USMLERoadMapGrossAnatomy2003White
наименование:USMLE Road Map: Gross Anatomy
автор/ы White James S.
год : 2003
страниц : 250
издательство : McGraw-Hill/Appleton & Lange, 1st edition
ISBN: 0071399216

печатное издание


Reviewer: Sandra E Inouye, PhD (Midwestern University)
Description: This is an abbreviated book of gross anatomy facts that is presented in an outline form. It is accompanied by many tables, illustrations, and clinical commentaries. Each chapter is followed by a series of clinical questions.
Purpose: The book is clearly designed to help medical students quickly refresh their knowledge of gross anatomy in preparation for the USMLE. This is a worthy purpose, since medical students need to efficiently review all of their basic science information in preparation for part one of the USMLE. The author does a good job of distilling gross anatomy down to the essentials and the clinically relevant information.
Audience: The book is written for second year medical students preparing for the USMLE. Dr. James White holds adjunct appointments in cell biology in three departments (across two medical schools), and he is a credible authority in gross anatomy.
Features: The book reviews anatomy regionally, and gives very brief (in a sentence or two) descriptions of anatomical structures. There are numerous schematic illustrations throughout the book: approximately one illustration on every other page. The illustrations are good quality sketches and many of them are clearly renderings of images from Grant's Atlas. However, a handful of the illustrations are blurry, due to faulty printing (e.g. Figures 4-4, 4-5, 5-2, 7-1, etc.). There are also numerous summary charts throughout the book, which succinctly organize and summarize information about various anatomical structures. At the end of every chapter, there are clinical problems totest the reader's ability to apply their knowledge of anatomy.
Assessment: This is the first edition of this book, and the author does a nice job of synthesizing a short review of anatomy with clinically relevant facts. It is an easy book to read, and it should be useful for a brief review of gross anatomy.





содержание



указатель


Using the Road Map Series for Successful Review v
Acknowledgments vi
1.     Fundamentals 1
I.  Skeletal System     1
II. Joints     1
III. Muscular System    3
IV. Nervous System    4
V.  Circulatory System     18
Clinical Problems     19
Answers    22
2.      Back 23
I. Vertebral Column    23
II. Vertebral Canal    26
III. Vertebrae    28
IV. Muscles of the Back    32
Clinical Problems    34
Answers    36
3.     Thorax 37
I.  Bony Framework    37
II. Muscles of the Thoracic Wall    38
III.  Innervation and Blood Supply of the Thoracic Wall    39
IV. The Breasts    41
V.  Pleura    41
VI. Lungs    44
VII.  Superior and Middle Mediastinum    47
VIII. Posterior Mediastinum    60
IX. Anterior Mediastinum    61
Clinical Problems    61
Answers    63
4.     Abdomen 65
I. Anterior Abdominal Wall: Regions and Quadrants    65
II. Anterior Abdominal Wall: Tissue Layers    65
III.  Rectus Sheath    68
IV.  Inguinal Region, Inguinal Canal and Spermatic Cord    69
V. Abdominal Cavity    72
VI.  Foregut    75
VII. Midgut    84
VIII.  Hindgut    89
IX. Venous Drainage    90
X.  Posterior Abdominal Wall    92
XI. Thoracoabdominal Diaphragm    97
Clinical Problems    98
Answers     101
5.     Pelvis/ Perineum 103
I.  Bony Pelvis     103
II. Pelvic Diaphragm    105
III.  Pelvic Viscera    108
IV.  Perineum     114
V. Arterial Blood Supply: Direct Branches of the Aorta    116
VI. Arterial Blood Supply: Branches of the Internal Iliac Artery    116
VII. Pudendal Nerve    118
VIII. Lower Thoracic and Lumbar Splanchnic Nerves    119
IX. Pelvic Splanchnic Nerves    121
X. Micturition    121
XI. Defecation    122
XII. Sexual Reflexes    123
Clinical Problems    123
Answers    126
6.     Upper Limb 127
I. Bones and Joints    127
II. Arterial Blood Supply    136
III. Venous Drainage    139
IV. Innervation    139
V. Terminal Nerves of the Brachial Plexus     143
Clinical Problems    149
Answers    152
7.     Lower Limb 154
I. Bones and Joints    154
II. Arterial Blood Supply of the Lower Limb    161
III. Venous Drainage    166
IV. Innervation    166
V. Terminal Nerves of the Lumbar Plexus    169
VI.  Collateral Nerves of the Lumbar Plexus    171
VII. Terminal Nerves of the Lumbosacral Plexus    172
VIII. Collateral Nerves of the Lumbosacral Plexus    175
Clinical Problems    176
Answers    177
8.     Head 179
I.  Skull    179
II. Cranial Cavity    180
III.  Face and Scalp    187
IV. Nasal Cavity    189
V. Pterygopalatine Fossa    192
VI. Orbit    196
VII. Oral Cavity    208
VIII. Infratemporal Fossa    210
IX. Palate    213
X. Temporal Bone and the Ear    214
Clinical Problems    222
Answers    225
9.     Neck 226
I. Visceral Compartment    226
II. Vertebral Compartment    226
III. Carotid Sheath    226
IV. Sympathetic Trunk    229
V. Posterior Triangle    230
VI. Anterior Triangle    233
VII. Pharynx    235
VIII. Larynx    241
IX. Trachea and Thyroid Gland    244 
Clinical Problems    244
Answers  245
Index 247


Abdomen, 65-102
abdominal aorta, 94-95
abdominal cavity, 72-75
adrenal glands, 94
biliary ducts, 8Of, 82, 83f
descending colon, 73f, 89
diaphragm, 96-97, 98f
duodenum, 73f, 79, 85-86
foregut structures, 75-84
gallbladder, 73f 82, 83f
hindgut structures, 89-90
ileum, 73f 87
inferior vena cava, 95-96
inguinal region, 69-71
jejunum, 73f 86-87
kidneys, 80f 92-93
liver, 73fi 81-82
midgut structures, 84 88
pancreas, 73f 80f 83 84
rectum, 73f 90
rectus sheath, 68-69
regions, 65, 66f
sigmoid colon, 73f 89
spleen, 73f 80
stomach, 73f 77-79
tissue layers (abdominal wall), 65458
transverse colon, 73fi 89
ureters, 80f 93-94
venous drainage, 90-91
Abdominal aorta, 94-95
Abdominal cavity, 72-75
Abdominal viscera/vessels, 80
Abducens nerve, 193t, 201f 207-208
Accessory nerve, 193t, 231-232, 233f
Achalasia, 77
ACL, 158
Acromioclavicular joint, 127, 128f
Adenocarcinomas, 41.84. 112
Adrenal glands, 94
Afbrent pupillary defect, 203
Anal canal, 110-111
Anastomoses, 18
Anatomic snuft%ox, 135-136
Aneurysm of the aortic arch, 50
Angina pectoris, 57
Ankle joints, 159-161
Anopsias, 205, 206f
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), 158
Anterior interosseus nerve, 143, 147
Anterior mediastinum. 61
Anterior tibial artery, 163
Anterior triangle, 233-235
Aortic aneurysm, 94
Aortic valve stenosis, 56
Appendicitis. 88
Aqueous humor, 19
Arachnoid mater, 26, 182
Arterlovenous shunts, 18
Ascites, 68
Atonic bladder, 122
Atrial septal defects, 54
Auricle, 54, 55, 214, 216f
Autonomic ganglia, 4, 10f
Autonomic nerves, 9-17
AV block, 59
AV bundle of His, 59
AV node, 59
Axillary artery, 136-138
Axillary nerve, 140fi 144fi 148
Axons, 4
Back, 23-36
cervical vertebrae, 28-30
coccyx, 32
lumbar vertebrae, 30
musdes of the back, 32-34
sacrum, 32
thoracic vertebrae, 30
vertebral canal, 26-28
vertebral column, 23-26
Ball-and-socket joint, 2t
Baroreceptor reflex, 228
Bali's palsy, 221
Benigu prostatic hyperplasia (BPH),
112
Ben T aneurysms, 181
Biliary ducts, 80f, 82, 83f
Biliary/renal colic, 74
Bladder, 108-109, 122
Bones, 1
Bony pelvis, 103-105
BPH, 112
Brachial artery, 138
Brachial plexus. 139. 140f
Breast adenocarcinomas, 41
Breasts, 41 247
Breath sounds, 44
Bregma, 179
Bronchogenic carcinomas, 46
Bursitis, 3
Calculi of the ureter, 94
Caput medusa, 92
Carcinomas of the esophagus, 49
Carcinomas of the stomach, 79
Cardiac musde, 4
Cardiac tamponade, 51
Cardiovascular system, 18
Carotid sheath, 226-229
Carpal bones, 128f, 132
Carpal tunnel, 132
Cavernous sinuses, 183-184
Celiac artery, 75, 76f
Central nervous system (CNS). 4
Cerebrospinal fluid, 19
Cervical nerves, 7f
Cervical plexus, 234f
Cervical vertebrae, 28-30
Cheeks. 208
Chemoreceptor reflex, 229
Chylothorax, 43
Circulatory system, 18
Cirrhosis, 92
Clavicle, 127, 128f
Clitoris, ll0f, 116
CNS, 4
Coarctation of the aorta. 49
Coccyx, 32
Colic, 74
Colles' fascia, 106f, 107f,, 115
Colles' fracture, 132
Colon, 73f, 86f, 89
Common fibular nerve, 174-175
Compression of the ureter, 93
Conductive hearing losses, 218
Condyloid joint, 2t
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia, 97
Cranial cavity, 18( 187
Cramal nerves, 9, 193-195f
Cranium, 179, 180
Cremasteric reflex, 70
Crocodile tears, 221
Cruciate anastomosis, 163
Cryptorchidism, 71
CSF, 26, 182 Gag reflex, 238 Hyperacusis. 217
Cystocele, 107 Gallbladder, 73f 82, 83f
Hypoglossal nerve, 193t, 209-210
Gallstones, 83 Hysterectomy, 114
Deep fibular nerve, 175
Defecation, 122
Dermatomes, 10f
Descending colon, 73f, 89
Diaphragm. 96-97, 98f
Diaphragmatic hernia, 97
DIP joints, 133
Diverticulitis, 90
Diverticulosis, 90
Diverticulum, 87
Dorsal ranfi, 6
Dorsalis pedis pulse, 163
Duodenal compression, 86
Duodenum, 73f, 79, 85-86
Dupuytren's contracture, 138
Dura mater, 26, 181, 182
Dural venous sinuses, 182-183
Gastroesophageal reflux, 77
Gastrointestinal bleeding, 87
Gastrointestinal structures, 73f
Genitofemoral nerve, 70, 172
Glenohumeral joint, 127, 129
Glossopha .ryngeal nerve (IX). 194t, 215t,
237f, 238
Golfer's elbow, 131
Gomphnsis, 2t
Guillain-Barr4 syndrome, 6
Ear, 214-219
Ectopic implantation, 113
Elbow, 131
Emphysema, 44
Endolynph, 19.217
Epicondylitis, 131
Epidural block, 32
Epidural hemaroma, 179
Epidural space, 26
Epiphrenic diverticulum, 77
Episiotomy, 114
Epistaxis, 192
Erb-Duchenne syndrome, 141
Esophageal varices, 92
Esophagus, 73f 77, 236
Excessive vasoconstriction, 230
External ear, 214, 216f
External oblique lnuscle, 66-67
Face and scalp, 187-188
Facial nerve, 194t, 194-196, 199f 215t,
219-222
Femoral artery, 161
Femoral hernias, 72
Femoral nerve, 167f 169-171
Fertilization, 113
Fibromatosis of Buck's fascia, 116
Fingers, 133, 134t
Foramina of the skull, 185-186t
Foregut structures, 75-84
Foreign body aspiration, 44
Fractured clavicle, 127
Fractures, 1,38, 81
Hand, 133-135, 143 149
Head, 179-225
cranial cavity, 180-187
ear, 214-219
face and scalp, 18188
facial nerve, 219 222
foramina of the skull, 185-1861
infratemporal fossa, 210-212
nasal cavity, 189 192
oral cavity (mouth), 208-210
orbit, 196-209
palate, 213-214
pterygopalatine fossa, 192-194
skull, 179-180
Head of the femur, 154, 156f
Headache, 182
Hearing loss, 2185 19
Heart block, 59
Heart murmur, 56
Heartburn, 77
Hematemesis, 87
Hematocele, 71
Hematochezia, 87
Hemorrhoids, 92, 111
Hemothorax, 43
Hepatic portal vein, 90 91
Hepatic veins, 91
Hernias, 72
Herniated nucleus pulpnsus, 28, 30, 31
Hiatal hernia, 97
Hindgut structures, 89-90
Hinge joint, 2t
Hip ioint, 154, 155t
Hirschsprung's disease, 17, 90
Hornet's syndrome, 17, 46, 230
Humeral dislocation/fracture,
130-131
Humeroradial joint, 131
Humeroulnar joint, 131
Hydrocele, 71
Hydrocephalns, 19
Hyoid bone, 234, 235t
Ileum, 73f 87
I liohypogastric nerve, 171
Ilioinguinal nerve, 70, 172
Incus, 216
Infantile bladder, 122
Inferior cervical ganglion, 230
Inferior gluteal artery, 166
Inferior gluteal nerve, 172-173
Inferior vena cava, 95-96
Inflammation of the parietal peritoneum, 75
Infrahyoid lnuscles, 234
Infratemporal fossa. 210-212
Inguinal hernias, 72
Inguinal region, 69 1
Inner ear, 216f, 217 218
[nterlobular artery occlusion, 93
Internal lilac artery, 116-117
Internal oblique muscle, 67
Intestinal intussusception, 88
Ischemic bowel infarction. 90
Jejunum, 73fi 86-87
Joints, 1, 2t
Jugular foramen syndrome, 238
Kegel exercises, 107
Kidney transplantation, 94
Kidneys, 80fl 92-93
Klumpke's paralysis, 141
Knee, 155 159
Krukenberg tumors, 79
Kyphosis, 25
Lambda, 179
Lambert-Eaton syndrome, 3
laryngopharynx, 235-236
Larynx, 241-243
Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, 167fi
170fi 172
Lateral meniscus, 158
Liver, 73fi 81-82
Long thoracic nerve, 142-143
Lordosis, 25
Lower limb, 154-178
ankle, 159-161
arterial blood supply, 161-166
femoral nerve, 167fl 169-171
hip, 154, 155t
innervation, 166-168
knee, 155-159
lumbar plexus, 166, 167, 169-172
lumbosacral plexus, 166, 168f,
172-176
nerves, 169-176
obturator nerve, 171
pelvic girdle, 154
tibial nerve, 17Of, 173-174
toes, 161,162t
veins, 166
Lumbar nerves, 7f
Lulnbar plexus, 166, 167f, 169-172
Lumbar puncture, 28
Lumbar splanchnic nerves, 119, 120f
Lumbar vertebrae, 30
Lumbosacral plexus, 166, 168f, 172 176
Lunate dislocation, 132
Lungs, 44i7
Lymphatic system, 18-19, 20f
Malleus, 216
Mandibular nerve, 198t, 212-213
Marcus Gunn pupil, 203
Mcxillary artery, 211, 212f
McBurney's point, 88
Meckel's diverticulum, 87
Medial meniscus, 158
Median nerve, 143-147
Mediastinum, 47-61
Melanemesis, 87
Mdnigere's disease, 219
Metastas*s and the round ligament, 71
Micrurition, 121 122
Middle ear, 214-217, 238
Midgut structures, 84-88
Mitral valve stenosis, 56
MP joints, 133
Multiple sclerosis (MS), 5-6
Musculocutaneous nerve, 143
Myasthenia gravis, 3
Myocardial infarction, 58
Nasalcavity, 189 192
Nasopharynx, 235
Neck, 226-246
accessory nerve, 193t, 231-232,
233f
anterior triangle, 233235
carotid sheath, 226-229
larynx, 241 243
pharynx, 235-241
posterior triangle, 230-231
vertebral compartment, 226
visceral compartment, 226
Neck of the femur, 154, 156f
Nerve lesions, 18
Nervous system, 4
Neurons, 4
Obturator, 167f, 171
Obrurator artery, 166
Occlusion of the celiac artery, 79
Ocular muscles, 202f, 203
Oculomotor nerve, 193t, 201f, 205-207,
215t
Olfactory nerve, St, 191,192jr; 193t
Oligodendrocytes, 4
Open pneumothorax, 43
Optic nerve, 193t, 204 205
Oral cavity, 2082 10
Orbit, 196-208
Oropharynx, 235
Osteoarthritis, 28
Otosclerusis, 218
Ovaries, 110ft 113
Ovulation, 113
Palate, 190fi 213-214
Pancoast carcinoma, 46
Pancreas, 73fi 80fl 83-84
Pancreatic adenocarcinomas, 84
Papilledema, 205
Paraesophageal hiatal hernia, 97
Parasympathetic division, 12t, 15
Parotid gland, 188, 189f
PCL, 158
Pectoral girdle, 127
Pelvic autonomics, 120f
Pelvic diaphragm, 105 108
Pelvic diaphragm weakness, 107
Pelvic girdle, 154
Pelvic splanchnic nerves, 121
Pelvis/perineum, 103-126
anal canal, 110-111
bony pelvis, 103-105
defecation, 122
female reproductive structures,
112-114
male reproductive structures, 111 112
micturition, 121-122
pelvic diaphragm, 105-108
perineum, 114 116
prostate, 109f, 112
pudendal nerve, 118-119
splanchnic nerves, 119-121
urinary bladder, 108 109
uterus, ll0f, 112-113
vagina, 110f, 113-114
Penile urethra laceration, 115
Perforating cutaneous nerve, 176
Pericarditis, 51
Pericardium, 50-51
Perineum, 114-116
Peripheral nervous system (PNS), 4
Peritoneal irritation, 97
Peritoneum. 68. 106f
Pharynx, 235-241
Phrenic nerve lesions, 38-39
Pia mater, 27, 182
PiP joints, 133 
Piriformis syndrome. 175
Pivot joint, 2t
Plane joint, 2t
Pleura, 41-42
Pleural effusion, 43
Pneulnothorax, 43
PNS, 4
Poplitcal arteD,, 163
Portacaval anastomoses, 9 If
Portacaval anastomosis, 92
Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), 158
Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve, 176
Posterior mediastinum, 60
Posterior tibial artery, 163
Posterior triangle, 230-231
Preplexus injuries, 141
Presbycusis, 219
Primary joints, 2t
Prostate. 106f, 109f, 112
Pterion, 179, 180
Pterygopalatine fossa, 192-194
Pudendal nerve, 11F119
Pudendal nerve block, 118
Pupillary reflex deficits, 203
Quadrantanopsias, 205
Radial artery, 138-139
Radial nerve, 140f, 144f, 148-149
Radiculopathies, 28
Rectocele, 107
Rectum, 73f, 90
Rectus sheath, 68-69
Referred pain, 17, 57, 74
Reflexes, 17
Renal colic, 94
Reproductive structures, 111-114
Retrusternal diaphragmatic hernia, 97
Rib fracture, 38
Ribs, 37-38
Rinne test, 219
Rotator cuffinflammation, 129
SA node, 59
Sacral nerves, 7f
Sacrum, 32
Saddle joint, 2t
Saphenous nerve, 170f, 171
Saphenous veins, 166
Scaphoid fracture. 136
Scapula, 127, 128f
Scarpa's fascia, 66
Schwann cells, 5
Schwannomas, 6
Sciatic nerve, 168f, 170f, 174
Scoliosis, 25
Secondary joints, 2t
Sensorineural hearing losses, 218
Sensory ganglia, 4
Serous fluid, 19
Shy-Drager ndrome, 17
Sigmoid colon, 73f, 89
Sigmoid diverticula, 90
Sigmoid volvulus, 90
Sinusitis, 190
Skeletal muscle, 3
Skeletal system, 1
Skull, 179-180
Smooth muscle, 4
Spastic bladder, 122
Spermatocele, 71
Spina bifida, 23
Spinal cord, 27
Spinal nerves, 6 9
Spinal stenosis, 31
Splanchnic nerves. 12L 119-121
Spleen, 73f, 80
Splenomegaly, 92
Spondylitis, 28
Spondylolisthesis, 29f 31
Spondylolysis, 29f 30
Spontaneous pneumothorax, 44, 46
Stapes, 216
Sternal angle. 37
Sternoclavicular joint, 127
Sternum, 37, 38f
Stomach, 73f, 77-79
Subcostal nerve, 171
Subdural hematoma, 182
Subdural space, 26
Subtalar joint, 160-161
Superficial fascia, 66
Superficial fibular nerve, 175
Superior cervical ganglion, 230
Superior gluteal artery, 163
Superior gluteal nerve, 172
Superior vena cava syndrome, 4849
Suprahyoid muscles, 234-235
Suprascapular nerve, 141-142
Supraspinal bladder disorders, 122
Sural nerve, 175
Surgical access to the omental bursa, 79
Swallowed foreign body, 49
Sympathetic division, 12t-14t, 14-15
Syndesmosis, 2t
Synovial joints. 1.2t
Talocrural joint, 159 160
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ), 210.
211t
Tennis elbow, 131
Testicular neoplasm, 71
Thoracentesis, 43
Thoracic nerves, 7f
Thoracic outlet syndrome, 46
Thoracic vertebrae, 30
Thoracodorsal nerve. 140f, 142
Thorax, 3754
anterior mediastinum, 61
breasts, 41
heart, 51-60
lungs, 4447
mediastinum, 4751
pleura, 41/42
posterior mcdiastmmn. 60
ribs, 37-38
skeletal muscles of thoracic wall, 38-
39
sternum, 37, 38f
Thumb, 133,
Thymoma, 48
Tibial nerve, 168fi 170fl 173-174
Tic douloureux, 213
FMJ, 210, 21 It
Toes, 161,162t
Tongue, 208-209
Torsion, 70
Transversalis fascia, 67
Transverse colon, 73f,, 87
Transverse tarsal joints, 161
Transversus abdominls muscle, 67, 69f
Trigeminal nerve, 194t, 195, 196-197t,
198f 200t
Trigeminal neuralgia, 213
Trochlear nerve, 193t, 10If 207
Ulnar artery, 138
Ulnar nerve, 140f 144f 147-148
Upper limb, 127-153
anatomic snuffbox, 135-136
arterial blood supply, 136-139
axillary nerve, 140f 144f 148
brachial plexus, 139, 140f
elbow, 131
fingers. 133
glenohumeral joint, 127, 129
innervation, 139-149
median nerve, 140f143-147
musculocutaneous nerve, 140f 143
pectoral girdle, 127
radial nerve, 140f, 144f 148-149
thumb, 133, 135
ulnar nerve, 140f. 144f, 147-148
venous drainage, 139
wrist, 131-133
Ureters, 80f 93-94
Urethra, 109-110, 116
Urinary bladder, 108-109, 109f l l0f
Urogenital diaphragm, 110f 114-115
Uterine prolapse, 107
Uterus. ll0f 112-113
Vagina, 107f 110f 113 114
Vagus nerve, 194t, 215t, 239f 240 241
Valvular stenosis, 56
Varicocde, 71
Varicose superficial epigastric veins, 66
Ventral rami, 9
Ventficular septal defect, 55
Vertebral canal, 26-28
Vertebral column, 23-26
Vestibule, 110f 208
Vestibulocochlear nerve, 193t, 218
Volkmann's ischemic contracture, 138
Weber test, 219
Whiplash, 29
Wrist, 131-133
musand