cavity, 40f, 41, 41f, 44f, 314f, 617f
Thoracic curve, 158f, 159
Thoracic duct, 582, 584f
Thoracic lymph nodes, 584
Thoracic nerves, 401f, 413, 621t
Thoracic region, 35–36
developmental conditions involving,
334–335
surface anatomy of, 311f
Thoracic spinal nerves, 385f, 414f
Thoracic vertebrae, 159, 161, 161f, 163t, 164f
Thoracic wall, arteries of, 567f
Thoracolumbar division, of autonomic
nervous system. See Sympathetic
division, of autonomic nervous
system
Thorax, 35–36
diseases of, 335–336
etymology of term, 30
internal anatomy of, 313–315, 313f,
314f, 324f
serous membranes of, 43f
surface anatomy of, 310
trauma to, 335
veins of, 575–576, 577f
Thoroughfare channels, 555
Thrombocytes. See Platelets
Thrombus, 595
Thumb, 178, 565f
Thymine, 65, 67f
Thymosin, 457t, 476
Thymus, 456, 456f, 457t, 476, 476f, 584f,
586, 586f, 587t
Thymus dependent cells, 476
Thyrocalcitonin. See Calcitonin
Thyrocervical trunk, 562f, 564
Thyroglossal duct, 478
Thyrohyoid muscle, 255f, 256, 257f, 257t, 308f
Thyroid, etymology of term, 30
Thyroid cartilage, 142f, 306, 306f, 307f,
608, 610f
Thyroid diverticulum, 478
Thyroid follicles, 467
Thyroid gland, 306–307, 456, 456f, 457t,
466–468, 467f, 468f
description of, 466–467
development of, 478, 479f
disorders of, 481–482
functions of, 468
Thyroid hormones, 467t
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), 462,
464t, 468
Thyrotropin, 462, 464t
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), 462
Thyroxine, 457t, 458, 466, 467t, 468
Tibia, 133f, 174f, 185, 185f, 186f, 188t,
328f, 329f, 332f
Tibial collateral ligament, 221f
Tibialis anterior muscle, 235f, 283, 283f,
284f, 285f, 286t, 328f, 329f, 332f
tendon of, 329f
Tibialis posterior muscle, 285, 285f, 286t, 288f
tendon of, 287f, 288f
Tibial nerve, 333f, 423, 424t, 425f
Tibial tuberosity, 185, 186f, 327f
Tibiocalcaneal ligament, 223f
Tibiofemoral joint, 200f, 220–222, 221f,
222f, 225t
muscles of, 279–281, 282t
Tibionavicular ligament, 223f
Tidal volume (TV), 621t, 622f
Tinea pedis, 128
Tinnitus, 533
Tissue(s). See also specific type
classification of, 78
definition of, 78
development of, 79–80
Tissue analysis, 102
Tissue composition, changes in, 102
Tissue fluid, 540
Tissue level, organization at, 28
Tissue-rejection reaction, 102
Tissue repair, 98
Tissue transplantation, 102–103
TLC. See Total lung capacity
Toes. See also Digits
muscles of, 281–285, 286t
Tongue, 306f, 605f, 635, 635f, 640f, 641f,
642, 642f
extrinsic muscles of, 252, 255f, 255t
intrinsic muscles of, 252
Tonic contracture, 659t
Tonic receptors, 490
Tonometer, 527
Tonsillectomy, 584, 608
Tonsillitis, 628
Tonsils, 584, 584f, 587t, 607, 608
Tooth. See Teeth
Torso. See Trunk
Torticollis, 286
Total lung capacity (TLC), 621t, 622f
Touch. See Tactile receptors
Toxic goiter, 481
Trabeculae, 138, 583
Trabeculae carneae, 549f, 550
Trace minerals, 52t
Trachea, 306, 306f, 314f, 604f, 609–610,
610f, 611f, 612f, 618t, 641f
Tracheal cartilage, 610f, 611f
Trachealis muscle, 611f
Tracheobronchitis, 628
Tracheostomy, 306, 610, 611f
Tracheotomy, 610
Trachoma, 532
Tragus, 303, 517f
Transfer RNA (tRNA), 67, 68, 69, 69f
Transitional epithelium, 85, 86f, 86t
Transmission, of light rays, 509
Transmission electron microscope (TEM), 57f
Transplantation
allogenic, 544
autotransplant, 544
bone marrow, 544
corneal, 504
fetal tissue, 103
heterotransplant, 124
homotransplant, 102
kidney, 693
tissue, 102–103
Transportation, in circulatory system, 538–539
Transurethral prostatic resection, 709
Transversalis fascia, 259f
Transverse abdominis muscle, 317f
Transverse acetabular ligament, 220
Transverse arch, 188, 188f
Transverse cervical nerve, 309f, 416t
Transverse colon, 317f, 318f, 635f, 638f, 656
Transverse fissure, 375
Transverse flexure, 657f
Transverse foramen, 160, 160f
Transverse fractures, 189, 190f
Transverse humeral retinaculum, 216
Transverse ligament, 221f, 222f
Transverse lines, 162, 163f
Transverse palatine folds, 640f, 641
Transverse plane, 33, 33f, 34f
Transverse process, 160, 160f, 161f, 162f, 163f
Transverse sinus, 574f
Transverse tubules, 241, 242f
Transversus abdominis muscle, 258, 258f,
259f, 260t, 264f, 317f, 620f
Transversus perinei muscle, 260, 260t
Trapezium bone, 178, 179f, 180f, 205f
Trapezius muscle, 235f, 254, 257f, 259f, 264,
264f, 265f, 266t, 267f, 307, 307f, 308f,
309f, 310, 311f, 315f, 316f, 319f, 323f
Trapezoid bone, 178, 179f, 180f
Trauma
to abdomen, 336–337
to brachial plexus, 416
to brain, 367, 377, 450
to cells, 72
to cerebellum, 376
to circulatory system, 596–598
to coccyx, 163
to connective tissue, 92
to eyeball, 508
to head, 333–334
to hip, 339
to joints, 225–226, 229f
to kidneys, 692
to ligaments, 92
to lower extremity, 339
to muscles, 92
to neck, 333–334
to pelvis, 692
to penis, 711
to respiratory system, 627–628
to scrotum, 711
to shoulder, 338
skeletal, 189–191
to sphenoid bone, 152
to synovial joints, 203
to tendons, 92
to testis, 711
to thorax, 335
to upper extremity, 338
to urethra, 692
to urinary bladder, 692
to urinary organs, 692–693
Traumatic fractures, 189
Trench mouth, 669f, 672
Trepanation, 3, 4f
Treponema pallidum, 721
TRH. See Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
Triangle of auscultation, 310, 315f, 323f
Triangular fossa, 517f
Triceps brachii muscle, 235f, 259f, 267f,
268, 268f, 269f, 270f, 270t, 316f,
319f, 320f, 321f, 323f, 324f
Triceps reflex, 430t, 431f
Triceps surae muscle, 284
Tricuspid area, 554, 554f
Tricuspid valve. See Right atrioventricular
valve
Trigeminal ganglion, 405
Trigeminal nerve (V), 157, 360f, 402f, 404t,
405–406, 408f, 413t, 496, 498f
Trigone, 685, 686f
Triiodothyronine, 457t, 466, 467t, 468
Triplets, 786
Triquetrum bone, 178, 179f, 180f
Trisomy, 73
Trisomy 21, 763
tRNA. See Transfer RNA
Trochanter, 136t
Trochlea, 176, 176f, 252, 502, 502f
Trochlear nerve (IV), 402f, 404–405, 404t,
408f, 413t
Trochlear notch, 177, 177f
Trophic hormones, 457t, 462
Trophoblast, 80, 757
True hermaphroditism, 714
True labor, 775
True pelvis, 180, 183f
True ribs, 164f, 165
True vocal cords. See Vocal folds
Truncus arteriosus, 589, 590t
Trunk, 35–37
cavities of, 41f
internal anatomy of, 313–315, 316f
muscles of, 259f, 264f, 265f
surface anatomy of, 309–313, 311f
Trypsin, 654t
TSH. See Thyroid-stimulating hormone
T tubules. See Transverse tubules
Tubal ligation, 744, 744f, 749
Tubal pregnancy, 747, 785
Tubercle, 136t
of rib, 165, 165f
Tuberculosis, 628
Tuberosity, 136t
of calcaneus, 186, 187f, 290f
of radius, 177f, 178
of tibia, 283f
of ulna, 177f
Tubular glands, 87, 88f, 89t
Tumors, 73, 394, 483, 746
Tunic(s)
of gastrointestinal tract, 637–639, 639f
of rectum, 658f
Tunica albuginea, 701f, 702, 710f, 728
Tunica externa, 555, 556f
Tunica interna, 555, 556f
Tunica media, 555, 556f
Tunica muscularis, 637, 639f
Tunica vaginalis, 701f, 702
Tuning fork tests, 527
Tunnel vision, 513
Turbinates, 153, 606
Turner’s syndrome, 73, 715
TV. See Tidal volume
T wave, 554
Twelfth rib, 164f
Tympanic cavity, 517, 517f, 518f, 529
Tympanic membrane, 158f, 516, 517, 518f,
529, 533
Tympanic part, of temporal bone, 151, 152f
Tympanum, etymology of term, 30
Tyrosinase, 109
Tyrosine, 109

U
Ulcers
decubitus, 111, 112f, 128
peptic, 337, 651, 670
Ulna, 133f, 174f, 177, 177f, 181t, 198f, 325f
Ulnar artery, 560f, 565, 565f
Ulnar collateral ligament, 217, 218f, 219f
Ulnar nerve, 320f, 401f, 418t, 419, 419f
Ulnar notch, 177f, 178
Ulnar recurrent artery, 565f, 566
Ulnar sulcus, 176, 176f
Ulnar vein, 321f, 573f, 575, 575f
Ultrasonography, 587, 772, 774f, 786–787, 788f
Ultrastructure, 17
Ultraviolet light, protection from, 112
Umbilical arteries, 580, 581f, 582t, 765, 767
Umbilical cord, 300, 580, 766–767, 767f
Umbilical hernia, 293, 313
Umbilical region, 38f, 38t
Umbilical vein, 580, 581f, 582t, 765, 767
Umbilicus, 36, 259f, 312–313, 312f, 317f
Unicellular glands, 87, 87f, 89t
Unicornuate uterus, 746, 746f
Upper arm birth palsy, 338
Upper back, muscles of, 256f
Upper extremity, 38
arteries of, 564–566, 565f
bones of, 132t, 134, 181t
developmental conditions involving, 337
diseases of, 338
internal anatomy of, 322
of neonate, 299t
surface anatomy of, 319–322, 319f, 320f
trauma to, 338
veins of, 574–575, 575f, 576f
Upper leg, 40
Upper lip, 605f
Upper respiratory system, 603, 605f, 624, 625f
Upright posture, 25–27, 183
Urachus, 690, 764
Uracil, 67, 67f, 68
Uremia, 692
Ureteric bud, 690
Ureters, 676, 676f, 677, 677f, 679f, 684,
684f, 685f, 699f, 710f
developmental disorders of, 691
innervation of, 688f
Urethra, 676, 676f, 685f, 686f, 687, 698, 699f
developmental disorders of, 691
female, 727f
innervation of, 688f
male, 709, 709f, 710f
trauma to, 692
Urethral folds, 716, 743
Urethral glands, 687, 709
Urethral groove, 716, 743
Urethral orifice, 686f, 687, 701f, 711, 716, 737f
Urethritis, 692, 721t
Urinalysis, 480, 682, 692
Urinary bladder, 638f, 676, 676f, 677f,
685–687, 685f, 699f, 710f, 727f
autonomic nervous system effects on, 445t
developmental disorders of, 691
female, 686f
innervation of, 688f
male, 686f
trauma to, 692
Urinary incontinence, 694
Urinary retention, 688
Urinary stones, 684, 693
Urinary system, 31f, 675–696, 676f
case study, 675, 694
clinical considerations, 688–694
clinical practicum, 694–695
developmental disorders of, 688–691
development of, 689–690
functions of, 676
infections of, 692
introduction to, 676
obstruction of, 693–694
trauma to, 692–693
Urinary tract infections (UTI), 692
Urination. See Micturition
Urine, 682, 683t
Urogenital diaphragm, 260, 261f, 686f
Urogenital membrane, 667
Urogenital ridge, 689
Urogenital sinus, 667
Urogenital triangle, 39f, 700, 701f
Urorectal septum, 667
Urticaria, 128
Uterine artery, 568, 736f
Uterine cancer, 747
Uterine cavity, 734, 744f
Uterine displacement, 748
Uterine neoplasms, 747
Uterine ostium, 734
Uterine prolapse, 735, 748
Uterine tubes, 716, 726, 727f, 727t, 729f,
732–734, 734f, 744f, 746–747
Uterine wall, 735–736, 735f
Uterus, 685f, 726, 727f, 727t, 735f
abnormalities of, 746
atrophy of, following delivery, 59
autonomic nervous system effects on, 445t
blood supply to, 736, 736f
development of, 716
innervation of, 736
problems involving, 747–748
size of, 736
structure of, 734
support of, 735
UTI. See Urinary tract infections
Utricle, 515, 519f, 520, 524
Utricular portion, of otocyst, 529
UVA rays, 110
UVB rays, 110
Uvea, 504–505, 508t
Uvula, 30, 305f, 605f, 607

V
Vacuoles, 53t, 61
Vagal reflexes, 448t
Vagina, 638f, 685f, 716, 726, 727f, 727t,
729f, 736–737, 737f, 748
Vaginal artery, 568, 736f
Vaginal fornix, 727f
Vaginal lining, pH of, 85
Vaginal orifice, 701f, 727f, 736, 737f
Vaginal rugae, 736–737
Vaginal spermicides, 750f
Vaginal vestibule, 727t, 738
Vaginitis, 721t, 748
Vagotomy, 672
Vagus nerve (X), 314f, 402f, 405t,
411–412, 411f
assessment of, 413t
protection of, 307
in taste sensation, 498f
Vagus nuclei, 377
Vallate papillae, 497, 497f, 642, 642f
Valsalva’s maneuver, 574
Valves, of heart, 547–550, 548t, 551f
Valvular auscultatory areas, 554, 554f
Valvular incompetence, 335
Valvular insufficiency, 554
Valvular stenosis, 335
Varicocele, 703
Varicose veins, 327, 558, 595–596
Vasa recta, 678, 680f
Vascular disorders, 595–596
Vascular processes, 351
Vascular shunts, 555
Vascular tissue, 98. See also Blood
Vascular tunic, of eyeball, 504–505, 504f, 508t
Vas deferens, 707
Vasectomy, 720, 720f
Vasomotor center, of medulla oblongata, 377
Vastus intermedius muscle, 276f, 278f, 279f,
280, 282f, 282t
Vastus lateralis muscle, 235f, 276f, 277,
278f, 279f, 280, 280f, 282f, 282t,
284f, 289f, 327f, 328f, 331f
Vastus medialis muscle, 235f, 276f, 278f, 279f,
280, 281f, 282f, 282t, 327f, 328f, 331f
VC. See Vital capacity
Veins, 540, 555, 556f, 558, 561f, 571–579,
573f. See also specific veins
Vein stripping, 596
Vellus, 116
Venereal warts, 119, 721t
Venous blood, 540
Venous sinuses, 574
Venous sinus thrombosis, 334
Venous valves, 558, 558f
Ventilation, 603
Ventral. See Anterior
Ventricles
of brain, 381, 382f
of heart, 547, 589, 590t
Ventricular fibrillation, 592, 592f
Ventricular septal defect, 334, 593,
593f, 594f
Ventricular tachycardia, 592, 592f
Venules, 540, 555, 556f, 557f
Vermilion, 640, 641f
Vermis, 375
etymology of term, 30
Vernix caseosa, 121, 299–300, 773
Vertebrae, 158, 158f, 159
regional characteristics of, 160–163
structure of, 159–160
in taxonomy, 28
Vertebral arch, 159, 160f
Vertebral artery, 360f, 561, 562f, 563f, 564
Vertebral cavity, 40f
Vertebral column, 24f, 132–134, 133f,
158–163, 158f, 174f, 262f
articulations of, 226
bones of, 132t
curvature disorders of, 226
functions of, 159
injuries to, 392–393
muscles of, 261–263, 263t
regions of, 163t
Vertebral curves, 158f, 159, 159f
Vertebral foramen, 159, 160f, 161f, 162f
Vertebral region, 36
Vertebral vein, 574f
Vertebra prominens, 265f
Vertex position, of fetus, 774, 774f
Vertigo, 527, 533
Vesalius, Andreas, 14–15, 14f
Vesicouterine pouch, 727f, 735
Vesicular artery, 569f
Vesicular ovarian follicle, 730, 731f, 733f
Vestibular bulbs, 686f, 738
Vestibular folds, 609, 609f
Vestibular ganglion, 409
Vestibular glands, 727t, 738
Vestibular membrane, 520, 520f, 521f
Vestibular nerve, 409, 410f, 517f, 520f
Vestibular nuclei, 410
Vestibular organs, 409
hair cells of, 524, 524f
Vestibular window, 517, 518f, 520, 520f
Vestibule
of inner ear, 519f, 520
of oral cavity, 640, 641f
of reproductive system, 716
Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII), 360f, 402f,
405t, 409–410, 410f, 413t, 520f, 523
Vestibulospinal tract, 388t, 389
Vibrissae, 606f
Villi, intestinal, 653, 655f
Villous chorion, 765
Vincula longa, 274f
Virchow, Rudolf, 16
Viscera, 41, 635
Visceral effector organs, and autonomic
nervous system, 436–438
Visceral motor neurons, 354, 356f
Visceral organs, 41, 42f
Visceral pain, 491
Visceral pericardium, 43, 43f, 546
Visceral peritoneum, 42f, 43, 636, 637f, 638f
Visceral pleura, 43, 43f, 615
Visceral portion, of serous membrane, 636
Visceral reflexes, 427
Visceral senses, 489
Visceral sensory neurons, 354, 356f
Visceroceptors, 490
Viscerocranium, 141, 142f
Visible light, 511
Vision. See also Eye(s); Visual sense
binocular, 499
color, 513
double, 511f, 532
stereoscopic, 27
tunnel, 513
Visual cortex, 403
Visual fields, 514f
Visual information, processing of, 514
Visual inspection, 297
Visual pathways, 407f
Visual portion, of retina, 505
Visual sense. See also Eye(s)
accessory structures of eye and, 499–502
function of eyeball in, 509–511
neural pathways for, 513–514
structure of eyeball and, 504–508
Visual spectrum, 511
Vital capacity (VC), 621t, 622f
Vitamin(s), 52t, 114
Vitamin B12, 652
Vitamin D deficiency, 135, 166
Vitiligo, 110
Vitreous humor, 508, 512f, 516
Vivisection, human, 10, 11
Vocal cords. See Vocal folds
Vocal folds, 609, 609f
Vocal structures, in taxonomy, 27
Volkmann’s canals, 140
Vomer, 147f, 148f, 150f, 157, 605
Vomiting, 639, 651–652, 672
Vomiting center, 651
Vulva, 737–738, 748
Vulval dermatitis, 107t
Vulvovaginitis, 748

W
Wakefulness center, 373
Warm-blooded animals, 540
Warts, 119, 129
Water
as component of body, 51, 52t
hypothalamus regulation of, 373
Watson, James, 66
Wernicke’s aphasia, 371
Wernicke’s area, 371, 371f
Wharton, Thomas, 15
Wharton’s duct. See Submandibular duct
Wharton’s jelly. See Mucoid connective tissue
Whiplash, 161, 334, 393, 393f
White blood cells. See Leukocytes
Whitehead. See Comedo
White matter
of brain, 351, 359, 363, 365f, 368, 369f
of spinal cord, 384
White pulp, 585, 586f
White rami communicantes, 439, 439f
White ramus, 414
William of Saliceto, 13
Willis, Thomas, 15
Wing, of nose, 303, 304f, 304t
Wisdom teeth. See Third molars
Withdrawal reflex, 428, 429f
Womb. See Uterus
Wormian bones. See Sutural bones
Wounds, 125–126, 125f, 126f. See also Trauma
Wrist. See Carpus
Wristdrop, 338, 419
Wryneck, 286

X
Xenograft, 102, 124
Xiphisternal joint, 310
Xiphoid process, 164, 164f, 311f, 312f
Xiphos, etymology of term, 30
X-rays, 18

Y
Yang, ancient Chinese concept of, 8
Yawning, 622t
Yellow bone marrow, 134, 137
Yin, ancient Chinese concept of, 8
Yolk sac, 763–764

Z
Z lines, 241, 242, 242f, 243f, 245f
Zona fasciculata, 471
Zona glomerulosa, 471
Zona pellucida, 729, 730f, 733f, 755
Zona reticularis, 471
Zone of calcified cartilage, 143
Zone of dechondrification, 143
Zone of hypertrophic cartilage, 143
Zone of proliferating cartilage, 142
Zone of resting cartilage, 142
Zonular fibers, of suspensory ligament, 505,
505f, 506f
Zygomatic arch, 146, 149f, 150f, 155, 251f
Zygomatic bone, 133f, 142f, 145f, 147f,
148f, 150f, 155, 174f
Zygomaticofacial foramen, 146t, 155
Zygomatic process, 146, 147f, 148f, 152f,
155, 155f
Zygomaticus major muscle, 250f, 251f
Zygomaticus minor muscle, 250f, 251f
Zygomaticus muscle, 235f, 251t, 305f
Zygote, 79, 732, 760t
musand