PreTest_Physiology10ed2003Ryan
наименование:Pretest Self-Assessment and Review: Physiology
автор/ы : Ryan James P., Wang Michael B.
год : 2001
страниц : 322
издательство : McGraw-Hill Companies, 10th edition
ISBN: 0071371990

печатное издание


These "500 questions, answers, and explanation" books are designed to simulate the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1. Each is authored by an expert in the field and has been reviewed by students who have recently passed the exam. As Step 1 is becoming increasingly more clinical in nature, when applicable, clinical vignette-style questions requiring a two-step reasoning process are also included. All of the Pretest titles include a "high-yield" fact section to reinforce key concepts.




содержание



указатель


Introduction  vii
High-Yield Facts
High-Yield Facts in Physiology 1
Cellular Physiology
Questions 33
Answers 44
Cardiac Physiology
Questions 57
Answers 73
Vascular Physiology
Questions 89
Answers 102
Gastrointestinal Physiology
Questions 117
Answers 129
Respiratory Physiology
Questions 147
Answers 172
Renal and Acid-Base Physiology
Questions 195
Answers 217
Endocrine Physiology
Questions 243
Answers 265
Questions 287
Answers 299
Bibliography 311
Index 313

A
Absent sexual maturation, 263, 284
Accommodation, 119, 132
Acetylcholine release, 36, 48
Acid-base and renal physiology,
22–26
Acidosis, 203, 225
ACTH secretion, 254, 273
Actin, 35, 46
Action potential, 36–39, 49–50, 52,
53–54, 289, 301
Active thyroid hormone, 249, 269
Addison’s disease (hypoaldosteronism),
209, 233
Adenosine, 209, 211, 232–233, 235
Adrenalectomy, 254, 274
Aerobic metabolism, 201, 222–223
Afferent arteriole dilation, 198, 220
Afferent arteriole in the glomerulus
of the kidney, 206, 229
Afterload, 57, 73–74
Airway resistance, 171, 193
Airway smooth muscle contraction,
42, 54
Alcromegaly, 262, 283
Aldosterone, 207, 230
Aldosterone secretion, 209, 233
Alpha rhythm, 292, 305
Alveolar oxygen tension (PaO2 ), 159,
181
Alveolar ventilation, 149, 150, 154,
166, 173–174, 177, 189
Alveoli-capillary membrane diffusion,
166, 190
Ammonia (NH3), 205, 226–227
Anaphylactic shock, 99, 114
Anemia, 62, 79, 216, 241
Angina (ischemic cardiac pain), 68,
85
Angiotensin II, 98, 112, 255, 275
Anion gap, 195, 199, 206, 217, 221,
228–229
Anterior hypothalamus, 297, 309
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), 207,
230, 243, 265
Antrum alkalinization, 119, 159
Anxiety, 261, 282
Aortic and venticular pressure, 92,
106
Aortic regurgitation, 63, 66, 79, 84
Aortic stenosis, 92, 106
Aphasia, 288, 300
Arginine, 264, 284–285
Arterial carbon dioxide tension, 152,
175–176
Arterial compliance, 93, 107
Arterial concentration of hydrogen
ion, 202, 223–224
Arterioles, 99, 113
Arteriovenous O2 difference, 91, 105
Aspirin, 96, 110
Asthmatic attack, 152, 175
Atrial fibrillation, 61, 78
Atrial natriuretic factor, 262, 283
Atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH),
243, 265–266
Atrial natruretic hormone (ANP),
213, 237–238
Aveolar oxygen tension, 149, 173
Axon, 33, 44

B
Babinski reflex, 295, 307
Baroreceptor reflex, 90, 103
Basal acid output, 119, 132
Basic respiratory rhythm, 147, 172
Basilar membrane, 294, 307
Beta blockers, 68, 85
Bicarbonate, 153, 177, 200, 222
Bicarbonate absorption from the
small intestine, 125, 140–141
Bicarbonate ion reabsorption, 199,
221
Bile acids, 125, 127, 141, 143
Bleeding time, 96, 110
Blood distribution regulation, 99,
113
Blood flow during arobic exercise,
89, 102
Blood loss effects, 99, 114
Blood vessel constriction/resistance
to blood flow, 89, 102
Blood volume distribution, 96,
109
Bones of the middle ear, 287, 299
Bronchiolar dilation, 294, 306

C
Calcium, 35, 36, 40, 46–48, 52–53
Calmodulin, 40, 52–53
Caloric needs of skeletal muscle
during exercise, 245, 267–268
Capillary oncotic pressure, 99, 114
Capillary permeability, 90, 104
Carbonic anhydrase, 211, 236
Carbon monoxide poisoning, 153,
176–177
Cardiac and vascular physiology,
8–12
Cardiac muscle contraction, 36, 47
Cardiac output, 57, 62, 73, 79
Cardiac tamponade, 70, 86–87
Cardiovascular changes during
inspiration, 63, 80–81
Carotid sinus baroreceptor, 100,
114–115
Carotid sinus pressure, 91, 104–105
Cell membrane sodium gradient, 39,
51–52
Cell osmolarity, 33, 44
Cellular physiology, 1–8, 33–55
Central chemoreceptors, 155, 178
Central venous pressure, 90,
103–104
Cerebral vascular resistence, 98,
113
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 290,
302–303
Cholecystokinin, 259, 280
Cholera toxin, 118
Chronic renal failure, 216, 240
Chronic respiratory acidosis, 202,
223–224
Chylomicrons, 120, 133–134
Ciliary body, 287, 299
Circulating blood volume during
aerobic exercise, 92, 106
Citrate, 96, 110
Clearance, 201, 223
Cobalamin (vitamin B12) binding to
intrinsic factor, 123, 137
Colon, 122, 128, 135, 144–145
Concentration gradient, 34, 45
Conduction velocity, 33, 44
Connexin, 38, 51
Coronary blood flow, 65, 82, 95,
108–109
Corpus luteum, 244, 266
Cortical collecting tubule, 196, 218
Corticospinal tract, 290, 302
Cortisol, 258, 260, 261, 279–282
Creatinine, 205, 228
Creatinine clearance, 203, 224
Cyanosis, 166, 190
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein
kinase, 252, 270
Cyclic GMP, 42, 54–55

D
Daily net acid excretion, 200, 222
Decibel, 294, 306
Deficiency of pulmonary surfactant,
157, 180
Depolarization, 35, 47
Depolarization of hair cells in the
cochlea, 288, 300
Diabetes insipidus, 213, 238
Diabetes mellitus, 199, 221
Diarrhea, 118, 130, 131, 207,
230–231
Diastolic murmur, 63, 79
Diastolic pressure, 61, 77
Dietary fat, 120, 133–134
Diffuse interstitial fibrosis, 170, 193
Diffusibility, 35, 46
Diffusional flux, 34, 45
Dihydrotestosterone, 259, 279
Dilated failing left ventricle, 65, 83
Distal nephron, 208, 232
Distal tubule, 204, 225
Diurnal variation in plasma level of
insulin, 246, 268
Dopamine, 262, 283
Dorsal medulla, 147, 172
Ductus arteriosus, 94, 107–108
Duodenum acidification, 122, 136

E
Ectopic extrasystole (premature
heartbeat), 64, 82
Effective renal plasma flow, 203, 225
Efficiency, 62, 79
Ejection fraction (EF), 60, 62, 77,
78, 90, 103
Electrically excitable gates, 39, 51
Electrical slow wave activity in the
gastrointestinal tract, 125,
139–140
Electrocardiogram, 65, 82
Electrochemical gradient, 40, 53
Electroencephalogram (EEG), 292,
305
Endocrine physiology, 30–32
End-plate potential, 35, 47
Enteropeptidase, 120, 132–133
Epinephrine, 42, 54, 211, 236, 259,
280
Equal pressure point, 151, 174–175
Equilibrium state, 38, 50
Erythromycin, 128, 144
Estrogens, 257, 258, 277, 279
Excitation-contraction coupling, 35,
36, 46–48
Exercise-induced acute pulmonary
edema, 64, 81–82
Exercise training effect on stroke volume,
98, 112
Extracellular fluid osmolarity, 33, 44
Extracellular fluid volume of a normal
individual, 216, 241
Extracellular potassium concentration,
33, 37, 39, 44, 49, 52
Extracellular sodium concentration,
35, 47
Eye deviation during body rotation,
291, 303

F
Fasting state, 243, 265
Fat-soluble vitamin absorption, 123,
136–137
Fetal adrenal cortex, 245, 267
Fetal circulation at birth, 97, 111
Fick’s law, 34, 45, 49
Filtered load of sodium, 213, 237
Filtration fraction, 199, 201, 221,
223
First-degree heart block, 58, 67, 74,
86
First heart sound (S1), 61, 78
Flocculonodular lobe, 292, 305
Focal length of eye, 293, 305
Folic acid, 122, 135
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH),
257, 277
Free nerve endings, 288, 300
Free water clearance by the kidney,
213, 238
Fructose, 123, 137
Functional residual capacity (FRC),
148, 152, 160, 172, 175, 182

G
Gallbladder contraction, 122,
135–136
Gamma motoneurons, 288, 301
Gap junction, 38, 51
Gastric emptying, 117, 119,
129–130, 132
Gastrin, 259, 280
Gastrointestinal physiology, 20–22
Gas within the colon, 121, 134
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR),
203, 204, 208, 224, 226, 231
Glomerulotubular balance, 206, 229
Glucagon, 253, 264, 272, 284–285
Glucocorticoids, 260, 281
Gluconeogenesis, 261, 264, 282,
285
Glucose/adipose tissue, 40, 53
Glucose reabsorption by patient’s
kidneys, 200, 221
Glucose transport, 245, 267
Glutamate, 42, 54–55
Golgi tendon organ (GTO), 287,
299
Gonadotrophin level reduction, 264,
284
Growth and development, 259, 280
Growth hormone effects on body
metabolism, 253, 272
Growth hormone secretion, 244,
256, 266, 276

H
Heartburn, 264, 285
Heart rate, 64, 82, 98, 112
Hematocrit, 90, 104
Hemoglobin, 209, 233–234
Hemoglobin affinity for oxygen,
164, 187
High-altitude acclimatization, 162,
185
High arterial PCO2, 160, 182
High intracranial pressure, 98, 112
Hormone replacement therapy, 260,
281
Human chorionic gonadotropin
(hCG), 251, 264, 269–270,
285
Human growth hormone (GH), 253,
272
Human sperm, 252, 270
Hyperaldosteronism, 208, 231–232
Hypercalcemia, 261, 281–282
Hyperglycemia, 254, 274
Hyperkalemia, 203, 212, 225, 236,
262, 282
Hyperparathyroidism, 254, 273, 274
Hyperpolarizing the membrane
potential, 39, 52
Hypertension, 89, 102–103, 261,
282
Hyperthyroidism, 255, 274
Hyperventilation, 166, 191
Hypoaldosteronism (Addison’s disease),
209, 233
Hypoglycemia, 263, 283
Hypokalemia, 207, 230–231
Hyponatremia, 214, 238–239
Hypothyroidism, 255, 275
Hypovolumic shock, 99, 114

I
Ileum, 117, 130
Increased ejection fraction, 66, 84
Increased intracranial pressure, 64,
81
Increased preload, 59, 63, 76, 79
Increased pulmonary capillary
hydrostatic pressure, 65, 83
Increased ventricular contractility,
64, 81
Inflamatory disease of the ileum,
124, 138
Inflammation of the duodenum,
126, 142
Inhibitory feedback regulation of
gastric acid secretion, 118, 130
Inner medullary collecting duct,
213, 237–238
Inspiratory airflow, 156, 179
Inspiratory capacity (IC), 149, 173
Insulin, 245, 253, 256, 267,
272–273, 276
Insulin deficiency, 257, 278
Insulin-independent glucose uptake,
255, 274
Insulin resistance, 262, 283
Intestinal smooth muscle, 37, 49
Intra-alveolar pressure at the end of
inspiration, 147, 172
Intracellular volume, 33, 44–45,
208, 232
Intragastric volume, 119, 132
Iodides, 247, 268
Ischemia, 297, 309
Ischemic cardiac pain (angina), 68,
85
Ischemic heart disease stress test, 72,
88
Islets of Langerhans, 258, 278
Isovolumetric relaxation, 61, 77

K
Klüver-Bucy syndrome, 298, 310

L
Laplace relationship, 83–84
Latch bridges, 43, 55
Lecithin-sphingomyelin (L-S) ratio,
159, 182
Left ventrical wall stress, 65, 83–84
Lesion involving the cerebellum,
290, 302
Lesion of the right visual cortex,
297, 308
Lesion of the temporal lobe, 288,
300
LH secretion, 249, 269
Lipid solubility, 35, 37, 46, 49
Loop of Henle, 205, 228
Low hematocrit, 99, 114
Lung diffusing capacity, 161, 184
Lung enzymes, 166, 189
Lung volume, 156, 179
Lymph capillaries, 97, 110
Lymph flow, 99, 114

M
Macula densa, 209, 232–233
Mean arterial pressure, 99, 113
Mean electrical axis (MEA), 58, 61,
74, 77
Medium-chain fatty acids, 124, 128,
138, 145
Melatonin, 257, 278
Membrane depolarization, 35,
46–47
Membrane diffusion rate, 37, 49
Membrane excitability, 34, 45
Membrane permeability, 38, 50
Membrane potential, 34, 38, 39, 45,
50, 52
Membrane reflection coefficient, 34,
45–46
Metabolic acidosis, 200, 206, 209,
212, 222, 228–229, 233, 236
Metabolic alkalosis, 208, 231–232
Metabolic effects of insulin, 127,
143
Middle cerebellar peduncle, 289,
301–302
Migrating motor complex, 119, 126,
131, 141
Milk ejection hormone, 252, 271
Mitral prolapse, 70, 86
Mitral valve, 68, 85
Motilin, 119, 128, 131–132, 144,
258, 279
Muscle cell sodium channel inactivation,
37, 49
Muscle fiber recruitment during normal
body movement, 291, 303
Muscle tension, 287, 299
Myosin light chain kinase, 43, 55

N
Na+ equalibrium potential, 36,
53–54
Na+ reabsorption, 198, 210, 220,
234
Nerve cell potassium conductance,
39, 51
Nerve conduction velocity, 37, 48–49
Nerve fiber membrane capacitance,
37, 48–49
Net filtration from capillaries, 91,
104
Neurophysiology, 26–30
Neutral NaCl absorption, 120, 133
Nicotine receptors, 36, 47
Nitric oxide, 42, 54–55
Nonviable pregnancy, 264, 285
Norepinephrine, 294, 306

O
Orad stomach accommodation, 119,
131
Osmotic diarrhea, 127, 144
Otolith organs (utricle and saccule),
290, 302
Ovulation, 247, 249, 250, 252, 256,
268–269, 271, 275
Oxygen consumption by the kidney,
195, 217
Oxygen consumption of the respiratory
muscles, 164, 187
Oxygen-saturated hemoglobin, 162,
184
Oxyhemoglobin saturation curves,
158, 168, 180, 192
Oxytocin, 244, 252, 260, 266–267,
271, 281

P
PaCO2, 149, 150, 173–174
Pancreatic bicarbonate secretion into
the small intestine, 125, 140
Pancreatic enzyme secretion, 120,
133
Pancreatic lipase, 123, 136–137
Parathyroid hormone (PTH), 213,
238, 243, 265
Partial pressure of oxygen, 153, 177
Periodic hyperkalemic paralysis, 37,
49
Peripheral chemorecepters, 155,
178
Phagocytosis, 153, 176
Phase-4 depolarization of SA nodal
cells, 63, 71, 80–81, 87–88
Pheochromocytoma, 261, 282
Phosphate, 213, 237
Phospholamban, 36, 42, 47, 54
Physiological dead space, 154, 177
Physiologically active thyroxine,
249, 269
Pituitary function loss, 263, 284
Pituitary gland tumor, 296, 308
Placenta, 244, 266
Plasma catecholamine levels, 261,
282
Plasma concentration of potassium,
209, 233
Plasma levels of calcium, 253,
271–272
Plasma levels of phosphate, 254,
273–274
Plasma volume, 197, 219
Plasma volume increase, 197, 219
Poiseuille’s law, 89, 102
Polyuria, 261, 281–282
Pontocerebellar tract, 289, 301–302
Posterior pituitary gland, 244,
266–267
Potasium conductance, 33, 44
Potassium concentration gradient,
34, 45
Potassium excreted by the kidney,
205, 227
Potassium plasma concentration,
209, 233
Potassium secretion, 214, 239
Potassium-sparing diuretics, 210,
234
Precentral gyrus, 290, 302
Pregnancy, 263–264, 283–285
Preload, 57, 73
Premature heartbeat (ectopic
extrasystole), 64, 82
Presbyopia, 291, 304
Presynaptic inhibition, 295,
307–308
Primary adrenal insufficiency, 262,
282
Primary esophageal peristalsis, 123,
136
Primary hyperaldosteronism (Conn’s
syndrome), 254, 273
PR interval, 63, 65, 79–80, 83
Progesterone, 258, 278
Progesterone secretion during the
menstrual cycle, 248, 268–269
Prolactin, 245, 267
Prolactin secretion in nonpregnant
women, 262, 283
Proton pump inhibitor, 126, 141
Proximal segments of the small
intestine, 120, 133
Proximal stomach, 119, 132
Proximal tubule, 203, 204, 208,
211, 225, 232, 236
Pulmonary artery resistance, 169,
192–193
Pulmonary blood flow during exercise,
165, 188
Pulmonary blood flow during vigorous
exercise, 97, 110–111
Pulmonary circulation, 94, 96, 107,
109
Pulmonary compliance, 162, 185
Pulmonary function test, 159, 181
Pulmonary lymph flow, 97, 111
Pulmonary physiology, 12–19
Pulmonary vascular resistance, 160,
183
Pulse pressure, 89, 99, 102–103,
113
Pulsus paradoxus, 70, 86–87
Putative inhibitory neurotransmitter
for relaxation of gastrointestinal
smooth muscle, 118, 130
Pyloric sphincter removal, 121,
134–135

R
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep,
291, 303
Rapid voluntary flexion of the arm,
295, 308
Rebound gastric acid hypersecretion,
126, 141
Receptor cell, 297, 309
Red blood cell hemoglobin, 198,
220
Red blood cell osmolarity, 33, 44
Reflection coefficient, 34, 45–46
Reflex contraction of the quadriceps
muscle, 294, 306
Refractive power increase, 287, 299
Refractive power of eye, 293, 305
Regurgitant aortic valve, 59, 75
Renal blood flow (RBF), 201, 204,
211, 223, 226, 235
Renal capsule compression, 198,
220
Renal clearance of phosphate, 213,
238
Renal handling of proteins, 204,
225–226
Renal insufficiency, 207, 230
Renal threshold for glucose, 196,
217
Renin, 198, 202, 206, 214, 219,
224, 229–230, 239
Repetitive stimulation of skeletal
muscle fiber, 287, 300
Respiratory acidosis, 205, 227
Ruffini ending, 289, 301

S
SA nodal action potential upstroke,
71, 87
Sarcoplasmic reticulum, 35, 46–47
Secondary esophageal peristalsis,
123, 137
Second heart sound (S2), 61, 68, 78,
85
Semen, 262, 282
Sertoli cells in the seminiferous
tubules, 252, 270–271
Serum gastrin levels, 117, 129
Serum progesterone levels, 252, 271
Skeletal muscle contraction initiation,
36, 48
Skeletal muscle contraction interval,
36, 48
Skeletal muscle during exercise,
245–267
Skeletal muscle end-plate potential,
36, 39, 47, 51
Skeletal muscle excitation-contraction
coupling, 35, 46–47
Skeletal muscle force, 36, 48
Skipped ventricular contraction, 64,
82
Small airway obstruction, 160, 182
Small intestinal motility, 117, 129
Small intestine crypt cells, 122, 136
Smooth muscle contraction, 35, 36,
46, 48
Smooth muscle excitation-contraction
coupling, 40, 52–53
Sodium, 38, 50
Sodium absorption from the small
intestine, 120, 133
Sodium channel inactivation, see
Action potential
Sodium conductance, 39, 51
Sodium-potassium pump, 33, 44–45
Sodium reabsorption from the distal
tubule, 197, 218–219
Somatostatin, 127, 143
Sound stimulus amplification, 287,
299
Spasticity, 292, 304
Spermatogenesis, 244, 266
Spirometer, 163, 186
Starling curves, 70–71, 87
Steady state, 38, 50
Striated muscle contraction, 35, 46
Stroke volume, 59, 63–65, 71,
75–76, 80, 82–83, 87
Substance concentration, 34, 45
Substance diffusion, 34, 45
Substance P, 40, 52–53
Substance X, 197, 219
Sugar absorption from the small
intestine, 123, 137
Suprachiasmatic nucleus, 295, 307
Supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus,
243, 265
Sympathetic nervous system, 296,
308
Sympathetic stimulation, 71, 88,
209, 233
Synaptic transmission, 36, 40, 48,
52–53
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic
hormone secretion
(SIADH), 208, 232
Systemic arteriolar constriction, 98,
112
Systemic blood pressure, 63, 80–81
Systemic circulation, 94, 96, 107,
109
Systole, 69, 85

T
Terminal ileum removal, 121, 135
Third heart sound (S3), 62, 78
Thrombin, 90, 103
Thyroglobulin, 247, 268
Thyroid follicles, 247, 268
Thyroid hormone injection, 254,
273
Thyroid hormones, 257, 277
Thyroxine, 249, 269
Tmax for glucose, 196, 217–218
Total peripheral resistance, 100, 115
Total peripheral resistance (TPR),
65, 82–83, 95, 108
Transection of the brainstem above
the pons, 155, 179
Transference for potassium, 38, 50
Transformation of 11–cis retinal to
all-trans retinal, 290, 302
Triglycerides, 256, 276
Tropomyosin, 42, 54
Trypsin, 120, 132–133
Trypsinogen secretion into the
duodenum, 120, 132–133
Turbulence, 98, 111–112

U
Urea, 33, 44, 210, 234
Urine flow, 210, 234

V
Vagal stimulation of the heart, 63,
79–80
Vagotomy of the distal stomach,
124, 139
Vascular and cardiac physiology,
8–12
Vascular compliance, 96, 109
Vasoactive intestinal peptide, 118, 130
Vasopressin, 214, 238–239
Venous compliance, 89, 93, 102, 107
Ventricular filling, 69, 86
Vitamin absorption by diffusion,
124, 137–138
Vitamin B12 absorption, 117, 124,
130, 138–139
Vitamin D, 124, 137–138
Vitamin K, 96, 109
Vitamins synthesized by intestinal
bacteria, 122, 135
Volume depletion, 211, 212, 235,
236–237
V wave, 70, 86

W
Warfarin (coumarin), 96, 109
Water and electrolyte absorption in
the GI tract, 154
Water-insoluble substance, 35, 46

Z
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, 259,
280
Zygote implantation in uterine wall,
256, 276–277
musand