Grant_sDissector13ed2005Tank
наименование:Grant's Dissector
автор/ы : Tank Patrick W.
год : 2005
страниц : 219
издательство : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 13th edition
ISBN: 0781758483

печатное издание

поиск по книге


The Thirteenth Edition of Grant's Dissector restores this renowned anatomy lab manual to its original purpose, which is to serve as a step-by-step manual for dissection procedures. This new edition features a more streamlined approach to cadaver dissection, focusing on more accurate, specific, and clear steps.
The overall number of pages and figures has been reduced, reflecting a general trend toward fewer contact hours in the gross anatomy lab.




содержание



указатель


Front Matter
Chapter
1 THE BACK
Chapter
2 THE UPPER LIMB
Chapter 3
THE THORAX
Chapter 4 ABDOMEN

Chapter5 THE PELVIS AND PERINEUM
Chapter 6 THE LOWER LIMB
Chapter 7 THE HEAD AND NECK p 150
Chapter 7 THE HEAD AND NECK p 166
Chapter 7 THE HEAD AND NECK p 181
Chapter 7 THE HEAD AND NECK p 196
INDEX



Preface ix
Acknowledgments xi
INTRODUCTION
1 THE BACK
SURFACE ANATOMY 4
SKELETON OF THE BACK 4
SKIN AND SUPERFICIAL FASCIA 6
Before you dissect 6
Dissection Instructions 7
• Skin Incisions 7
• Superficial Fascia 7
After you dissect 7
SUPERFICIAL MUSCLES OF THE BACK 7
Before you dissect 7
Dissection Instructions 8
• Trapezius Muscle 8
• Latissimus Dorsi Muscle 8
• Rhomboid Major and Rhomboid Minor Muscles 9
• Levator Scapulae Muscle 9
After you dissect 9
INTERMEDIATE MUSCLES OF THE BACK 9
Dissection Instructions 9
DEEP MUSCLES OF THE BACK 9
Before you dissect 9
Dissection Instructions 10
• Splenius Muscle 10
• Semispinalis Capitis Muscle 10
• Erector Spinae Muscle 10
• Transversospinal Group of Muscles 10
After you dissect 11
SUBOCCIPITAL REGION 11
Before you dissect 11
Dissection Instructions 11
After you dissect 12
VERTEBRAL CANAL, SPINAL CORD AND MENINGES 12
Before you dissect 12
Dissection Instructions 12
• Spinal Meninges 12
After you dissect 14
2 THE UPPER LIMB
SURFACE ANATOMY 15
SUPERFICIAL VEINS AND CUTANEOUS NERVES 15
Before you dissect 15
Dissection Instructions 15
• Skin Incisions 15
• Superficial Veins 16
• Cutaneous Nerves 16
After you dissect 17
SUPERFICIAL GROUP OF BACK MUSCLES 17
SCAPULAR REGION 17
Before you dissect 17
• Skeleton of the Scapular Region 17
Dissection Instructions 18
After you dissect 19
PECTORAL REGION 19
AXILLA 19
Before you dissect 19
Dissection Instructions 20
• Axillary Artery 20
• Brachial Plexus 21
After you dissect 22
ARM AND CUBITAL FOSSA 22
Before you dissect 22
• Skeleton of the Arm and Cubital Region 22
Dissection Instructions 23
• Anterior Compartment of the Arm 23
• Cubital Fossa 24
• Posterior Compartment of the Arm 25
After you dissect 26
FLEXOR REGION OF THE FOREARM 26
Before you dissect 26
• Skeleton of the Forearm 27
Dissection Instructions 27
• Superficial Group of Flexor Muscles 27
• Vessels and Nerves 28
• Deep Group of Flexor Muscles 29
After you dissect 29
PALM OF THE HAND 30
Before you dissect 30
• Skeleton of the Hand 30
Dissection Instructions 30
• Superficial Palm 30
• Carpal Tunnel 31
• Thenar Muscles 33
• Hypothenar Muscles 33
• Deep Palm 34
After you dissect 35
EXTENSOR REGION OF THE FOREARM AND DORSUM OF THE HAND 35
Before you dissect 35
Dissection Instructions 35
• Superficial Group of Extensor Muscles 35
• Deep Group of Extensor Muscles 35
After you dissect 36
JOINTS OF THE UPPER LIMB 37
Before you dissect 37
Dissection Instructions 37
• Sternoclavicular Joint 37
• Acromioclavicular Joint 37
• Glenohumeral Joint 37
• Elbow Joint and Proximal Radioulnar Joint 39
• Intermediate Radioulnar Joint 39
• Distal Radioulnar Joint 39
• Wrist Joint 40
• Metacarpophalangeal Joints 40
• Interphalangeal Joints 41
3 THE THORAX
SURFACE ANATOMY 42
SKELETON OF THE THORAX 42
PECTORAL REGION 43
Before you dissect 43
Dissection Instructions 43
• Skin Incisions 43
• Breast 43
• Superficial Fascia 44
After you dissect 45
MUSCLES OF THE PECTORAL REGION 45
Before you dissect 45
Dissection Instructions 45
After you dissect 46
INTERCOSTAL SPACE AND INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES 46
Before you dissect 46
Dissection Instructions 46
After you dissect 47
REMOVAL OF THE ANTERIOR THORACIC WALL 47
Before you dissect 47
Dissection Instructions 48
After you dissect 48
PLEURAL CAVITIES 48
Before you dissect 48
Dissection Instructions 49
After you dissect 49
LUNGS 50
Before you dissect 50
Dissection Instructions 50
• Lungs in the Thorax 50
• Removal of the Lungs 50
After you dissect 51
MEDIASTINUM 52
Before you dissect 52
Dissection Instructions 52
MIDDLE MEDIASTINUM 52
Before you dissect 52
Dissection Instructions 52
• Heart in the Thorax 52
• Removal of the Heart 54
After you dissect 54
EXTERNAL FEATURES OF THE HEART 54
Before you dissect 54
Dissection Instructions 54
• Surface Features 54
• Cardiac Veins 55
• Coronary Arteries 55
After you dissect 56
INTERNAL FEATURES OF THE HEART 56
Before you dissect 56
Dissection Instructions 56
• Right Atrium 56
• Right Ventricle 57
• Left Atrium 58
• Left Ventricle 58
After you dissect 59
SUPERIOR MEDIASTINUM 59
Before you dissect 59
Dissection Instructions 60
After you dissect 61
POSTERIOR MEDIASTINUM 61
Before you dissect 61
Dissection Instructions 61
After you dissect 63
4 ABDOMEN
SURFACE ANATOMY 64
SUPERFICIAL FASCIA OF THE ANTEROLATERAL ABDOMINAL WALL 65
Before you dissect 65
Dissection Instructions 65
• Skin Incisions 65
• Superficial Fascia 65
After you dissect 66
MUSCLES OF THE ANTEROLATERAL ABDOMINAL WALL 66
Before you dissect 66
• Skeleton of the Abdominal Wall 66
Dissection Instructions 67
• External Oblique Muscle 67
• Internal Oblique Muscle 67
• Transversus Abdominis Muscle 69
• Deep Inguinal Ring 69
• Rectus Abdominis Muscle 70
After you dissect 72
LABIUM MAJUS IN THE FEMALE; SCROTUM, SPERMATIC CORD, AND TESTIS IN THE MALE 72
Before you dissect 72
Dissection Instructions 72
• Male and Female Cadavers 72
• Male Cadaver 72
• Spermatic Cord 72
• Testis 73
After you dissect 73
REFLECTION OF THE ABDOMINAL WALL 73
Before you dissect 73
Dissection Instructions 74
PERITONEUM AND PERITONEAL CAVITY 74
Before you dissect 74
Dissection Instructions 75
• Abdominal Viscera 75
• Peritoneum 76
After you dissect 77
CELIAC TRUNK, STOMACH, SPLEEN, LIVER, AND GALLBLADDER 77
Before you dissect 77
Dissection Instructions 77
• Celiac Trunk 78
• Spleen 80
• Liver 80
• Gallbladder 81
After you dissect 82
SUPERIOR MESENTERIC ARTERY AND SMALL INTESTINE 82
Before you dissect 82
Dissection Instructions 82
• Superior Mesenteric Artery 82
• Small Intestine 83
After you dissect 84
INFERIOR MESENTERIC ARTERY AND LARGE INTESTINE 84
Before you dissect 84
Dissection Instructions 84
• Inferior Mesenteric Artery 84
• Large Intestine 85
After you dissect 86
DUODENUM, PANCREAS, AND HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN 86
Before you dissect 86
Dissection Instructions 86
• Duodenum 86
• Pancreas 86
• Hepatic Portal Vein 87
After you dissect 88
REMOVAL OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT 88
Before you dissect 88
Dissection Instructions 88
After you dissect 89
POSTERIOR ABDOMINAL VISCERA 89
Before you dissect 89
Dissection Instructions 90
• Kidneys 90
• Suprarenal Glands 91
• Abdominal Aorta and Inferior Vena Cava 92
After you dissect 92
POSTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL 93
Before you dissect 93
Dissection Instructions 93
• Lumbar plexus 93
• Sympathetic Trunk 94
After you dissect 94
DIAPHRAGM 94
Before you dissect 94
Dissection Instructions 94
After you dissect 95
5 THE PELVIS AND PERINEUM
SKELETON OF THE PELVIS 96

ANAL TRIANGLE 97
Before you dissect 97
Dissection Instructions 98
• Skin Incisions 98
• Ischioanal Fossa 98
After you dissect 99
MALE UROGENITAL TRIANGLE 99
Before you dissect 99
Dissection Instructions 99
• Skin Removal 99
• Superficial Perineal Pouch 100
• Penis / 101
• Spongy Urethra 102
• Deep Perineal Pouch 103
After you dissect 103
MALE PELVIC CAVITY 103
Before you dissect 103
Dissection Instructions 104
• Peritoneum 104
• Section of the Pelvis 104
• Male Internal Genitalia 104
After you dissect 105
URINARY BLADDER, RECTUM, AND ANAL CANAL 105
Before you dissect 105
Dissection Instructions 105
• Urinary Bladder 105
• Rectum and Anal Canal 106
After you dissect 107
INTERNAL ILIAC ARTERY AND SACRAL PLEXUS 107
Before you dissect 107
Dissection Instructions 107
• Blood Vessels 107
• Nerves 108
After you dissect 109
PELVIC DIAPHRAGM 109
Before you dissect 109
Dissection Instructions 109
After you dissect 110
FEMALE UROGENITAL TRIANGLE 110
Before you dissect 110
Dissection Instructions 110
• External Genitalia 110
• Skin removal 110
• Superficial Perineal Pouch and Clitoris 111
• Deep Perineal Pouch 112
After you dissect 113
FEMALE PELVIC CAVITY 113
Before you dissect 113
Dissection Instructions 113
• Peritoneum 113
• Section of the Pelvis 114
• Female Internal Genitalia 115
After you dissect 116
URINARY BLADDER, RECTUM, AND ANAL CANAL 116
Before you dissect 116
Dissection Instructions 116
• Urinary Bladder 116
• Rectum and Anal Canal 117
After you dissect 118
INTERNAL ILIAC ARTERY AND SACRAL PLEXUS 118
Before you dissect 118
Dissection Instructions 118
• Blood Vessels 118
• Nerves 119
After you dissect 120
PELVIC DIAPHRAGM 120
Before you dissect 120
Dissection Instructions 120
After you dissect 121
6 THE LOWER LIMB
SURFACE ANATOMY 122
SUPERFICIAL VEINS AND CUTANEOUS NERVES 122
Before you dissect 122
Dissection Instructions 122
• Skin Incisions 122
• Superficial Fascia of the Posterior Lower Limb 123
• Superficial Fascia of the Anterior Lower Limb 124
After you dissect 125
ANTERIOR COMPARTMENT OF THE THIGH 125
Before you dissect 125
• Skeleton of the Thigh 125
Dissection Instructions 125
• Saphenous Opening 125
• Femoral Triangle 126
• Adductor Canal 128
• Quadriceps Femoris Muscle 128
After you dissect 129
MEDIAL COMPARTMENT OF THE THIGH 129
Before you dissect 129
Dissection Instructions 129
After you dissect 130
GLUTEAL REGION 130
Before you dissect 130
• Skeleton of the Gluteal Region 130
Dissection Instructions 131
After you dissect 133
POSTERIOR COMPARTMENT OF THE THIGH 133
Before you dissect 133
• Skeleton of the Posterior Thigh 134
Dissection Instructions 134
• Posterior Thigh 134
• Popliteal Fossa 134
After you dissect 136
LEG AND DORSUM OF THE FOOT 136
Skeleton of the Leg 136
ANTERIOR COMPARTMENT OF THE LEG AND DORSUM OF THE FOOT 137
Before you dissect 137
Dissection Instructions 137
After you dissect 139
LATERAL COMPARTMENT OF THE LEG 139
Before you dissect 139
Dissection Instructions 139
After you dissect 139
POSTERIOR COMPARTMENT OF THE LEG 140
Before you dissect 140
Dissection Instructions 140
After you dissect 141
SOLE OF THE FOOT 142
Before you dissect 142
Dissection Instructions 142
• Plantar Aponeurosis and Cutaneous Nerves 142
• First Layer of Plantar Muscles 142
• Second Layer of Plantar Muscles 143
• Third Layer of Plantar Muscles 143
• Fourth Layer of Plantar Muscles 144
After you dissect 144
JOINTS OF THE LOWER LIMB 145
Before you dissect 145
Dissection Instructions 145
• Hip Joint 145
• Knee Joint 146
• Ankle Joint 147
• Joints of Inversion and Eversion 149
7 THE HEAD AND NECK
SURFACE ANATOMY 150
SKULL 150
Anterior View of the Skull 150
Lateral View of the Skull 150
Superior View of the Skull 152
FACE 152
Before you dissect 152
Dissection Instructions 153
• Skin Incisions 153
• Superficial Fascia of the Face 153
• Facial Nerve 153
• Facial Artery and Vein 154
• Muscles Around the Orbital Opening 154
• Muscles around the Oral Opening 155
• Lower Lip 155
• Sensory Nerves of the Face 155
After you dissect 156
SCALP 156
Before you dissect 156
Dissection Instructions 156
After you dissect 157
INTERIOR OF THE SKULL 158
Before you dissect 158
Dissection Instructions 158
• Removal of the Calvaria 158
• Removal of a Wedge of Occipital Bone 158
• Cranial Meninges 159
After you dissect 161
REMOVAL OF THE BRAIN 161
Before you dissect 161
Dissection Instructions 161
DURAL INFOLDINGS AND DURAL VENOUS SINUSES 163
Before you dissect 163
Dissection Instructions 163
• Dural Infoldings 163
• Dural Venous Sinuses 163
After you dissect 163
GROSS ANATOMY OF THE BRAIN 163
Before you dissect 163
Dissection Instructions 164
After you dissect 164
CRANIAL FOSSAE 164
Before you dissect 164
• Skeleton of the Cranial Base 164
Dissection Instructions 166
• Anterior Cranial Fossa 166
• Middle Cranial Fossa 166
• Posterior Cranial Fossa 168
After you dissect 168
ORBIT 168
Before you dissect 168
• Skeleton of the Orbit 168
• Surface Anatomy of the Eyeball, Eyelids, and Lacrimal Apparatus 69
Dissection Instructions 170
• Eyelid and Lacrimal Apparatus 170
• Right Orbit from the Superior Approach 171
• Left Orbit from the Anterior Approach 173
After you dissect 174
POSTERIOR TRIANGLE OF THE NECK 174
Before you dissect 174
Dissection Instructions 174
• Skin Incisions 174
• Structures in the Posterior Triangle 174
After you dissect 176
ANTERIOR TRIANGLE OF THE NECK 176
Before you dissect 176
• Bones and Cartilages 176
Dissection Instructions 177
• Superficial Fascia 177
• Muscular Triangle 177
• Carotid Triangle 178
• Submandibular Triangle 179
• Submental Triangle 180
After you dissect 180
THYROID AND PARATHYROID GLANDS 180
Before you dissect 180
Dissection Instructions 180
After you dissect 181
ROOT OF THE NECK 181
Before you dissect 181
Dissection Instructions 181
After you dissect 183
PAROTID REGION 184
Before you dissect 184
• Skeleton of the Parotid Region 184
Dissection Instructions 184
After you dissect 185
TEMPORAL REGION 185
Before you dissect 185
• Skeleton of the Temporal Region 185
Dissection Instructions 186
• Removal of the Zygomatic Arch 186
• Temporal Fossa 187
• Infratemporal Fossa 187
• Temporomandibular Joint 189
After you dissect 189
CRANIOVERTEBRAL JOINTS AND REMOVAL OF THE HEAD 189
Before you dissect 189
• Skeleton of the Suboccipital Region 189
Dissection Instructions 190
• Retropharyngeal Space 190
• Craniovertebral Joints 190
• Removal of the Head 191
• Prevertebral and Lateral Vertebral Regions 191
After you dissect 192
PHARYNX 192
Before you dissect 192
Dissection Instructions 192
• Muscles of the Pharyngeal Wall 192
• Bisection of the Head 194
• Internal Aspect of the Pharynx 194
After you dissect 195
NOSE AND NASAL CAVITY 195
Before you dissect 195
• Skeleton of the Nasal Cavity 195
Dissection Instructions 196
• External Nose 196
• Nasal Cavity 196
• Nasal Septum 196
• Lateral Wall of the Nasal Cavity 197
After you dissect 198
HARD PALATE AND SOFT PALATE 198
Before you dissect 198
• Skeleton of the Palate 199
Dissection Instructions 199
• Soft Palate 199
• Tonsillar Bed 201
• Sphenopalatine Foramen and Pterygopalatine Fossa 201
After you dissect 202
ORAL REGION 202
Before you dissect 202
• Surface Anatomy of the Oral Vestibule 202
• Surface Anatomy of the Oral Cavity Proper 202
Dissection Instructions 203
• Tongue 203
• Bisection of the Mandible and Floor of the Mouth 203
• Sublingual Region 203
After you dissect 204
LARYNX 205
Before you dissect 205
• Skeleton of the Larynx 205
Dissection Instructions 206
• Intrinsic Muscles of the Larynx 206
• Interior of the Larynx 207
After you dissect 207
EAR 208
Before you dissect 208
• Temporal Bone 208
Dissection Instructions 208
• External Ear 208
• Middle Ear 208
• Internal Ear 210
After you dissect 210

A
abdomen
abdominal aorta, 92, 92
abdominal viscera, 75, 75–76, 76
celiac trunk, 78–80, 79
diaphragm, 94, 94–95
dissection instructions, 74, 74
duodenum, 86, 86, 87
gallbladder, 75, 75, 76, 78, 78, 81, 82
gastrointestinal tract removal, 88–89
hepatic portal vein, 87
inferior mesenteric artery, 84–85, 85
kidneys, 90–91, 91
large intestines, 75, 76, 85–86, 86
liver, 75, 75, 76, 78, 78, 80–81, 81
pancreas, 86, 86–87, 87
peritoneum and peritoneal cavity, 74–77, 75
posterior viscera, 89–92, 90
quadrant system for description of, 64, 64
regional system for description of, 64, 64
scrotum, 72
skeleton of, 66, 66
skin incisions, 65, 65
small intestines, 75, 76, 83–84, 84
spermatic cord, 72, 72–73
spleen, 80, 80
superficial fascia, 65, 65–66
superior mesenteric artery, 82, 82–83, 83
suprarenal glands, 91–92, 92
surface anatomy, 64, 64
testis, 73, 73
abdominal aorta, 92, 92
abdominal viscera, posterior, 89–92, 90
abdominal wall
layers of, 65, 65
muscles of, 66–72
deep inguinal ring, 69
external oblique, 67, 68
internal oblique, 67–69, 68
rectus abdominis, 70–71, 71
transversus abdominis, 69
posterior, 93, 93–94
reflection of, 73–74
superficial veins of, 65–66
abducent nerve, 165, 167, 167, 172, 172–173
abductor digiti minimi muscle, 33, 143, 143
abductor hallucis muscle, 143, 143
abductor pollicis brevis muscle, 33
abductor pollicis longus tendon, 36
accessory nerve, 165, 167, 168, 176, 176, 193, 194
Achilles tendon, 140, 141
acoustic meatus, external, 208, 208
acromioclavicular joint, 37, 38
adductor brevis muscle, 129, 130
adductor canal, 128
adductor hallucis muscle, 144, 144
adductor longus muscle, 129
adductor magnus muscle, 129, 130, 134, 135
adductor pollicis muscle, 34, 34
adenoids, 194, 194
alar cartilage, 196, 196
alar ligaments, 190–191, 191
alveolar artery
inferior, 189
posterior superior, 188, 189
alveolar nerve, inferior, 188, 188–189
anal canal, 106, 106–107, 117, 117–118
anal columns, 107, 118
anal nerve, inferior, 99, 99
anal sphincter muscles, 99, 99, 106, 107, 117, 118
anal triangle, 97, 97–99
ischioanal fossa, 98–99, 99
skin incisions, 98, 98
anal valves, 106, 107, 118
anatomical position, 2, 2
anatomical snuffbox, 36, 36
anconeus muscle, 25, 26
anesthesia, dental, 188
ankle, 147, 148
lateral ligament of, 147, 148
medial ligament of, 147, 148
anorectal flexure, 106, 117
ansa cervicalis, 177–178, 178
antebrachial fascia, 22
anterior cruciate ligament, 147
anular ligament, 39, 39
aorta
abdominal, 92, 92
arch of, 53, 60, 61
ascending, 53, 54, 54
thoracic, 62, 62–63
aortic hiatus, 94, 95
aortic sinus, 55–56, 59
aortic valve, 55, 55, 58–59
appendicular artery, 83, 85
appendix, 75, 76, 85, 85
arachnoid granulation, 159, 160
arachnoid mater
of brain, 160, 160, 161
of spine, 13
arcades, 83, 83
arch of the aorta, 53
arcuate artery, 138, 139
arcuate ligaments, 94, 94–95
areola, 44, 44
arm, 22–26. see also forearm
anterior compartment of, 22, 23, 23–24
cubital fossa, 24–25
fascia of, 22
posterior compartment of, 22, 25–26, 26
skeleton of, 22–23, 23
artery to the atrioventricular node, 56
articular disc, 37, 37, 40
articular processes, 5, 5
arytenoid cartilage, 205, 205
arytenoid muscle, 206, 206
ascending aorta, 53, 54, 54
ascending colon, 75, 76, 85
atlanto-occipital joint, 190, 190–191, 191
atlas (C1 vertebra), 5, 11, 11, 189
cruciate ligament of, 190, 191
transverse ligament of, 190, 190
atrioventricular bundle, 59
atrioventricular groove (sulcus), 54
atrioventricular node, 57, 57, 59
atrioventricular valve, 57, 57–59, 59
atrium
left, 58, 58
right, 56–57, 57
auditory ossicles, 209, 210
auricular artery, posterior, 179, 179
auricular cartilage, 208, 208
auricular nerve, greater, 175, 176
auriculotemporal nerve, 185
axilla, 19–22
axillary artery, 20, 20–21
boundaries of, 19, 19
brachial plexus, 21, 21–22
defined, 19
axillary artery, 20, 20–21
axillary vein, 19, 20
axillary fascia, 45
axillary nerve, 18, 21, 21
injury to, 22
axillary sheath, 19, 20
axis (C2 vertebra), 5, 11, 11, 189, 190
azygos, arch of, 60
azygos vein, 62, 62

B
back
muscles of
deep, 9–11, 10
intermediate, 9
superficial, 7–9, 8
skeleton of, 4–6, 5
skin incisions, 7
spinal cord, 12–14, 13
spinal meninges, 12–14, 14
suboccipital region, 11, 11–12
superficial fascia, 7, 7
surface anatomy, 4, 4
triangles of, 9
vertebral column, 12–14, 13
basilar artery, 164, 164
basilic vein, 16, 16
Bell’s palsy, 155
biceps brachii muscle, 23, 23–24
biceps brachii tendon, 24
biceps femoris muscles, 134, 135
bicipital aponeurosis, 23, 24–25
bicuspid valve, 57, 57–59, 59
blunt dissection, 2
brachial artery, 20, 20, 23, 24, 25, 28
brachial fascia, 22
brachial plexus, 21, 21–22
infraclavicular part, 21, 21–22
roots of, 183, 183
three cords of, 21, 21
brachialis muscle, 23, 24
brachiocephalic trunk, 60, 61
brachiocephalic veins, 60, 60
brachioradialis muscle, 25, 26
brachioradialis tendon, 35
brain
cranial fossae, 164, 164–168
cranial meninges, 159–161, 160, 161
dural infoldings, 162, 163
dural venous sinuses, 162, 163
gross anatomy, 163–164, 164
lateral surface of, 164, 164
lobes of, 164, 164
removal of, 161–163
brainstem, 164, 164
breast, 43–44, 44
cancer of, 44
ligaments of, 44, 44
bronchi(us)
left and right main, 61, 61
lobar, 51, 51
main, 51, 51
segmental, 51
bronchial arteries, 51, 63
buccal artery, 189
buccal nerve, 154, 154
buccinator muscle, 154, 154–155, 155
bulbospongiosus muscle, 101, 101, 112
bulbourethral glands, 102–103

C
cadaver, care of, 1
calcaneal tendon, 140, 141
calcaneocuboid joint, 148–149, 149
calcaneus bones, 137, 137
calvaria, 152, 152
removal of, 157, 158
calyx
major, 91, 91
minor, 91, 91
Camper’s fascia, 65
caput medusae, 66
cardiac notch, 50, 51
cardiac tamponade, 54
cardiac veins, 55, 55
carina, 61, 61
carotid artery, 60, 61
bifurcation of common, 179, 179
external, 179, 179, 184, 185
internal, 167, 168, 179
carotid body, 179
carotid canal, 167, 168
carotid nerve, internal, 191
carotid sheath, 178, 179, 193
carotid sinus, 179
carotid triangle, 178, 178–179
carpal bones, 30, 30
carpal tunnel, 31–33
contents of, 30, 31
defined, 30
how to open, 31, 32
transverse section through, 30
carpal tunnel syndrome, 32
cauda equina, 13, 13
cavernous sinus, 167, 167–168
cecum, 75, 76, 84, 84–85, 89, 89
celiac ganglia, 95
celiac trunk, 78–80, 79
cephalic vein, 16, 16, 45–46
cerebellar tentorium, 161–163, 162
cerebellum, 164, 164
cerebral arteries, 162, 164, 165
cerebral falx, 161, 162, 163
cerebral veins, 160, 160, 162, 162–163
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), lumbar puncture for,
14, 14
cervical artery
ascending, 182, 183
transverse, 182, 183
cervical enlargement, 12, 13
cervical ligament, transverse, 114, 114
cervical nerve, transverse, 175, 176
cervical plexus, 175, 176
cervical vertebra, 5–6, 6
brain (continued)
cervical viscera, 174, 175
chalazion cyst, 170
childbirth, 113
chorda tympani, 188, 189, 209, 210
chordae tendineae, 57, 58–59
ciliary ganglion, 172
circumflex femoral arteries, 127, 127
circumflex humeral arteries, 18, 20, 20–21
circumflex humeral vein, posterior, 18
clavicular notch of the manubrium, 37, 37
clavipectoral fascia, 45
clean
a nerve, 2
a vessel, 2
defined, 2
the border of a muscle, 2
clitoris, 112, 112
cluneal nerves, 123, 123
coccygeal ligament, 13, 14
coccygeal plexus, 119
coccygeus muscle, 109, 110, 121, 121
coccyx, 6, 6
cochlea, 209, 210
colic arteries, 83, 85, 85
colic flexure
left, 76, 76
right, 75, 76
collateral ligament
fibular, 146, 147
radial, 39, 39
tibial, 146, 147
ulnar, 39, 39
Colles’ fascia, 100, 100, 111
colon
ascending, 75, 76, 85
descending, 76, 76, 86
sigmoid, 76, 76, 86
transverse, 76, 76, 86, 89
common tendinous ring, 172, 172, 173, 173
communicating artery
anterior, 164, 164
posterior, 164, 164
conchae, 197, 197, 201
conducting system of the heart, 57, 59
conjunctiva, 170
contact impressions, 50, 51
conus arteriosus (infundibulum), 57, 58
conus medullaris (medullary cone), 13, 13
coracoacromial ligament, 38, 38
coracobrachialis muscle, 23, 24
coracoclavicular ligament, 37, 38
coronary arteries, 55, 55–56, 59
coronary groove (sulcus), 54
coronary ligament, 76
corpus cavernosum penis, 102, 102–103
corpus spongiosum penis, 102, 102–103
costal cartilages, 46
costal parietal pleura, 47
costocervical trunk, 182
costoclavicular ligament, 37, 37
costodiaphragmatic recesses, 49, 49
costomediastinal recesses, 49, 49
cranial fossae, 164, 164–168
anterior, 166
middle, 166–168
posterior, 167, 168
skeleton of, 164, 165, 166
cranial meninges, 159–161, 160, 161
cranial nerves, 164, 165, 166–168, 167. see also
specific nerve
craniovertebral joints, 190–191, 191
cremaster fascia, 68–69
cremaster muscle, 68, 68–69
cricoarytenoid muscles, 206, 206
cricoid cartilage, 205, 205
cricothyroid joint, 206
cricothyroid muscle, 178, 179, 206, 206
crista galli, 161, 162
cruciate ligament
anterior, 146, 147
posterior, 146, 147
cubital fossa, 24–25
boundaries of, 25
defined, 24
cuneiform bones, 137, 137
cutaneous nerves
lateral femoral, 123, 124
of abdomen, 66
of face, 152, 152
of foot, 142, 142
of scapular region, 16, 16–17
of the arm, 17, 21
of the forearm, 17, 21, 23, 24
of the thigh, 94, 123, 123, 132, 132
of upper limb, 17
cystic artery, 79, 79, 81
cystic duct, 78, 79

D
deep artery of the arm, 23, 24
deep palmar arch, 34
deep perineal pouch
female, 112, 112–113
male, 103, 103
define, defined, 2
deltoid muscle, 18, 18
deltopectoral triangle, 16, 45
dental anesthesia, 188
denticulate ligaments, 14
depressor anguli oris muscle, 155, 155
descending artery, left anterior, 55
descending colon, 76, 76, 86
diaphragm, 48, 49, 94, 94–95
digastric muscle, 178, 178, 180, 185
digital synovial sheaths, 31
dissect, defined, 2
dissection
blunt, 2
instruments for, 1, 1–2
lab safety, 3
routine for, 3
sharp, 2
dorsal digital nerves, 124
dorsal primary ramus of a spinal nerve, 7, 7, 14, 14
dorsal venous arch of foot, 124, 124
dorsal venous vein, 16, 16
dorsalis pedis artery, 138, 138, 144
ductus deferens, 72, 104–105, 105
ampulla of, 105, 105
duodenal papilla, 88
duodenojejunal junction, 84, 84
duodenum, 86, 86, 87
dura mater, 159, 160, 161
dural infoldings, 162, 163
layers of, 159
of spine, 13–14
dural infoldings, 162, 163
dural sac, 13, 13
dural venous sinuses, 162, 163

E
ear, 208–210
external, 208, 208
inner, 210
middle, 208–210, 209
ejaculatory duct, 105, 105
elbow joint, 27, 27, 39, 39
endometrium, 116
endopelvic fascia, 114, 114
endothoracic fascia, 49, 52
epidural space, 12
epigastric anastomoses, 71
epigastric artery, 65, 71
epigastric vein, 65, 71
epiglottic cartilage, 205, 205
epiglottis, 194, 195, 203, 203, 207, 207
erect posture, 97
erector spinae muscle, 10, 10
esophageal arteries, 63
esophageal hiatus, 94, 94, 95
esophagus, 62, 62
ethmoid bone, 164, 165, 166, 195, 196
ethmoidal bulla, 197, 198
ethmoidal cells, 197, 198
ethmoidal foramina, 169
ethmoidal nerve, 172, 172
eversion joints, of foot, 148–149, 149
extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon, 35
extensor carpi radialis longus tendon, 35
extensor carpi ulnaris tendon, 35
extensor digiti minimi tendon, 35
extensor digitorum brevis muscle, 138, 138
extensor digitorum longus muscle, 138, 138
extensor digitorum tendons, 35
extensor expansion, 35
extensor hallucis brevis muscle, 138, 138
extensor hallucis longus muscle, 138, 138
extensor indicis tendon, 36
extensor muscles
deep, 35–36, 36
superficial, 35
extensor pollicis brevis tendon, 36
extensor pollicis longus tendon, 36
extensor retinaculum, 35
external acoustic meatus, 208, 208
external oblique muscle, 67, 68
eyeball, 168–170, 170, 173–174. see also orbit
eyelid
dissection instructions, 170–171
lower, 170

F
face, 152–156, 154
cutaneous nerve distribution of, 152, 152
facial artery, 153–154, 154
facial nerve, 153–154, 154
facial vein, 154, 154
lower lip, 155
muscles of, 155
oral opening, 155, 155
orbital opening, 154–155, 155
orbit, 168–174
sensory nerves of, 155, 156
superficial fascia of, 153
facial artery, 153–154, 154, 179, 179
facial nerve, 153–155, 154, 165, 167, 168, 209, 209
facial vein, 154, 154
falciform ligament, 74, 76, 81, 81
fallopian tube, 116
falx cerebri, 161, 162, 163
femoral artery, 127, 127
femoral hernia, 125
femoral nerve, 94, 123, 124, 128, 129, 129
femoral sheath, 125, 126
femoral triangle, 126, 126–128
femoral vein, 127, 127
femur, 125, 126, 131, 131, 134, 146, 146
fibrous digital sheath, 31, 31
fibula, 134, 136, 137
fibular artery, 140–141, 141
fibular collateral ligament, 146, 147
fibular nerve
common, 134, 135, 138, 138–139
deep, 138, 139
superficial, 123, 124, 139
fibularis longus tendon, 144
fibularis tertius muscle, 138, 138
filum terminale externum (coccygeal ligament),
13, 14
filum terminale internum, 13, 14
flexor carpi radialis tendon, 27, 28
flexor carpi ulnaris tendon, 28, 28
flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle, 33
flexor digiti minimi muscle, 144, 144
flexor digitorum brevis muscle, 142, 142–143
flexor digitorum longus muscle, 140, 141
flexor digitorum longus tendons, 143, 143
flexor digitorum profundus muscle, 29, 32–33, 33
flexor digitorum superficialis muscle, 32–33, 33
flexor digitorum superficialis tendon, 28, 28
flexor hallucis brevis muscle, 143–144, 144
flexor hallucis longus muscle, 140, 141, 144
flexor pollicis brevis muscle, 33
flexor pollicis longus muscle, 29, 33
flexor retinaculum, 30, 30, 31
flexor tendons in finger, 31, 31
foot
inversion and eversion joints, 148–149, 149
muscles of, 138
plantar aponeurosis, 142, 142
plantar muscles
first layer, 142–143, 143
second layer, 143, 143, 144
third layer, 143–144, 144
skeleton of, 137, 137
sole of, 142–144, 143, 144
foramen ovale, 57
foramen rotundum, 167, 167
foramen spinosum, 166, 167
forceps, 1, 1
forearm, 26–30
compartments of, 26, 26
extensor region, 35–36, 36
flexor region
deep group, 29
superficial group, 27–28, 28
vessels and nerves, 27–29, 28
skeleton of, 27, 27
fossa ovalis, 56–57
frontal bone, 151, 165, 166, 168
frontal lobe, 164, 164
frontal nerve, 171, 171
frontal sinus, 171

G
gallbladder, 75, 75, 76, 78, 78, 81, 82
gastric artery
left, 79, 79–80
right, 79, 79
short, 80
gastric veins, 80
gastro-omental arteries, 79, 80, 87, 87
gastrocnemius muscle, 140, 141
gastroduodenal artery, 79, 79
gastroesophageal varices, 87
gastrointestinal tract. see also specific organ
removal of, 88–89
gastrolienal ligament, 76
gastrophrenic ligament, 76
gastrosplenic ligament, 76–77
gemellus muscles, 132, 133
genioglossus muscle, 203, 204
geniohyoid muscle, 203, 204
genitalia
external, female, 110, 111
internal
female, 115, 115–116
male, 104–105, 105
genitofemoral nerve, 93
glans penis, 102
glenohumeral joint, 37–38, 38
glenohumeral ligaments, 38, 38
glenoid cavity, 38, 38
glenoid labrum, 38, 38
glossopharyngeal nerve, 165, 167, 168, 192–193,
193, 199, 201, 210
glottis, 205, 207
gluteal aponeurosis, 131
gluteal artery
inferior, 108–109, 119, 119, 132
superior, 108, 119, 119, 120
gluteal nerve, inferior, 132
gluteal region, 130–133
muscles of, 131, 132
skeleton of, 130–131, 131
gluteal vein, inferior, 132
gluteus maximus muscle, 98, 98, 131, 131, 132
gluteus medius muscle, 132, 132
gluteus minimus muscle, 132, 133
gracilis muscle, 129
gray rami communicantes, 109, 120, 192
greater omentum, 75, 75

H
hamulus of the medial plate, 200, 200
hand
carpal tunnel, 31–33
dorsum of, 35–36, 36
palm of, 30–35
deep, 34, 34
hypothenar muscles, 33–34
superficial, 30–31, 31, 32
thenar muscles, 33
skeleton of, 30, 30
hard palate, 198, 200
haustra, 86
head
brain
cranial fossae, 164, 164–168
cranial meninges, 159–161, 160, 161
dural infoldings, 162, 163
dural venous sinuses, 162, 163
gross anatomy, 163–164, 164
removal of, 161–163
craniovertebral joints, 189–192
ear, 208–210
face, 152–156, 154
nose and nasal cavity, 195–198
oral region, 202–205
orbit, 168–174
palate, 198–202
parotid region, 184, 184–185
removal of, 191, 191
scalp, 156–157
skin incisions, 153, 153
skull
anterior view, 150, 151
interior of, 158–161
lateral view, 150, 151, 152
surface anatomy, 150, 150
temporal region, 185–189
heart
apex of, 53
base of, 53
borders of, 53
cardiac veins, 55, 55
chambers of, 53, 53
conducting system of the, 57, 59
coronary arteries, 55, 55–56, 59
external features of, 54–56
how to open, 56, 56
in thorax, 52–53, 53
internal features of, 56–59
left atrium, 58, 58
left ventricle, 58–59, 59
removal of, 54, 54
right atrium, 56–57, 57
right ventricle, 57, 57–58
surfaces of, 55
hematoma, subdural, 160
hemiazygos vein, 62, 62–63
hemopericardium, 54
hemorrhoids, 107, 118
hemostat, 1, 1
hemothorax, 49
hepatic arteries, 79, 79
hepatic ducts, 78–79, 79
hepatic flexure, 75, 76
hepatic lymph nodes, 79
hepatic portal vein, 80, 87
hepatic veins, 81, 81
hepatoduodenal ligament, 78, 78
hernia
femoral, 125
inguinal, 69, 70
hip bone, 96, 97
hip joint, 145, 145–146, 146
hordeolum, 170
humerus, 17, 17, 22, 23, 27, 27
hyoglossus muscle, 204, 204
hyoid muscle, 178, 178
hypogastric plexus, inferior, 119
hypoglossal canal, 167, 168
hypoglossal nerve, 165, 167, 168, 180, 193, 194,
204, 204
hypophyseal fossa, 167, 168
hypothenar muscles, 30, 33–34

I
ileocecal junction, 84, 84
ileocolic artery, 83, 84
ileum, 75, 76, 82, 82–84, 89, 89
iliac artery
common, 92, 92
female, 118, 119
male, 107, 107
external
female, 118, 119
male, 107, 107
internal
female, 118–119, 119
male, 107, 107–108
iliac vein
common
female, 119
male, 108
external
female, 119
male, 108
internal
female, 119
male, 108
iliacus muscle, 93, 93
iliococcygeus muscle, 109, 110, 121, 121
iliocostalis muscle, 10, 10
iliofemoral ligament, 145, 145
iliohypogastric nerve, 6, 66, 94
ilioinguinal ligament, 67
ilioinguinal nerve, 66, 69, 94
iliolumbar artery, 108, 119, 119
iliopsoas muscle, 93, 93, 127, 145
ilium, 4, 5
incus, 209, 210
inferior vena cava, 81, 81, 92, 92
infraglottic cavity, 207, 207
infraorbital nerve, 155, 156
infraspinatus muscle, 18, 19
heart (continued)
infratemporal fossa, 185, 187–189, 188, 199,
199, 202
boundaries of, 186
skeleton of, 186, 186
infundibulum, 57, 58
inguinal canal, 66, 67, 69
inguinal hernia, 69, 70
inguinal ligament, 67
inguinal lymph nodes, superficial, 124, 124
inguinal ring
deep, 67, 67, 69
superficial, 66–67, 67
intercavernous sinuses, 167, 168
intercostal arteries, 45, 47, 63
intercostal muscles, 46–47, 47, 63
external, 46, 47
internal, 45, 47
intercostal nerves, 44, 47, 47, 63
intercostal space, 46–47, 47
intercostal veins, 45, 47, 62, 62
intercrural fibers, 67
intermediate tendon, 180
internal iliac artery
anterior division
female, 118–119, 119
male, 107, 108
male, 107, 107–108
posterior division
female, 119, 119
male, 107, 108
internal oblique muscle, 68
interosseous artery, 36
interosseous muscles, 144
dorsal, 34, 34
palmar, 34, 34
interosseous nerve, 36
interphalangeal joints, 40, 41
interventricular grooves (sulcus), 54
interventricular septum, 57, 59, 59
intervertebral disk, 5, 5
intervertebral foramen, 5, 14, 14
intestinal arteries, 83, 83
intestines
large, 75, 76, 85–86, 86
small, 75, 76, 83–84, 84
intragluteal injections, 133
inversion joints, of foot, 148–149, 149
ischioanal fossa, 98–99, 99
ischiocavernosus muscle, 101, 101
ischiofemoral ligament, 145, 145
ischiorectal fossa, 98–99, 99

J
jejunum, 75, 76, 82, 82–84, 89, 89
jugular vein
external, 175, 176, 181, 185
internal, 163, 179, 179, 183, 183

K
kidney stones, 91
in females, 117
in males, 106
kidneys, 90–91, 91
knee injuries, 147
knee joint, 146–147, 147

L
lab safety, 3
labium majus, 72
lacrimal apparatus
dissection instructions, 170–171
parts of, 169–170, 171
lacrimal canaliculi, 171, 171
lacrimal gland, 170, 171
lacrimal groove, 170, 171
lacrimal nerve, 171, 171
lacrimal sac, 171, 171
lactiferous ducts, 44, 44
lactiferous sinus, 44, 44
lamina papyracea, 169
laminae of vertebra, 12, 13
large intestines, 75, 76, 85–86, 86
laryngeal artery, superior, 179, 179
laryngeal cavity, 207, 207
laryngeal nerve, 207
external branch of superior, 178, 179
inferior, 206, 206
left recurrent, 53, 53, 60, 61
recurrent, 180–181, 183, 192, 193
superior, 193, 194, 206, 206
laryngopharynx, 194, 195
laryngospasm, 207
larynx, 205–207
interior of, 207, 207
intrinsic muscles of, 206, 206–207
nerve supply to, 207
skeleton of, 205, 205
lateral (inferior) crus, 67
lateral ligament of ankle, 147, 148
lateral thoracic artery, 20
latissimus dorsi muscle, 8, 8
left anterior descending artery, 55, 56
left crus, 94, 94
leg, 136–139
compartments of, 136, 136
anterior, 137–139, 138
lateral, 139
posterior, 140–142, 141
motor nerve territories of, 141, 142
skeleton of, 136, 137
levator ani muscle, 109, 110, 121, 121
levator labii superioris muscle, 155, 155
levator palpebrae superioris muscle, 172, 172
levator scapulae muscle, 8, 9
levator veli palatini muscle, 200, 200
lienorenal ligament, 76–77
ligamenta flava, 12
ligamentum arteriosum, 53, 53, 60, 61
ligamentum teres hepatis, 76
ligamentum venosum, 81, 81
limbs. see lower limb; upper limb
linea alba, 71, 71
lingual artery, 179, 179, 204, 204
lingual nerve, 188, 188, 204, 204
lingula, 50
lip, lower, 155
liver, 80–81, 81
features of, 78, 78
location of, 75, 75, 76
pathology, 81
long ciliary nerve, 172, 172
longissimus muscle, 10, 10
longus capitis muscle, 191, 191
longus colli muscle, 191, 192
lower limb
cutaneous nerves, 123
deep fascia, 125
foot, 137–139
muscles of, 138
skeleton of, 137, 137
sole of, 142–144, 143, 144
gluteal region, 130–133
joints of, 145–149
ankle, 147, 148
hip, 145, 145–146, 146
inversion and eversion, 148–149, 149
knee, 146–147, 147
leg, 136–139
anterior compartment, 137–139, 138
lateral compartment, 139
posterior compartment, 140–142, 141
skin incisions, 122–123, 123
superficial fascia
anterior, 123, 124–125
posterior, 123, 123–124
superficial veins, 123
surface anatomy, 122, 122
thigh
anterior compartment, 124–129
medial compartment, 129–130, 130
posterior compartment, 133–136, 135
lumbar artery, 92, 92
lumbar enlargement, 12, 13
lumbar plexus, 93–94
lumbar puncture, for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF),
14, 14
lumbar splanchnic nerves, 94
lumbar triangle, 9
lumbar vertebra, 6, 6
lumbocostal arches, 94, 94
lumbosacral trunk, 94, 108, 108, 120, 120
lumbrical muscles, 143, 143
lungs, 49, 49
fissures of, 50, 50
in the thorax, 50, 50
lobes of, 50, 50
removal of, 50–51
surfaces of, 50
lymph drainage
female pelvis, 121
male pelvis, 110
of mammary gland, 44
lymph nodes
celiac, 81
hepatic, 79, 81
mesenteric, 83
superficial inguinal, 124, 124
tracheobronchial, 61

M
malleus, 209, 210
mammary gland, 44, 44
mandible, 150, 152, 184, 202
bisection of, 203
external surface, 152, 186, 186
internal surface, 179, 186, 186
mandibular nerve, 152, 165, 167, 168, 188
mandibular teeth, 188
masseter muscle, 186
masseteric artery, 189
maxilla, 151, 169, 195, 196, 199, 199, 202
maxillary artery, 185, 188, 188, 202
maxillary nerve, 152, 165, 167, 167, 202
maxillary sinus, 197–198, 198
maxillary vein, 185
medial (superior) crus, 67
medial ligament of ankle, 147, 148
medial meniscus, 147, 147
medial palpebral ligament, 170, 170
median cubital vein, 16, 16
median nerve, 21, 21, 23, 24, 28, 30–31
mediastinal pleura, 52
mediastinum, 49, 52, 52
anterior, 52
boundaries of, 52
middle, 52–54, 53, 54
posterior, 52, 61–63, 62
subdivisions of, 52, 52
superior, 59–61, 60, 61
medullary cone, 13, 13
membranous urethra, 103, 103–104, 104
meningeal artery, middle, 160, 166, 167, 188, 188
meninges, spinal, 12–14, 14
menisci, 147, 147
mental nerve, 155, 156, 188
mesenteric artery
inferior, 84–85, 85, 85
superior, 82, 82–83, 83, 85
mesenteric lymph nodes, 83
mesenteric vein
inferior, 85
superior, 83
mesentery, 75, 77
root of, 84, 84
mesoappendix, 77, 85
metacarpal bones, 30, 30
metacarpophalangeal joints, 40, 40
middle mediastinum, 52–54, 53, 54
mitral valve, 57, 57–59, 59
moderator band, 57, 58–59
muscular triangle, of neck, 177, 177
musculocutaneous nerve, 21, 21, 23, 24, 26
mylohyoid muscle, 178, 180, 203

N
nasal cartilage, 196, 196
nasal cavity
boundaries of, 196
conchae and meatuses of, 197
lateral wall, 197, 197
skeleton of, 195, 195, 196
nasal septum, 196, 196–197, 197
nasociliary nerve, 172, 172–173
nasolacrimal duct, 171, 171, 197, 198
nasopalatine artery, 196–197, 197
nasopalatine nerves, 200, 200
nasopharynx, 194, 194
navicular fossa, 102
neck
anterior triangle, 176–180
bones and cartilages, 176, 177
boundaries of, 175, 176
carotid triangle, 178, 178–179
muscular triangle, 177, 177
submandibular triangle, 175, 179–180
submental triangle, 175, 180
superficial fascia, 176, 177
craniovertebral joints, 189–192
larynx, 205–207
lateral vertebral region, 191–192
muscular triangle, 177, 177
parathyroid gland, 181
pharynx, 192–195
posterior triangle, 174–176, 176
boundaries of, 174, 175
skin incisions, 174, 175
structures in, 174–176
prevertebral region, 191–192
root of, 181–183, 182
boundaries of, 181
subclavian artery, 182, 182–183
thyroid gland, 180–181, 181
transverse section through, 174, 175
nerve injuries, 22
nipple, 44, 44
noncoronary cusp, 59
nose, 196, 196. see also nasal cavity

O
oblique muscle
external, 67, 68
internal, 67–69, 68
superior, 171–172, 172
oblique pericardial sinus, 53, 54
obliquus capitis inferior muscle, 11
obliquus capitis superior muscle, 12
obturator artery, 108, 118, 119
obturator externus muscle, 130, 130, 145
obturator internus muscle, 109, 110, 121, 121,
132, 133
obturator nerve, 94, 123, 124, 130
occipital artery, 7, 7, 179, 179
occipital bone, 151, 158, 165, 166, 190, 190
removal of, 158, 159
occipital lobe, 164, 164
occipital nerve
greater, 7, 7
lesser, 175, 176
occipitofrontalis muscle, 157, 157
oculomotor nerve, 165, 166, 167, 172, 172–173
olfactory area, 197, 197
olfactory nerve, 166, 167
omental appendices, 86
omental foramen, 77, 77
omentum
greater, 75, 75–76
lesser, 75, 76
omohyoid muscle, 177, 177, 181
ophthalmic artery, 164, 164, 172–173, 173
ophthalmic nerve, 152, 165, 166–167, 167
ophthalmic veins, 172
opponens digiti minimi muscle, 33
opponens pollicis muscle, 33
optic nerve, 165, 166, 167, 172, 173
oral cavity, 202
oral cavity proper, 202–203, 203
oral opening, muscles of, 155, 155
oral region, 202–205
mandible, 203 (see also mandible)
sublingual area, 202–204, 204
surface anatomy, 202–203, 203
tongue, 203, 203
oral vestibule, surface anatomy, 202–203, 203
orbicularis oculi muscle, 154–155, 155, 170, 170
orbicularis oris muscle, 155, 155
orbit, 168–174
eyeball, 169–170, 170
eyelid, 169–170, 170
left, anterior approach, 173, 173–174
right, superior approach, 171, 171–173
skeleton of, 168–169, 169
orbital fissure, 169
orbital opening, muscles of, 154–155, 155
orbital septum, 170, 170
oropharynx, 194, 195
ovarian fossa, 115, 116
ovarian vein, 90
ovary, 115, 116

P
palate, 198–202
hard, 198
nerves of, 200
pterygopalatine fossa, 201, 201
skeleton of, 199, 199
soft, 198–200, 200
sphenopalatine foramen, 201, 201
tonsillar bed, 199, 201
palatine arteries, 201, 201
palatine bone, 195, 196, 199, 199
palatine glands, 198
palatine nerves, 201, 201
palatine tonsil, 194, 195, 199, 200
palatoglossal fold, 194, 195, 199, 201
palatoglossus muscle, 199, 201
palatopharyngeal fold, 194, 195, 199, 201
palatopharyngeus muscle, 199, 200
palm of hand, 30–35
deep, 34, 34
hypothenar muscles, 33–34
superficial, 30–31, 31, 32
thenar muscles, 33
palmar aponeurosis, 30
palmar digital arteries, 31
palmaris brevis muscles, 30–31
palmaris longus muscle, 31
palmaris longus tendon, 27, 28
pancreas, 86, 86–87, 87
pancreatic arteries, 87, 87
pancreatic ducts, 87, 87
pancreaticoduodenal arteries, 83, 87, 87
papillary muscles, 57, 58, 59
parametrium, 116
pararectal fossa, 104, 113
parathyroid gland, 181
paravesical fossa, 104, 113
parietal peritoneum, 74
parietal pleura, 49, 49, 52
parotid duct, 185
parotid sheath, 184
parotid bed, boundaries of, 184, 184
parotid duct, 153, 154
parotid gland, 153–154, 154, 184, 184–185
parotid plexus, 154
parotid region, 184, 184–185
patella, 125, 126
patellar ligament, 128
patellar tendon reflex, 128
pectinate line, 106, 107, 118
pectineus muscle, 127–129, 130
pectoral fascia, 44–45
pectoral nerves, 21, 21, 45–46
pectoral region, 43–46
breast, 43–44, 44
muscles of, 45, 45–46
skin incisions, 43, 43
superficial fascia, 44
pectoralis major muscle, 45, 45
pectoralis minor muscle, 45, 45
pelvic brim, 96–97, 97
pelvic cavity
female, 113–116
internal genitalia, 115, 115–116
peritoneum, 113, 113–114
male, 103, 103–105
internal genitalia, 104–105, 105
peritoneum, 103, 104
pelvic diaphragm, 96, 96
female, 120–121, 121
inferior surface of, 99, 99
male, 109, 109–110
pelvic inlet, 96, 96
pelvic ligaments, 96, 97
pelvic outlet, 97
pelvic splanchnic nerves, 108, 109, 120, 120
pelvis, 125, 126, 130, 131, 134
anal triangle, 97–99
female
internal iliac artery, 118–119, 119
lymph drainage of, 121
pelvic cavity, 113–116
pelvic diaphragm, 120–121, 121
rectum and anal canal, 117, 117–118
sacral plexus, 119–120, 120
urinary bladder, 116, 116–117, 117
urogenital triangle, 110–113
greater (false), 97
lesser (true), 97
male, 103, 103–105
internal iliac artery, 107, 107–108
lymph drainage of, 110
pelvic cavity, 103, 103–105
pelvic diaphragm, 109, 109–110
rectum and anal canal, 106, 106–107
sacral plexus, 108, 108–109
urinary bladder, 105–106, 106
urogenital triangle, 99–103
perineum, 97, 97–99
skeleton of, 96, 96–97, 97
penis, 101–102, 102
bulb of, 101, 101
corpus cavernosum, 102, 102–103
corpus spongiosum, 102, 102–103
crus of, 101, 101
deep fascia of, 102, 102
dorsal artery of, 102, 102
dorsal nerve of, 102, 102
dorsal vein of, 102, 102, 108
glans, 102
parts of, 101, 101
perforating arteries, 129, 130
pericardiacophrenic vessels, 50, 52
pericardial cavity, 53, 54
pericardial effusion, 54
pericardial sinus
oblique, 53, 54
transverse, 53, 54
pericardium, 50, 50, 52
how to open, 52, 53
pericranium, 157, 158
perimetrium, 116
perineal body, 100–101, 112
perineal membrane, 104, 105, 111, 111–112
perineal pouch
deep
female, 112, 112–113
male, 103, 103
superficial
female, 111, 111–112, 112
male, 100, 100–101
perineum
anal triangle, 97, 97–99
urogenital triangle
female, 110–113
male, 99–103
periorbita, 169, 171
peritoneal cavity, 74–77, 75
peritoneal sacs, 75, 77
peritoneum, 74, 76–77
female pelvis, 113, 113–114
male pelvis, 103, 104
parietal, 74, 76
visceral, 74, 76
peroneal artery, 140–141, 141
peroneal nerve, 123, 124, 139
petrosal nerves, 209, 209
petrosal sinus, superior, 166, 167
phalanges, 30, 30
pharyngeal artery, ascending, 179, 179
pharyngeal constrictor muscles, 192, 193
pharyngeal plexus, 192, 193
pharyngeal raphe, 192, 193
pharyngeal recess, 194, 194
pharyngeal tonsil, 194, 194
pharyngeal tubercle, 192, 193
pharyngeal wall
layers of, 192
muscles of, 192–193, 193, 200
nerves of, 192–194, 193
pharynx, 192–195
internal aspect of, 194–195
mucosal folds, 199, 199
pharyngeal wall, 192–194, 193
regions of, 194
phrenic nerve, 183, 183
phrenic nerves, 50, 52, 95
phrenic veins, 60, 60
phrenicocolic ligament, 77
pia mater
of brain, 161
of spine, 13–14
piriform recess, 195, 206
piriformis muscle, 132, 132
pisiform bone, 27, 27, 30
plane of sternal angle, 52
plantar aponeurosis, 142, 142
plantar arterial arch, 144
plantar artery, deep, 138, 139
plantar calcaneonavicular ligament, 149, 149
plantar digital nerves, 143, 143
plantar ligaments, 149, 149
plantar muscles
first layer, 142–143, 143
second layer, 143, 143, 144
third layer, 143–144, 144
plantar nerves, 143, 143
plantaris muscle, 140, 141
platysma muscle, 44, 153, 154, 174, 176
pleural cavities, 48–49, 49
pleural effusion, 49
pleural recesses, 49, 49
pleural reflection, lines of, 49, 49
pleural tap, 47, 47
pneumothorax, 49
pollicis brevis muscles, 33
popliteal artery, 135, 136
popliteal fossa, 134–135, 135
popliteus muscle, 135, 136, 140, 141
porta hepatis, 81, 81
posterior cruciate ligament, 147
prevertebral fascia, 191
probe, 1, 1
pronator quadratus muscle, 29
pronator teres muscle, 23, 24, 27, 28
proper palmar digital nerves, 31
prostate, 105, 105
psoas major muscle, 93, 93
psoas minor muscle, 93, 93
pterion, 152, 160
pterygoid canal, nerve of, 201, 201, 209
pterygoid muscle, 187, 188
lateral, 187, 188, 189
medial, 188
pterygoid process, medial plate of, 200, 200
pterygomandibular raphe, 192, 193
pterygopalatine fossa, 189, 201, 201
pterygopalatine ganglion, 202
pubic arch, 96, 97
pubocervical ligament, 114, 114
pubococcygeus muscle, 109, 110, 121, 121
pubofemoral ligament, 145, 145
puborectalis muscle, 109, 110, 121, 121
pudendal artery, internal, 99, 103, 108, 119, 119
pudendal canal, 99
pudendal nerve, 99, 103, 109, 120, 120, 132,
132
pudendal nerve block, 113
pudendal vein, internal, 99
pulmonary ligament, 49
pulmonary trunk, 53, 53–54, 54, 57, 58
pulmonary valve, 57, 57–58
pulmonary veins, 50, 51, 54, 54, 58, 58
pyramidalis muscle, 71

Q
quadrangular space, 18, 18
quadratus femoris muscle, 132, 133
quadratus lumborum muscle, 93, 93
quadratus plantae muscle, 143, 143
quadriceps femoris muscle, 128–129, 129
quadriceps reflex, 128

R
radial artery, 23, 24, 28, 36, 36
radial bursa, 31
radial collateral ligament, 39, 39
radial groove, 25
radial nerve, 17, 21, 21, 25–26, 28, 36
radial recurrent artery, 28
radiocarpal joint, 40, 40
radiocarpal ligaments, 39
radioulnar joint
distal, 27, 27, 39–40, 40
intermediate, 39
proximal, 27, 27, 39, 39
radius, 23, 23, 27, 27
rami communicantes, 63, 94
gray, 63, 109, 120, 192
white, 63
rectal artery, 85, 85
inferior, 99
middle, 108, 119, 119
superior, 85, 85
rectal examination, 106
rectal folds, transverse, 106, 107, 117
rectal nerve, inferior, 99, 99
rectouterine pouch, 113, 113
rectovesical pouch, 104
rectovesical septum, 105
rectum, 76, 76, 86, 106, 106–107, 117, 117–118
rectus abdominis muscle, 70–71, 71
rectus capitis anterior muscle, 191, 191
rectus capitis lateralis muscle, 191, 191
rectus capitis posterior major muscle, 11–12
rectus femoris muscle, 128, 129
rectus muscle
inferior, 173, 173
lateral, 172, 172
medial, 173, 173
superior, 172, 172
rectus sheath, 70
reflect, defined, 2
renal arteries, 91
renal calculi, 91
renal capsule, 91, 91
renal cortex, 91, 91
renal medulla, 91, 91
renal papillae, 91, 91
renal pelvis, 91, 91
renal sinus, 91, 91
renal vein, 90
retract, defined, 2
retromammary space, 44, 44
retroperitoneal organs, 74
retroperitoneal space, 89–92, 90
retropharyngeal space, 190
rhomboid muscles, 8, 9
ribs, 42, 42
false, 42
floating, 43
true, 42
rima glottidis, 207
rotator cuff, muscles of, 19
round ligament of the liver, 76
round ligament of the uterus, 66

S
sacral artery, lateral, 108, 119, 119
sacral canal, 12, 13
sacral plexus
female, 119–120, 120
male, 108, 108–109
sacral splanchnic nerves, 109, 120
sacroiliac ligaments, 96, 97
sacrotuberous ligament, 98
sacrum, 6, 6, 96, 97
sagittal sinus
inferior, 162, 163
superior, 159, 160, 162, 163
salpingopharyngeus muscle, 200, 200
saphenous nerve, 123, 124
saphenous opening, 124, 125, 126
saphenous vein, great, 123, 124
scalene muscles, 183, 183, 191, 192
scalp, 156–157
layers of, 156, 156
sensory nerves of, 157
skin incisions, 156–157, 157
scalpel, 1, 1
scaphoid, tubercle of, 30, 30
scapula, 4, 5, 17, 17, 43, 43
scapular anastomosis, 18, 19
scapular artery, dorsal, 182–183
scapular region, 17–19
cutaneous nerves, 16, 16–17
fascia of, 15, 17
skeleton of, 17, 17
skin incisions, 15–16, 16
superficial veins, 16, 16
surface anatomy, 15, 15
Scarpa’s fascia, 65
sciatic foramina, 96, 97
sciatic nerve, 108, 108, 120, 120, 132, 132, 134,
135
sciatic notches, 96, 97
scissors, 1, 1
scissors technique, 2, 2
scrotal ligament, 72
scrotal septum, 72
scrotum, 72
secondarily retroperitoneal organs, 74
sellar diaphragm, 167, 168
semilunar hiatus, 197, 198
semimembranosus muscle, 134, 135
seminal vesicle, 105, 105
seminiferous tubules, 73, 73
semispinalis muscle, 10, 10
semitendinosus muscle, 134, 135
septa, 73, 73
septal cartilage, 196, 196
septomarginal trabecula (moderator band), 57,
58–59
serous pericardium
parietal layer, 53
visceral layer, 53
serratus anterior muscle, 21, 22, 45, 46
serratus posterior inferior muscle, 9
serratus posterior superior muscle, 9
sesamoid bones, 144, 144
sharp dissection, 2
shoulder. see glenohumeral joint; scapular region
diaphragmatic pain referred to, 176
sigmoid arteries, 85, 85
sigmoid colon, 76, 76, 86
sigmoid mesocolon, 77
sigmoid sinus, 162, 163
sinoatrial node, 57, 57
skin, removal of, 3, 3
skull, 161, 162
anterior view, 150, 151
interior of, 158–161
lateral view, 150, 151, 152
removal of calvaria, 157, 158
removal of occipital bone, 158, 159
superior view, 152, 152
small intestines, 75, 76, 83–84, 84
small saphenous vein, 124
soft palate, 198–200, 200
sole of foot, 142–144, 143, 144
soleus muscle, 140, 141
spermatic cord, 72, 72–73
sphenoid bone, 165, 166, 169, 195, 196, 199, 199
sphenoidal sinus, 197, 198
sphenopalatine artery, 196–197, 197, 201, 201
sphenopalatine foramen, 201, 201
sphincter urethrae muscle, 103
spinal cord, 12–14, 13
spinal ganglion, 14, 14
spinal meninges, 12–14, 14
spinal nerves, 12, 13, 14, 14
spinalis muscle, 10, 10
splanchnic nerves, 63, 95
spleen, 75, 75, 76, 80, 80
splenic artery, 80
splenic flexure, 76, 76
splenic vein, 85, 87
splenius muscle, 10, 10
spongy urethra, 102, 102–103
stapes, 209, 210
sternal angle, plane of, 52
sternoclavicular joint, 37, 37
sternoclavicular ligament, anterior, 37, 37
sternohyoid muscle, 177, 177
sternothyroid muscle, 177, 177
sternum, 43, 43
stomach
internal features of, 88, 88
location of, 75, 75, 76
parts of, 77, 78
straight sinus, 162, 163
strip a vein, 2
styloglossus muscle, 201, 204, 204
stylohyoid muscle, 185
stylopharyngeus muscle, 192, 193, 200, 200
subarachnoid space, 13, 160
subclavian artery, 20, 20, 182, 183
first part, 182
left, 60, 61
second part, 182
third part, 182–183
subclavian vein, 181–182, 182
subclavius muscle, 45, 46
subcostal nerve, 66, 93
subdural hematoma, 160
sublingual area, 202–204, 204
sublingual gland, 203, 204
submandibular duct, 203, 204
submandibular ganglion, 204
submandibular gland, 203, 204
submandibular triangle, 175, 179–180
submental triangle, 175, 180
suboccipital nerve, 11, 12
suboccipital region, skeleton of, 189–190, 190
suboccipital triangle, 11–12
subpubic angle, 96, 97
subscapular artery, 20, 20
subscapular nerves, 21, 21
subscapularis muscle, 21, 22
subtalar joint, 148–149, 149
sulcus, of the heart, 54
superficial perineal pouch
female, 111, 111–112, 112
male, 100, 100–101
superior oblique muscle, 172
superior rectus muscle, 172
superior thoracic artery, 20
superior vena cava, 53, 54, 54, 60, 60
supraclavicular nerves, 175, 176
supraorbital nerve, 155, 156, 157
suprarenal glands, 91–92, 92
suprascapular artery, 18, 19, 182, 183
suprascapular nerve, 18, 19
supraspinatus muscle, 18, 18
sural nerve, 124
suspensory ligaments of breast, 44, 44
sustentaculum tali, 144
sympathetic trunk, 63, 94, 109, 120
cervical portion of, 183, 191–192
sacral portion of, 109

T
talonavicular joint, 148–149, 149
tarsal artery, lateral, 138, 139
tarsal bones, 137, 137
tarsal glands, 170, 170
tarsal plates, 170, 170
tectorial membrane, 190, 191
tegmen tympani, 209, 210
temporal artery
deep, 188, 188
superficial, 185
temporal bone, 151, 165, 166, 184, 208, 208
temporal fossa, 185, 187
temporal lobe, 164, 164
temporal region, 185–189
infratemporal fossa, 187–189, 188
removal of zygomatic arch, 186–187, 187
skeleton of, 185–186, 186
temporal fossa, 187
temporomandibular joint, 189, 189
temporal vein, superficial, 185
temporalis muscle, 157, 158, 187
temporomandibular joint, 189, 189
teniae coli, 86
tensor of the fascia lata, 132, 133
tensor veli palatini muscle, 200, 200
tentorial notch, 163
teres major muscle, 18, 18
teres minor muscle, 18, 18
testicular arteries, 73, 90
testicular varicocele, 90
testicular vein, 90
thenar muscles, 30, 33
thigh
anterior compartment, 124–129
adductor canal, 128
femoral triangle, 126, 126–128
quadriceps femoris muscle, 128–129, 129
saphenous opening, 125, 126
compartments of, 125, 126, 128
deep artery of the, 127, 127, 129
medial compartment, 129–130, 130
motor nerve territories of, 136, 136
popliteal fossa, 134–135, 135
posterior compartment, 133–136, 135
skeleton of, 125, 126
transverse section, 128
thoracic aorta, 62, 62–63
thoracic aperture
inferior (thoracic outlet), 48
superior (thoracic inlet), 48
thoracic arteries, 20, 20, 48
internal, 48, 48, 182, 182
lateral, 20, 20, 46, 46
superior, 20, 20
thoracic duct, 62, 62, 183, 183
thoracic nerve, long, 22
injury to, 22
thoracic vertebra, 4–5, 5, 42, 43
thoracic wall, removal of the anterior, 47–48, 48
thoraco-acromial artery, 20, 20, 45–46
thoracoabdominal nerves, 66
thoracoappendicular group of muscles, anterior,
45, 45–46
thoracocentesis, 47, 47
thoracodorsalis nerve, injury to, 22
thorax
heart, 52–53, 53
intercostal space and muscles, 46–47, 47
lungs, 50, 50–51, 51
mediastinum, 52, 52
middle, 52–54, 53, 54
posterior, 61–63, 62
superior, 59–61, 60, 61
pectoral region, 43–46
pleural cavities, 48–49, 49
removal of the anterior thoracic wall, 47–48, 48
skeleton of, 42–43, 43
surface anatomy, 42, 42
thymus, 60
thyroarytenoid muscle, 206, 206
thyrocervical trunk, 182, 182
thyrohyoid membrane, 178, 205, 205
thyrohyoid muscle, 177, 177
thyroid artery
inferior, 182, 183
superior, 179, 179, 180
thyroid cartilage, 205, 205
thyroid gland, 180–181, 181
thyroid veins, 180
tibia, 125, 126, 134, 136, 137
tibial arteries, 141
anterior, 138, 138, 140
posterior, 140
tibial collateral ligament, 146, 147
tibial nerve, 134, 135, 140, 141
tibialis anterior muscle, 138, 138
tibialis posterior muscle, 140, 141
tibialis posterior tendon, 144
tongue, 202, 203
body of, 203
dorsum of, 203, 203
intrinsic muscles of, 204, 204
tonsillar bed, 199, 201
torus tubarius, 194, 194
trabeculae carneae, 57, 58–59
trachea, bifurcation of, 61, 61
tracheal rings, 61, 61
tracheobronchial lymph nodes, 61
tracheotomy, 177
transversalis fascia, 71, 71
transverse colon, 76, 76, 86, 89
transverse intermuscular septum, 140
transverse mesocolon, 77
transverse pericardial sinus, 53, 54
transverse perineal muscle
female
deep, 112, 112
superficial, 111, 112
male
deep, 103, 103
superficial, 100, 101
transverse process, 5, 5
transverse scapular ligament, 18, 19
transverse sinuses, 159, 160, 162, 163
transverse tarsal joint, 148–149, 149
transversospinal group of muscles, 10–11
transversus abdominis muscle, 69, 93, 93
transversus thoracis muscle, 48
trapezium, tubercle of, 30, 30
trapezius muscle, 7, 7–8, 8, 18
triangle of auscultation, 9
triangular ligaments, 76
triceps brachii muscle, 18, 18, 25, 26
tricuspid valve, 57, 57–58
trigeminal ganglion, 167
trigeminal nerve, 155, 165, 167, 167
trigone
female, 116, 117
male, 106
trochlear nerve, 165, 166, 167, 171, 171
tunica albuginea, 73, 73
tunica vaginalis, 73, 73
tympanic cavity, 208–210, 209
tympanic membrane, 208, 209, 210

U
ulna, 27, 27
ulnar artery, 23, 24, 28–29, 31, 34
ulnar bursa, 31
ulnar collateral arteries, 23, 24
ulnar collateral ligament, 39, 39
ulnar nerve, 17, 21, 21, 23, 24, 29, 31, 34
ulnar recurrent arteries, 29
umbilical artery, 108, 118, 119
umbilical folds, 74
upper limb
arm, 22, 22–26, 23
axilla, 19, 19–22
forearm, 26, 26–30, 27
extensor region of, 35–36, 36
flexor region of, 26–30
hand
dorsum of, 35–36, 36
palm of, 30–35
joints of, 37–41
acromioclavicular, 37, 38
elbow, 39, 39
glenohumeral, 37–38, 38
interphalangeal, 40, 41
metacarpophalangeal, 40, 40
sternoclavicular, 37, 37
wrist, 40, 40
scapular region, 17–19
cutaneous nerves, 16, 16–17
deep fascia of, 17
fascia of, 15
skin incisions, 15–16, 16
superficial veins, 16, 16
surface anatomy, 15, 15
ureter, 91, 91
urethra
female, 113, 117
male, 102, 102–103
injury to, 100, 100
interior of the prostatic, 104, 105
membranous, 103, 103–104, 104
parts of, 104, 105
urethral orifice, external, 102
urethral sphincter muscle, external, 103–104, 104,
112, 113
urinary bladder
female, 116, 116–117, 117
male, 105–106, 106
urogenital diaphragm, 103
urogenital hiatus, 109, 120
urogenital triangle, 97–98
female, 97, 110–113
clitoris, 112, 112
deep perineal pouch, 112, 112–113
external genitalia, 110, 111
skin removal, 110–111, 111
superficial perineal pouch, 111, 111–112, 112
male, 97, 99–103
deep perineal pouch, 103, 103
penis, 101–102, 102
skin removal, 99–100
spongy urethra, 102, 102–103
superficial perineal pouch, 100, 100–101
uterine artery, 118, 119
uterine cavity, 115, 116
uterine tube, 114, 114, 115, 116
uterosacral ligament, 114, 114
uterus, 115, 115–116
broad ligament of, 114
round ligament of, 114

V
vagal trunk, 62
vagina, 115, 115
vaginal artery, 119, 119
vaginal fornix, 115, 115
vagus nerve, 50, 165, 167, 168, 179, 179, 183, 183
left, 53, 53, 60, 61, 62, 62
pharyngeal branch, 193, 194
right, 62, 62
vas deferens, 72
vasa recta, 83, 83
vasectomy, 73
vastus intermedius muscle, 129, 129
vastus lateralis muscle, 128–129, 129
vastus medialis muscle, 129, 129
vein, strip a, 2
vena cava
inferior, 81, 81, 92, 92
superior, 53, 54, 54, 60, 60
vena caval foramen, 94, 95
venous plexus, 119
ventral primary ramus of a spinal nerve, 14
ventricle
left, 58–59, 59
right, 57, 57–58
vertebra
C1, 5, 11, 11, 189–190, 190, 191
C2, 5, 11, 11, 189, 190
cervical, 5–6, 6
laminae of, 12, 13
lumbar, 6, 6
thoracic, 4–5, 5, 42, 43
vertebra prominens, 5
vertebral arteries, 11, 12, 164, 165, 182, 182
vertebral column, 4, 5, 12–14, 13
vertebral venous plexuses, 12
vesical artery, inferior, 108
vesicouterine pouch, 113, 113
vestibular fold, 207, 207
vestibulocochlear nerve, 165, 167, 168, 209, 209
visceral peritoneum, 74
visceral pleura, 49, 49
vocal fold, 207, 207
vocal ligaments, 205, 205
vocal process, 205, 205
vocalis muscle, 207
vulva, 110, 111

W
wrist
anterior aspect of, 28
bones of, 30
joint of, 40, 40

Z
zygomatic arch, 186
removal of, 186–187, 187
zygomatic bone, 151
zygomaticus major muscle, 155, 155

мусанд