Boards&WardsSeries_PathophysiologyForTheBoards&Wards4ed2003Ayala
наименование:Boards and Wards Series: Pathophysiology for the Boards and Wards: A Review for USMLE Step 1
автор/ы : Ayala Carlos, Spellberg Brad
год : 2003
страниц : 331
издательство : Blackwell Publishers (4th edition)
ISBN: 1405103426

печатное издание


This study aid features the most tested information on the USMLE Step 1 in outline and question-and-answer format. Material is presented through an organ-based clinical pathophysiological approach to patient management and treatment. Color photos and b&w medical images are included. The guide can also be helpful as a companion on rotations. Ayala is a clinical fellow at Harvard Medical School. Spellberg is a fellow at Harbor-University of California-Los Angeles Medical Center.



содержание



указатель


Contributors X
Reviewers X
List of Tables XI
List of Algorithms XIII
Abbreviations Key XIII
Preface XIV
Acknowledgments XV
1.  Neurology 1
2.  Head and Neck 20
3.  Cardiovascular 36
4.  Pulmonary 57
5.  Breast 80
6.  Gastroenterology and Liver 86
7.  Nephrology 106
8.  Genitourinary 130
9.  Endocrinology 144
10.  Musculoskeletal 168
11.  Hematology 185
12.  Dermatology 204
APPENDICES
A.  Basic Neurology Review 215
B.  Zebras and Syndromes 227
C.  Basic Immunology Review 231
D. Toxicology 243
E.  Pearls 244
F. Vitamins 247
Questions 248
Answers 275
Index 303


A-V nicking, 26
A vitamin
deficiency of, 247t
excess of, 247t
Abdominal striae, 152f
Abetalipoproteinemia, 91
ABO incompatibility, 187
ABO system, 186
Abruptio placentae,
139-140
diagnosis of, 261,288
Abscess
4 brain, 10-11
causes of, 10-11
complications of, 10
crypt, 92
perinephric, 107
peritonsillar, 32
quinsy peritonsillar, 35
risk factors for, I0
treatment of, I0
tubo-ovarian 137
Acantholysis, 204
Acanthosis 204
Acanthosis nigricans, 208
ACE inhibitors
for aortic regurgitation, 47
for atrial fibrillation, 276
for cardiomyopathy, 4@
for congestive heart
I=E failure, 44
for hypertension, 38
for mitral regurgitation,
46
for myocardial
infarction, 41,276
for nephropathy, 251,
278
Acetazolamide
for cystinuria, 110
for glaucoma, 25
for hydrocephalus, 14
Acetylcholine, 225
Achalasia, 86
presentation of, 264,
291-292
Achondroplasia, 171
Acid-base disorders
determination of,
122-124f
in diabetes mellitus,
271-272, 299-300
Acid hydrolase deficiency,
289
Acidemia, diabetic, 147
Ache, 212
Acoustic neuroma, 29
Acquired
immunodeficiency
syndrome
course of, 240
encephalitis in, 9
epidemiology of, 239
I-IIV biology in, 239-240
Kaposi's sarcoma in,
210
long-term survivors of,
240
lymphoma in, 12-13
Mycobacterium avium
intracellulare in, 90
opportunistic infections
of, 240
toxoplasmosis in, 8
treatment of, 240-241
Acromegaly, 163
cardiovascular
complications of, 259,
287
growth hormone
secretion in, 146
in hypertension, 37
ACTH, ectopic secretion,
167
ACTH-secreting tumors
ectopic, 150
small cell, 293
Actinic keratosis, 209
Actinobacillus
endocarditis, 50
Actinomyces israelii
in cervical
lymphadenitis, 35
in pneumonia, 75t
Acyclovir
for aseptic meningitis, 7
for genital herpes, 143
for herpes simplex
encephalitis, 9
Addison's disease, 152, 207
diagnosis of, 301
Adenocarcinoma
carcinoembryonic
antigen in, 293
colonic, 96
gastric, 88
lung, 70t
prostate, 132
of small intestine, 91
Adenohypophysis, 222
hormones secreted by,
223
Adenoma
hepatic, 101
pituitary, 150
presentation of, 281
renal, 120
thyroid, 159
Adenomatous polyps,
colon, 95
Adenovirus, 34
Adrenal cortex
hormones of, 149
hyperfunction of, 153
Adrenal glands
disorders of, 150-151
physiology of, 149-150
Adrenal hyperplasia,
congenital, 153, 156
Adrenal insufficiency, 52-153
Adrenal medulla,
pathologies of, 153
Ad renoleu kodystrop hy,
227t
Adriamycin, 45
Adult respiratory distress
syndrome (ARDS), 67
with encephalitis, 261,
288
lung pathology of, 299
Aganglionic megacolon,
91
Agglutination, 186
AIDS. See Acquired
immunodeficiency
virus
Airway secretions, 73
Albers-Sch6nberg disease,
171-172
Albinism, 206
Albuterol, toxicity of, 245
Alcohol-related dilated
cardiomyopathy, 45
Alcoholic liver disease,
98-I 00
Alcoholism, acute
pancreatitis of, 296-297
Aldosterone, 150
synthesis of, 149
Alkaline phosphatase, 244
Alkaptonuria, 227t
Allergic hypersensitivity,
242
Allergic reaction, 232
21-Alpha hydroxylase
defect, 287
c-l-antitrypsin deficiency,
62
c-agonists, 25
c-fetoprotein prenatal
testing, 245
17-c-hydroxylase
deficiency, 156
21-c-hydroxylase
deficiency, 156
c-melanocyte stimulating
hormone, 231
5-c-reductase, 154
in benign prostatic
hyperplasia, 267, 295
deficiency of, 154
c-thalassemia, 190
Alport's syndrome, 29
lens dislocation in, 23
nephropathy of, 116t
Alzheimer's disease,
18-I 9, 224
Amantadine, 75t
Amaurosis [ugax, 2
Ameloblastoma, 32
Aminoaciduria, 118
Aminoglycoside, 184
Amiodarone, 42
Ammonium magnesium
phosphate stones,
118
Amoxicillin, 27
Amphotericin, 31
Amphotericin B
for amebic meningitis, 8

for pneumonia, 75t
Ampicillin, 7
Amygdala, 224
Amylase, serum level, 297
Amyloid, 244
Amyotrophic lateral
sclerosis (ALS), 19
ANA serum levels, 273,
301
Anaerobes, 74t
Anagrelide, 197
Androgens, 155
Anemia
aplastic, 187
of chronic disease, 189
Cooley's, ! 90
Fanconi's, 227t
hemolytic, 189-190
iron deficiency, 188-189
presentation of, 283
megaloblastic, 187-188
diagnostic tests tor,
273, 301-302
microcytic, 188-191
peripheral blood smear
in, 191t
pernicious, 247% 284
anti-intrinsic factor and
antiparietal cell
antibodies in, 257,
284
autoimmune, 273-274,
301
sickle cell, 190-191
C type, 191
pyogenic ostemyelitis
in, 172
S type, 190-191
sideroblastic, 189
Aneurysm
berry, rupture of, 4
Charcot-Bouchard, 4
location of, 257, 284
mycotic, 4
Angina pectoris, 39
Angioedema, hereditary,
241
Angiofibroma, juvenile, 30
Angiomyolipoma, renal,
120
Anion gap
calculation of, 299-300
in diabetic ketoacidosis,
147
Anion gap metabolic
acidosis, 272, 300
Ankylosing spondylitis,
177
Anopsia, superior and
inferior quadrantic, 22f
Anosmia, bilateral and
unilateral, 224
Anoxia
cell injury by, 1
neurologic
characteristics of, 17
Anterolateral system, 215
Antibiotics
for aortic regurgitation,
47
for diphtheria, 34
for Ludwig's angina, 32
for meningitis, 7
Antibodies, 238
Antibody-dependent cell-
mediated cytotoxicity
(ADCC), 232
Anticholinergic toxicity,
244
Anticholinesterase
inhibitors, 184
Anticoagulation, 249-250,
276
Antidiuretic hormone, 111
Antidotes, 243
Antidouble-stranded DNA
test, 273, 301
Antigen presenting cells
(APCs), 232
efficient, 233
in peripheral tolerance,
236
professional, 234
Antigenic ignorance, 236
reversal of, 236
Antihistamine
for conjunctivitis, 23t
for urticaria, 206
Antihistone antibodies,
253, 280
Anti-intrinsic factor, 257,
284
Antimitochondrial
antibody test, 97
in primary biliary
cirrhosis diagnosis,
251,278
Antioxidanls, 26
Antiparietal cell
antibodies, 257, 284
Antithrombin deficiency,
196
Antithymocyte globulin,
187
Antral web, 296
Aorta, coarctation of, 55,
248-249, 275
in hypertension, 36
murmurs with, 55t
Aortic arch, 20t
Aortic dissection, 52
Aortic sclerosis, 55t
Aortic valve
regurgitation of, 47
heart sounds in, 277
in hypertension, 36
murmurs with, 55t
stenosis of, 47-48
heart sounds in, 277
murmurs with, 55t
APCs. See Antigen
presenting cells (APCs)
Aphasia
Broca's, 224
with cerebral stroke, 3t
Aphthous stomatitis, 32
Apnea
central, 71
mixed, 71
types of, 71
Apoptosis, 1
Appendicitis, 96, 294
diagnosis of, 296
Appendix, tumor of, 96
APUDoma, 91
Arachnoid, 226
Arboviruses, 9
ARDS. See Adult
respiratory distress
syndrome (ARDS)
ArgylI-Robertson pupil, 23
in meningovascular
syphilis, 10
Arnold-Chiari
malformation, 15
in congenital
hydrocephalus, 14
Arrhinencephaly, 15t
Arrhythmia
heart block, 41
reentry, 41
types of, 41-44
Arthritis
acute gouty, 182f
monoarticular, 180
Arthropathy, 174-182
Arthropod encephalitis
viruses, 9
Arthrus reaction, 242
Asbestosis, 69
lung presentation of, 65t
Ascites, 99t
Aseptic avascular necrosis,
171
Aspergillus
in endocarditis, 49
in fungal sinusitis, 31
in phagocyte defects,
242
in pneumonia, 75t
Aspirin
for angina pectoris, 39
tor congestive heart
failure, 45
for myocardial infarct,
4O
in platelet dysfunction,
193
for transient ischemic
attack, 2
Asterixis, 17
Asterognosis, 224
Asthma, 62
allergic occupational, 72
eosinophils in, 232
extrinsic, 62
inhaled steroids for, 253,
280
intrinsic, 62
lung pathology of, 299
nonallergic
occupational, 72
spirometry in, 57
Astrocytes, 226
responses to injury, 1
Astrocytoma, grade IV, 11
Ataxia-telangiectasia, 241
Atenolol, 253, 280
Atherosclerosis, 2
cholesterol in, 36
etiology of, 36
pathologic characteristics
of, 36
Atherosclerotic plaque, 36
in renal artery stenosis,
117
Atrial contraction, 49f
Atrial fibrillation, 41-42
in congestive heart
failure, 44
EKG in, 43t
therapy for, 249-250,
276
Atrial flutter, 43t
Atrial septal defect, 54,
275
heart sounds in, 277
murmurs with, 55t
Augmentin
for otitis media, 27
for sinusitis, 31
Auspitz sign, 205, 248,
275
Autoimmune hepatitis,
100
Autoimmune
polyendocrinopathy,
301
Autoimmunity, 236-237
Autoinflammatory disease,
24
Axon
manifestations of
damage to, 1
prolonged injury to, 1
Azathioprine, 184
Azithromycin (AZT)
for AIDS, 240
for aseptic meningitis, 7
for chancroid, 142
in dilated
cardiomyopathy, 45
for lymphogranuloma
venereum, 141
Azotemia
in chronic renal failure,
111
presentation of, 279
B-cell deficiencies
acquired, 239
congenital, 239
B-cell/T-cell deficiencies,
combined, 241
B lymphocytes, 234
in immunity, 235
B12 vitamin
for alcoholic liver
disease, 100
deficiency of, 188
anti-intrinsic factor and
antiparietal cell
antibodies in, 257,
284
diagnostic tests for,
273, 301-302
neurologic
characteristics of, 17
B vitamin deficiencies,
247t
in glossitis, 32
Bacillary angiomatosis,
213
Bacterial infections
cutaneous, 212-213
immune defense against,
238
Bacteroides sinusitis, 31
Bactrim
for otitis media, 27
for pneumonia, 75t
for sinusitis, 31
for toxoplasmosis, 8
 Balloon sphincterotomy,
86
Banti's syndrome, 227t
Barium swallow, 292
Badow disease, 289
Badow's syndrome, 46,
55t
Barr bodies, 154
Bartonella
henselae, 213
in cervical
lymphadenitis, 35
quintana, 213
Bartter's syndrome, 227t
Basal cell carcinoma, 209
risk of metastasis of,
254, 281
Basal ganglia, 223
Basophils, 232
Batten's disease, 17
Battle's sign, 30
Becker's dystrophy, 183
Behcet's syndrome, 176
Bell's palsy, 30-31
Bence-Jones proteinuria,
173
Benign prostatic
hyperplasia, 132
presentation of, 267,
295
Benzodiazepine, 100
Benztropine, 19
Berger's disease
in Henoch-Sch6nlein
syndrome, 213
nephropathy of, ! 16t
Beriberi, 247t
Bernard-Soulier syndrome,
193
Berry aneurysms, 284
Beryllium disease,
chronic, 72
Beta agonists, 253, 280
Beta-antagonists, 253, 280
[3-blockers, 278
for angina pectoris, 39
for atrial fibrillation,
276
for cardiomyopathy, 46t
for congestive heart
failure, 44
for glaucoma, 25
for hypertension, 38
for migraine prophylaxis,
21
for mitral stenosis, 47
for myocardial
infarction, 40, 276
for supraventricular
tachycardia, 42
for thyroid storm, 161
11-l-hydroxylase
deficiency, 156, 287
3-[-hydroxysteroid
dehydrogenase
deficiency, 156
[-thalassemia, 190
presentation of, 286
Bicarbonate, 110
Bile duct cancer, 97
Bile duct carcinoma, 101
Biliary colic, 101-102
Biliary tract disease,
296-297
Binswanger's disease, 227t
Biopsy, bone marrow, 186,
302
Biotin deficiency, 247t
Birbeck granules, 172
Bladder
cancer of, 131132
congenital diseases of,
131
Bladder wall
evaginations of, 131
extrophy of, 131
Blast cells, maturation of,
185
Blast crisis, 199
Bleeding disorders, 193
Bleeding time, 258, 285
Blindness
in carotid emboli, 2
glaucoma in, 24-25
in right eye, 22f
in vertebrobasilar
emboli, 2
Blistering disorders
cutaneous, 210
in spongiosis, 205
Blood-brain barrier
anatomy and functions
of, 226
compromised, 1
disorders of, 226
Blood cell disorders,
185-203
Blood groups, 186
Blood products, 186-187
Blue bloater, 62
Blumer's shelf, 89
Boerhaave's syndrome,
87
Bone diseases
metabolic, 168-171
nonneoplastic, 171-172
Bone marrow, 231
biopsy of, 186, 302
transplant of, 187
Bone tumors
benign, 172-173
malignant, 173-174
Bordetella pertussis, 45
Borrelia burgdorferi, 8
Botulinum toxin, 86
Bradyarrhythmia, 43t
Bradycardia, sinus, 43t
Brain
abscess of, 10-11
in immunology, 231
midsagittal section of,
222f
Brain stem, 217-218
lesions of, 218
Branchial cleft cysts, 33,
277
Branchial derivatives, 20t
Breast Brownian motion, 73
benign mass in, 80, 81f Brucellosis, 299
carcinomas of, 83-85 Brudzinski's sign, 6
cysts of, 80, 82f Bruton's
ductal carcinoma in situ agammaglobulinemia,
of, 83 239
fibroadenoma of, 80, 81f Bruton's lines, 189
fibrous pseudolump in, Budd-Chiari syndrome,
83 100
inflammatory carcinoma Buffalo hump, 150, 151f
of, 85 Bulla, 204
intraductal hyperplasia Bullous myringitis, 27
of, 83 Bullous pemphigoid, 210,
intraductal papilloma of, 292
83 Burns
invasive ductal first-degree, 214, 298
carcinoma of, 83 second-degree, 214,
invasive Iobular 298
carcinoma of, 84 third-degree, 214,
Iobular carcinoma in situ 269-270, 298
of, 83
mammography of, 85
mastalgia of, 80
C2/C4 deficiency, 241
Paget's disease of, 84, C3/C5 deficiency, 241
292 C vitamin deficiency, 247t
Breast cancer in scurvy, 169, 289
ductal carcinoma in situ Caisson's disease, 227t
in risk of, 254, 281 Calcitonin, 164
with gynecomastia, 255, in paraneoplastic
282 syndromes, ! 67
risk factors for, 251-252, Calcitriol, 252, 279
278-279 Calcium
risk of, 80 deficiency of, 166
Brenner tumor, 135 disorders of, 164
Brodie's abscess, 172 excess of, 165-166
Bromocriptine, 12 fall in serum level of,
Bronchial carcinoid 165f
tumors homeostasis of, 164
characteristics and physiology of, 163-164
histology of, 70t in squamous cell
suppressing ACTH carcinoma, 265-266,
secretion, 167 293
Bronchial cyst, 71t subcutaneous and
Bronchial periarticular deposits
hyperresponsiveness, 62 of, 178f
Bronchiectasis, 62 Calcium-channel blockers,
Bronchitis, chronic, 62 42
Bronchoalveolar Calcium pyrophosphate
carcinoma, 70t stones, 118
Bronchoconstriction, 73 CalI-Exner bodies, 136
Bronchogenic carcinoma, Calymmatobacterium
70t granulomatis, 142,295
Brown Sequard syndrome, Cancer
215 of breast
detection of, 85
risk of, 80
colonic, 95-96
cutaneous, 208-210
dermatologic, 208-210
of gallbladder, 102
gastric, 88-89
hypercalcemia and, 165
of male bladder, 131-132
oral, 32
pancreatic, 103
parenchymal lung, 70t
prostate, 132, 133f, 266,
294
respiratory tract, 69-71
of small intestine, 91
Candida
albicans, 239
vaginal infection of,
294
in endocarditis, 49
in esophagitis, 87
in sore throat, 34
in urinary tract
infections, 106
in vulvovaginitis, 137,
138t
Candidiasis
chronic mucocutaneous,
239
oral, 32
Canker sore, 32
Carbon monoxide,
diffusion limited
(DLCO), 57
Carbon monoxide
poisoning
diagnosis of, 258,
285-286
neurologic
characteristics of, 17
Carbonic anhydrase II
deficiency, 289
Carboxyhemoglobin, 258,
285-286
Carcinoembryonic antigen,
96
in adenocarcinoma, 293
Carcinoid, 91
of appendix, 96
Carcinoid tumor,
bronchial, 293
Carcinoma
anaplastic, 163
basal cell, 209, 254, 281
of breast, 83-85
ductal in situ, 265,
292-293
esophageal, 87
follicular, 162-163
in situ, of male
genitourinary tract, 130
of male bladder, 131
medullary, 162
papillary, 162
squamous cell, 70t, 209,
265-266, 281,293
transitional bladder, 131
 Cardiac tamponade, 50
Cardiobacterium hominis
endocarditis, 50
Cardiogenic shock, 67,
245
Cardiomyopathy
congestive, 51f
dilated, 45-46
hypertrophic, 45-46
obstructive, 47
sustained apical
impulse in, 250-251,
277
restrictive, 45-46
Cardiovascular disorders,
36-56
with acromegaly, 259,
287
Cardioversion
for atrial fibrillation, 41,
42, 276
for supraventricular
tachycardia, 42
Carey-Coombs murmur,
5O
Caroli's disease, 227t
Carotid arteries, 20t
Carotid body tumor,
33-34
Carotid embolus, classic,
2
Caseating granuloma, 77
Cataracts, 27
Catecholamine-producing
tumors, 153
Cauda equina syndrome,
215
Caudate, 223
Cavernous sinus, 144
CD4 cells, 234, 240
CD8+ T cells, 233, 234
Cefotaxime, 6, 7
Ceftazidime, 7
Ceftriaxone
for fungal meningitis, 8
for meningitis, 6, 7
Celiac disease, 90
Cell(s)
responses to injury, 1
types of, !
Cellular neurobiology, 1
Central nervous system,
231
Central pontine
myelinolysis, ! 6
Cephalosporin
for chancroid, 142
for gonorrhea, 141
for pneumoniae, 74t
for spontaneous bacterial
peritonitis, 99
Cerebellar tonsillar
herniation, 4
Cerebellum
anatomy of, 219
lesions of, 219
Cerebral aqueduct, 217
Cerebral artery, 223
stroke of, 3t
Cerebral peduncles, 217
Cerebrospinal fluid
elevated protein level of
in Guillain-Barr
syndrome, 263, 291
findings of in multiple
sclerosis, 250, 277
Cetriaxone, 74t
Chagas' disease
in dilated
cardiomyopathy, 45
esophageal motility
disorder in, 292
Chalazion, 23
Chancroid, 142
Charcot-Marie-Tooth
disease, 227t
Charcot's triad, 102
Chediak-Higashi
syndrome, 242
Cheilosis, 247t
Chemokines, 238
Chemoreceptors
central, 57
peripheral, 57
Cherry-red spot, 26
in Neimann-Pick
disease, 18
in Tay-Sachs disease, 17
Chest wall disease, 64
Cheyne-Stokes
respirations, 227t
Chickenpox, 211-212
cause of, 295
Child abuse, 244
Chlamydia
burnetii, 75t
in erythema nodosum,
207
in pelvic inflammatory
disease, 293-294
pneumoniae, 75t
trachomatis, 141-142
in pelvic inflammatory
disease, 136
in urinary tract
infections, 106
Chloasma, 206
Chloramphenicol, 245
Chloride channel defect,
29O
Chloride-responsive
alkalosis, 124f
Chloride sweat test, 30
Choanal atresia, 29
Cholangiocarcinoma,
101
Cholangitis, ascending,
102
Cholecystitis, 102
Choledocholithiasis, 97
Cholelithiasis, 101-102
Cholestasis, 97
Cholesteatoma, 28
Cholesterol, 36
Cholesterol stones, 101
Cholestetoma, 264, 291
Cholinomimetics, 25
Chondrosarcoma, 173
Choriocarcinoma, 131
uterine, 136
Chorionic villi sampling,
245
Choroid plexus
epithelium of, 226
papilloma of, 12
Christmas disease, 194
Chromatolysis, proximal
central, 1
Chromium deficiency,
247t
Chromosomal disorders,
neurologic, 15
Chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease
(COPD), 61-62
Chur-Strauss syndrome,
65t
Chvostek's sign, 166
Cingulate gyrus, subfalcine
herniation of, 4
Ciprofloxacin
for chancroid, 142
for gonorrhea, 141
Cirrhosis, 100
biliary, laboratory tests
for, 251,278
primary biliary, 97
secondary biliary, 97
viral, 97
Cisapride, 88
Claw hand, 244
Clear cell tumor, ovarian,
135
Cleft lip, 31
Cleft palate, 31
Clindamycin, 74t
Clostridium
difficile, 95
septicum endocarditis,
49
Clotting cascade, 194f
vitamin K dependent
mechanism of, 195f
Clotting deficiency, 247t
Clotting factor synthesis,
194-196
Coagulation cascade,
194f, 195f
Coagulation disorders,
191-196
Cobalt exposure, 72
Coccidioides
in erythema nodosum,
207
in fungal meningitis, 7q3
immitis, 75t
Codman's triangle, 298
Cold nodules, 162
Cold sores, 32
Collagen synthesis
deficiencies, 262,
289
Colon
cancers of, 95-96
risk of with ulcerative
colitis, 259, 286-287
diverticula of, 268, 296
mucosal herniation of,
91
tumors of, 95
Colonic resection, 95f
Coma cocktail, 246
Complement
deficiency of, 241
in immune defense,
238
in viral defense, 238
Condyloma
acuminata, 134
lata, 212
in syphilis, 142
Congenital heart diseases
causes of, 52
fetal circulation and, 52,
53f
types of, 53-55
Congenital hepatic
fibrosis, 119
Congenital
hypercoagulable
diseases, 196
Congestive heart failure,
44-45, 249, 276
with ventricular septal
defects, 53
Conjunctiva, disorders of,
23
Conjunctivitis, 23
with Reiter's syndrome,
29O
Connective tissue
disorders, 174-182
Conn's syndrome, 124f,
153
in hypertension, 37
Consciousness, loss of,
245-246
Continuous machinery
murmur, 55t
Continuous murmur, 56t
Continuous positive
airway pressure, 71
Contraceptives, oral, 260,
287
Contraction alkaloses,
124f
Coombs' test, 302
direct, 186
indirect, 186
Copper deficiency, 247t
Copper wiring, 26
Cori's glycogenosis, 183
Cornea
abrasions of, 24, 290
inflammation of, 24
ulceration of, 24
Coronary artery aneurysm,
299
Coronary artery bypass
graft (CABG)
for angina pectoris, 39
for myocardial infarct,
40
Coronary artery disease,
risk factors for, 38
Coronary risk ratio, 36
Corpus callosum agenesis,
15t
Corpus striatum, 223
Corrigan's pulse, 47
Cortex, 223-224
Cortical blindness, 224
Corticospinal path, 215
Corticosteroids
for acute interstitial
nephritis, 107
for optic neuritis, 27
for retrobulbar neuritis,
26
Corticotrophs, 144
Corticotropin (ACTH), 144
loss of, 146
Cortisol, 150
ACTH stimulation ot,
231
effects of on body, 149t
replacement of, 152
for scleritis, 24
synthesis of, 149
Cortisone, 150
Cortrosyn test, 152
Corynebacterium
diphtheriae, 34
Cotton wool spots, 26
Cough reflexes, 73
Coumadin
for atrial fibrillation,
249-250, 276
in clotting disorder, 195-196
Councilman bodies, 98 for scleritis, 24
D Courvoisier's law, ! 02 for systemic lupus
Cowdry intranuclear erythematosus, 176 D vitamin
inclusion bodies, 9 Cyclosporin A, 205 deficiency of, 164, 247t
Coxsackie A virus, 211, Cystadenocarcinoma in hypocalcemia, 166
295 mucinous, 135 in osteomalacia, 289
in sore throat, 35 serous, 135 in rickets, 169, 289
Coxsackie virus, 45 serous papillary, 162 excess of, 247t
Cranial nerves Cystadenoma, ovarian, Damson's inclusion
in brain stem, 217-218 135 bodies, 10
lesions of, 218 Cystic fibrosis DDAVP, 193
Craniopharyngioma, 12 chronic pansinusitis in, de Musset's sign, 47
Craniotabes, 169 30 de Quervain's
CRASH syndrome, 213 defective chloride tenosynovitis, 227t
CREST syndrome, channels in, 290 de Quervain's thyroiditis,
177-178 lung pathology of, 159
Cretinism, 162 270-271,299 Death, time of, 244
Creutzfeldt-Jacob malabsorption in, 91 Decongestants, 31
syndrome, 10 pancreatic anomalies of, Deep tendon reflex,
Crigler-Najjar syndrome, 102 216
96 Cystic hygroma, 33, Deep venous thrombus,
type 1, 96-97 277 67
type 2, 97 Cysticercosis, 10 Defibrillation, 42
Crohn's disease, 89-90, Cystine stones, 118 Degenerative diseases,
259, 286-287. See also Cystinosis, 110 neurologic, 18-19
Inflammatory bowel Cystinuria, 110 Delirium, 18
disease in cystine stones, 118 Delirium tremens, 100
versus ulcerative colitis, Cystitis Dementia
93t emphysematous, 132 AIDS-related, 9, 240
Cromolyn sodium, 253, encrusted, 132 Alzheimer type, 18-19
280 hemorrhagic, 132 in degenerative
Cryoprecipitate, 187
ulcerated interstitial, neurologic disorders,
tor hemophilia A, 194 132 18
tor von Willebrand factor Cysts paralytica, 10
deficiency, 193 of breast, 80, 82f Demyelinating diseases,
Crypt abscess, 92 bronchial, 71t 16
Cryptic antigens, 236 hydatid, 11, 98 Demyelination, 1
Cryptococcus renal, 119-120 Dendritic cells, 232-233
in fungal meningitis, 7 thyroglossal, 158 Dermatitis
in pneumonia, 75t thyroglossal duct, 33, atopic, 205
Cryptorchidism, 130 250, 276-277 chronic, 204
Cullen's sign, 103 urachal, 131
contact, 205
Curler's ulcer, 88
Cytokines, 237-238 eczematous, 205-206
Cushing's disease, 150
aberrant regulation of, herpetiformis, 90
diagnosis of, 301 236-237
spongiosis in, 205
Cushing's syndrome, 150
in immune response to Dermatologic disorders
in hypertension, 37
extracellular bacterial, 212-213
Cushing's triad, 11 pathogens, 238
blistering, 210
Cushing's ulcer, 88
in viral defense, 238 common, 205-208
Cyanocobalamin Cytomegalovirus (CMV) systemic, 213
deficiency, 188, 247t
encephalitis, 9 viral, 211-212
Cyclophosphamide Cytotoxic hypersensitivity,
Dermatology
for myasthenia gravis, 242
histology in, 204-205
184 Cytoxan, 183
terminology of, 204
Dermatomyositis, 207-208 Diffuse esophageal spasm,
presentation and 86
diagnosis of, 255-256, Diffusion impaired
282-283 hypoxemia, 59-60
Dermis, layers of, 204 Diflorasone, 205
Dermographism, 206 Digitalis
Dermoid cysts, 33, 277 for aortic stenosis, 48
Devic syndrome, 16 for congestive heart
Dexamethasone failure, 44, 45
suppression test, 150 for mitral stenosis, 47
Di-George's syndrome, Digoxin
239 for mitral regurgitation,
Diabetes 46
bronze, 207 for supraventricular
gestational, 139, 148 tachycardia, 42
glomerulonephropathy Dihydroergotamine, 21
of, 115t Dihydrotestosterone, 154
hypertension treatment Diphtheria, 34
with, 38 Diplococcus, gram-
insipidus, 110-111 negative, 141
central, 110 Dissecting aortic
nephrogenic, 110 aneurysm. See Aortic
ketoacidosis of, dissection
146-148, 272-273, Diuretics
301 for cardiomyopathy, 4@
maturity onset of youth for congestive heart
(MODY), 148 failure, 45
mellitus for hypertension, 38
B, deficiency with, for mitral regurgitation,
273, 301 46
metabolic acidosis in, for pulmonary edema,
271-272, 299-300 67
type IV renal tubular in torsades des pointes,
acidosis and uremia 42
in, 272, 300 Diverticula
peripheral nerve damage of bladder wall, 131
in, 257-258, 285 in esophagitis, 87
stages of, 147t of large intestine, 91-92
type I, 146-147 Meckel's, 90
type II, 147-148 Diverticulitis, 92
Diabetic retinopathy, 25 diagnosis of, 268, 296
Diamond-Blackfan Diverticulosis, 91
syndrome, 227t Dizziness, 28
Diaphragm paralysis, Donovan bodies, 142
69 Donovanosis, 295
Diarrhea, malabsorption, Dopamine, 225
90-91 inhibiting prolactin, 299
DIC, 192 Dorsal columns, 215
Diencephalic- Dorsal horn, 215
mesencephalic junction, Down's syndrome
222f in Alzheimer's disease,
Diencephalon, 219-223 19
Diffuse cortical necrosis, neurologic
117-118 malformations in, 15t
prenatal testing for, 245
Doxorubicin, 45
Doxycycline
for lymphogranuloma
venereum, 141
for pneumonia, 74t, 75t
Dresser's syndrome, 52
Drug-induced
thrombocytopenia, 192
Dry eyes. See
Xerophthalmia
Dubin-Johnson syndrome,
97
Duchenne's dystrophy, 183
Ductal carcinoma
invasive, 265, 292-293
in situ, 254, 265, 281,
292-293
Ductus arteriosus, 52
embryology of, 20t
Dumping syndrome,
87-88
Duodenum, 87
ulcer of, 89, 284
Dupuytren's contractures,
98
postinfarct, 2
pulmonary, 67
Edward's syndrome, 15t
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome,
179
Ehrlichiosis, 227t
Eikenella corrodens
endocarditis, 50
Eisenmenger's complex,
53-54
Eisenmenger's syndrome,
275
Ejection click, 55t
 Ejection murmur
differentiating
characteristics of, 56t
in pulmonary stenosis,
Electrical alternans, 50
Ellis-van Creveld disorder,
227t
Embryologic derivatives,
225-226
Embryology
of head and neck, 20t
hematologic, 185
Embryonal carcinoma, 130
Emphysema, 61-62
spirometry in, 57
Enanthem, 204
Encephalitis, 8-10
California, 9
equine, 9
functional residual
capacity in, 261,
288-289
St. Louis, 9
viral, 9-10
Encephalomyelitis
hemorrhagic, 16
postvaccine, 16
Encephalopathy
hepatic, 17
in hepatitis, 99-100
spongiform, 10
Endarterectomy, 2
Endocarditis, 49-50
bacterial agents in, 248,
275
Libman-Sacks, 50
marantic, 50
in mitral valve
regurgitation, 46
nonbacterial thrombotic,
5O
prophylaxis for, 48
Endocrine disorders, 37
Endocrine pancreatic
neoplasm, 103
Endocrinology, 144-167
Endoderm, 226
embryology of, 20t
Endodermal sinus tumor,
130-131,136
Endometrial carcinoma
histology of, 135f
uterine, 134
Endometrial hyperplasia,
uterine, 134
Endometriosis, 134, 294
Endometrium
histology of, 135f
hyperplasia of, 135f
Endothelial cells, damage
to, 36
Endothelium, 231
Enterococcus
in spontaneous bacterial
peritonitis, 99
in urinary tract
infections, 106
Environmental pulmonary
disease, 72-73
Eosinophilic granuloma,
172
lung presentation of, 65t
Eosinophilic pneumonia,
66t
Eosinophils, 231-232
Ependyma, 226
Ependymoma, 12
Ephelis, 206
Epidermal cells, loss of
cohesion between, 204
Epidermis
blistering in, 205
layers of, 204
Epiglotitis, 6
Epiglottis, 35
Epilepsy
classification of,
224-225
temporal lobe, 224
Epinephrine
ACTH stimulation of,
231
in hypoglycemia, 149
for urticaria, 206
Epistaxis, 30
Epstein-Barr virus
in Burkitt's lymphoma,
201
in hepatitis, 98
in sore throat, 34
Epulis, 32
Erb's paralysis, 227t
Erythema infectiosum, 211
Erythema multiforme, 210
Erythema nodosum, 207
Erythroblastosis fetalis,
14O
Erythrocyte sedimentation
rate, 260-261,287-288
Erythrocytosis, secondary,
197t
Erythromycin
for bullous myringitis, 27
for conjunctivitis, 23t
for diphtheria, 34
in torsades des pointes,
42
Erythropoietin, 167
Escherichia coli
in meningitis, 7
in pyogenic
osteomyelitis, 172
in spontaneous bacterial
peritonitis, 99
in urinary tract
infections, 106
Esophageal hiatal hernia,
296
Esophageal motility
disorder, 292
Esophagitis
pathology of, 87
reflux, 87
Esophagus
atresia of, 86
carcinoma of, 87
diseases of, 86-87
disorders of, 86-87
injuries of, 87
normal physiology of,
86
rupture of, 276
Estrogen, 155
Ethambutol
for fungal meningitis,
8
for tuberculosis, 78
Evan's syndrome, 192
Ewing's sarcoma, 173
Exanthem, 204
subitum, 211
viral, 211-212
Exercise therapy, 41
Extrapulmonary disease,
64
Eyes
classic syndromes of,
21-23
colors of, 27
conjunctival disorders of,
23
corneal disorders of, 24
glaucoma of, 24-25
neuritis of, 26-27
palpebra of, 23
retinal disorders of,
25-26
scleritis/uveitis of, 24
FAB antibodies, 45
Fabry's disease, 227t
Face
congenital disorders of,
29-30
fractures of, 30
trauma to, 30
Facial nerve disorders,
30-31
Facial paralysis, bilateral,
31
Factor IX concentrate, 194
Factor V Leiden disease,
196
Familial adenomatous
polyposis, 95
Fanconi's anemia, 227t
Fanconi's syndrome, 110
Farber's disease, 227t
Fats, saturated, 36
Fatty liver, microvesicular,
98
Female gonadal axis
disorders of, 156
normal physiology of,
154-155
Ferritin, 188
Ferruginous bodies, 69
Fetal alcohol syndrome,
15
Fetal circulation, 52
in utero, 53f
Fetor oris, 32
Fever, postoperative, 245
Fibroadenoma, breast, 80,
81f
Fibroid, 134
Fibrolamellar carcinoma,
228t
Fibroma
oral, 32
uterine, 136
Fibromuscular dysplasia,
117
Fibrous dysplasia, 171
Fifth disease, 211
cause of, 295
Finasteride, 154
Fine touch, 215
Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome
description and
symptoms of, 228t
diagnosis of, 266,
293-294
Flame hemorrhages, 26
Flexor withdrawal reflex,
216-217
Fluconazole (flucon), 75t
Fluocinonide (Lidex), 205
Fluoroquinolone, 74t
Focal segmental
glomerulosclerosis, 112t
Folate, 39
Folic acid deficiency, 247t
in megaloblastic anemia,
187
in neural tube defect,
15
Follicle stimulating
hormone (FSH), 144
in estrogen production,
155
loss of, 146
in sprematogenesis, 153
Follicular cancer, 286
Foot drop, 244
Foramen ovale, 52
Fractures
basilar skull, 30
facial, 30
Francisella tularensis, 75t
Freckle, 206
Fresh-frozen plasma, 187
Fried egg morphology, 12

Friedreich's ataxia, 19
Frontal lobe lesions, 224
Functional lung tissue loss,
62
Functional residual
capacity, 261,288
Fungal infections
cutaneous, 204
immune defense against,
238
Furosemide, 276
GABA, 225
Galactosemia, 228t
Gallbladder
disorders of, 101-102
pigment stones in, 255,
282
Gallstone ileus, 102
Gallstones, 101-102
Ganciclovir, 9
Gardener's syndrome, 96
Gardnerella
vaginalis, 267, 294
in vulvovaginitis, 137,
138t
Gargoyle facies, 242
Gastric cancers, 8889
metastatic, 89
Gastric ulcers, 88
Gastrinoma, 89, 283-284
Gastritis
acute erosive, 88
atrophic, 284
chronic nonerosive
(atrophic), 88
Gastroenteritis, 77
Gastroenterology, 86-105.
See also Colon;
Esophageal disease;
Intestines; Stomach
Gastroesophageal reflux
disease (GERD), 87
Gaucher's disease, 228t
Gemistocyte, 1
Genital herpes, 142-143
Genitourinary tract
female, 134-141
male, 130-133
sexually transmitted
disease of, 141-143
Gentamicin, 7
Germ cell tumors
ovarian, 135-136
testicular, 130-131
Gerstmann's syndrome,
224
Ghon complex, 77
evolution of, 262, 290
Giant cell arteritis, 21
Giant cell bone tumor,
173
Giant cell pneumonitis, 72
Gilbert's syndrome, 96
Gingivitis, acute
necrotizing, 32
Gitter cells, 1
Glanzmann's
thrombasthenia, 193
Glaucoma, 24-25
closed-angle, 25
open-angle, 25
Gleeson score, 132
Glial cells, 226
Glial fibrillary acidic
protein (GFAP), 1
Glioblastoma multiforme,
Gliosis, 1
Globus pallidus, 223
Glomerular diseases,
112-117
in hypertension, 37
urinalysis evaluation of,
116-117
Glomerulonephritis
crescentic (rapidly
progressive), 115-116t
membranoproliferative,
112-113t
membranous, 112t, 114f
poststreptococcal, 115t,
272,300
presentation of, 279
Glomerulonephropathies
nephrotic, 112-113t
systemic, 115t
urinalysis evaluation of,
116t
Glomerulosclerosis, focal
segmental, 279
Glomus tumor, 28
Glossitis, 32
in megaloblastic anemia,
188
Glucagon, 149

Glucocorticoids
anti-inflammatory effects
of, 150
secretion of, 149
Glucose control, 148
for diabetic retinopathy,
25
Glutamate excitotoxicity
cell injury by, 1
in degenerative
neurologic disorders,
18
Glutamine, 225
Gluten sensitivity, 90
Glycine, 225
Glycogenoses, 183
Glycoprotein hormones,
144
Glycosylated hemoglobin
Alc, 148
GnRH release, 153
Goiter, 158, 277
diffuse toxic, 159
toxic multimodular, 159
Golgi tendon reflex, 216
Gonadal axis
female, 154-156
male, 153-154
Gonadal disorders
of either sex, 156-157
female, 154-156
male, 153-154
Gonadotrophs, 144
Gonorrhea, 141
perihepatitis, 293-294
Goodpasture's syndrome,
57
with acute renal failure,
1 O8
lung presentation of, 65t
Gout, 180-182
crystals in, 270, 298
Gpllbllla antagonists, 193
Graham Steel murmur, 48
Gram-negative rods, 74t
Granulocytes, 231-232
Granuloma
cholesterol, 28
inguinale, 142,295
Granulomatous disease
chronic, 241-242
in dilated
cardiomyopathy, 45
in hypercalcemia, 166
Granulosa cell tumor,
uterine, 136
Granulosa cells, 155
Grasp reflex, 3t
Grave's disease, 158, 159
patients with, 160f
presentation of, 286
Gray baby syndrome, 245
Gray matter, 215
anterior horn of, 217
Great arteries,
transposition of, 54
Grey Turner's sign, 103
Groove sign, 141
Growth hormone, 145f
loss of, 144
in paraneoplastic
syndromes, 167
Growth hormone axis,
163
Growth hormone release
inhibiting hormone,
145f
Growth hormone releasing
hormone, 163
Growth hormone secreting
tumors, 146
Guconeogenesis,
inhibited, 149
Guillain-Barr syndrome,
16
cerebrospinal fluid
findings in, 263, 29]
Gynecomastia, 255, 282
HAART, 240
HACEK organisms, 50
Haloperidol, 271,299
Hamartoma, benign, 96
Hamartomatous polyps,
95
Hand-foot-and-mouth
disease, 211
cause of, 295
Hand-Schiller-Christian
disease, 172
Hantavirus, 75t
Harrison's groove, 169
Hartnup's disease, 110
Hashimoto's disease, 161
Head
disorders of, 20-33
embryology of, 20
Headaches
cluster, 21
with intracranial
hemorrhage, 4
migraine, 20-21
tension (muscle
contraction), 21
withdrawal, 21
Hearing loss
combined, 29
conductive, 29
sensorineural, 29
tests for, 29
Heart blocks
EKGs in, 43t
first degree, 41
Mobitz type II, 41
second degree, 41
third degree, 41
Heart disease, 50
Helicobacter pylori, 284
in gastric ulcers, 88
Helminths
in brain abscess, 10-11
immune defense against,
238
Hemangioblastoma, 12
Hemangioma, 101
capillary, 206
cherry, 207
severe cutaneous, 207
strawberry, 207
Hemangiosarcoma, 101
Hematologic disorders,
185-203
Hematology, 185-203
Hematoma
epidural, 5f
extracerebral, 5f
Hematopoiesis, 185
failure of, 187
Hemianopsia
bitemporal, 21, 22f
homonymous, 3t
left homonymous, 22f
Hemiplegia
with cerebral stroke, 3t
with internal capsular
lesions, 223
Hemochromatosis, 100,
247t
first degree, 207
Hemoglobinopathies,
190-191
Hemoglobinuria,
paroxysmal nocturnal,
190
Hemolysis
extravascular, 189
extrinsic, 189
intravascular, 187, 189
intrinsic, 189-190
Hemolytic-uremic
syndrome, 192
Hemopericardium, 50
Hemophilia A, 193-194
factor VIII deficiency in,
258, 285
Hemophilia B, 194
Hemophilus
ducreyi, 142
in endocarditis, 50
influenzae
in acute sinusitis, 31
characteristics and
treatment for, 74t
type B, 6
Hemorrhage, 1-2
complications of, 4
epidural, 4
intracerebral, 4
intracranial, 4
subarachnoid, 4
subdural, 4
Hemotympanum,
idiopathic, 28
Henle, loop of, injury to,
254, 280-281
Henoch-Sch6nlein
purpura, 204, 213
nephropathy of, 116t
Heparin
for atrial fibrillation,
249-250, 276
for myocardial infarct,
4O
Heparin cofactor II
deficiency, 196t
Hepatic venous occlusion,
100
Hepatitis, 97
acute, 97
alcoholic, 98-100
autoimmune, 100
fulminant, 97
granulomatous, 98
inflammatory disorders
in, 98
inflammatory response
in, 237
viral, 97
Hepatitis B virus, 97
Hepatitis C virus, 97
Hepatocellular cancer,
101
Hepatocellular carcinoma,
97
Hepatocellular cholestasis,
97
Hepatolenticular
degeneration, 17
Hepatoma, 101
Hepatorenal syndrome,
228t
Herpangina, 35
Herpes labialis, 32
Herpes simplex virus
(HSV), 98
in encephalitis, 9
in keratitis, 24
Herpes virus, 209
genital, 142-143
in urinary tract
infections, 106
Herpes virus 6, 211,295
Heterophile antibody, 34
Heubner's arteritis, 10
Hiatal hernia, 87
Hidradenitis suppurativa,
212
Hindbrain, 217
Hippocampus
anatomy of, 224
diseases of, 224
Hirschsprung's disease, 91
Histamine
inhibition of, 150
in neurotransmission,
225
in urticaria, 206
Histiocytosis X, 172
lung presentation of, 65t
Histologic descriptions,
2O4-205
Histology, 204
Histoplasma pneumonia,
75t
Histoplasmosis, 76f
HIV
biology of, 239-240
in dilated
cardiomyopathy, 45
encephalitis in, 9
oral hairy leukoplakia in,
32
pulmonary hypertension
in, 68
Hives, 206
HLA-B27, 234
HLA-DR3, 176
HLA-DR4, 234
HMG CoA reductase
inhibitors, 276
Hollenhorst plaque, 26
Holoprosencephaly, 15t
Holosystolic murmur, 55t
differentiating
characteristics of, 56t
in tricuspid regurgitation,
48
Holt-Oram syndrome,
228t
Homocystinemia, 196t
Homocystinuria
description and
of, 228t
symptoms
lens dislocation in, 23
Honeycomb lung, 63
Hordeolum, 23
Homer's syndrome, 218
superior sulcus tumor in,
Hot nodules, 162
HPL factor, 139
HPRT deficiency, X-linked,
181
HSV-1, 98
Human chorionic
gonadotropin, 167
Human herpes virus 6,
211,295
Human herpes virus B,
209
Human T-cell leukemia
virus (HTLV), 200
Humoral immunity, 234
Hunter's disease, 228t
Huntington's chorea, 19
Huntington's disease, 223
Hurler's disease, 228t
Hutchinson's teeth, 31
Hydatid cysts, 98
in brain abscess, 11
Hydatidiform mole, 141
Hydrocele, scrotal, 130
Hydrocephalus
acquired, 14
characteristics of, 14
classification of, 14
communicating, 14
congenital, 14
ex vacuo, 14
noncommunicating, 14
normal pressure, 14
Hydrocortisone, 205
Hydronephrosis, 119
Hydropericardium, 50
21 -Hydroxylase
deficiency, 295
17-Hydroxylase synthesis,
157f
Hydroxyurea
for AIDS, 240
for essential
thrombocythemia, 197
Hyoid artery, 20t
Hyperaldosteronism
first degree, 124f, 153
second degree, 153
Hyperbilirubinemia,
congenital, 96-97
Hypercalcemia, 165-166
familial hypocalciuric,
166
in paraneoplastic
syndromes, 167
with squamous cell
carcinoma, 265-266,
293
Hypercoagulable states,
196t
Hyperglucogonemia, 103
Hyperglycemia, 297
Hyperkalemia
in chronic renal failure,
111
evaluation of, 129f
Hyperkeratosis, 204
Hyperlipidemia, 112
Hypernatremia, 127f
Hyperosmolar
hyperglycemic
nonketotic coma, 148
Hyperparathyroidism
secondary versus tertiary,
116-117
skull radiograph of,
169f
Hyperpigmentation, 207
Hyperplastic polyps, 95
Hyperreflexia, 223
Hypersensitive
pneumonitis, 72
Hypersensitivity, 242
allergic-type, 205
delayed-type, 205, 242
IgE-mediated type I, 232
pneumonitis, 66t
type I, 206
Hypertension, 36
causes of, 36-37
in chronic renal failure,
111
in diabetic retinopathy,
25
essential, 36
malignant, 37
portal, 99t
pulmonary, 68
in renal artery stenosis,
117
treatment for, 37-38
Hypertensive crisis, 245
Hypertensive emergency,
37
Hypertensive urgency, 37
Hypertensive virilizing
adrenal hyperplasia, 156
Hyperthermia, malignant,
245
Hyperthyroidism
apathetic, 160
causes and symptoms of,
158-159
disorders of, 159-160
in hypertension, 37
lab findings in, 160
second degree, 160
thyroid storm in, 161
treatment of, 161
Hypertrophic subaortic
stenosis, 55t
Hyperuricemia, 180-181
Hyperviscosity syndrome,
173
Hyphema, 22
Hypoadrenal crisis, acute,
152
Hypoalbuminemia, 276
Hypoaldosteronism,
hyporeninemic, 109
Hypocalcemia, 166
with acute pancreatitis,
268-269, 296-297
in chronic renal failure, IgG autoantibodies, 210 Inhibin, 154
111 Iliac crest bone biopsy, Insulin
in torsades des pointes, 168f in diabetes, 146, 147
42 Immotile cilia syndrome, in hypoglycemia, 149
Hypogammaglobulinemia 29 Insulin growth factor, 163
common variable, 239 Immune complex Insulinoma, 103, 149,
X-linked, 239 hypersensitivity, 242 248, 275
Hypoglycemia, 149 Immune system, 238 Intention tremors, 219
diabetic, 147 Immunity Interferon-s, 237
factitious, 149 cell mediated, in Ghon for essential
fasting, 149 complex, 262, 290 thrombocythemia, 197
neurologic innate versus specific, Interferon-I, 237
characteristics of, 17 235 Interferon-y, 237
in paraneoplastic Immunodeficiencies, Interferons, 238
syndromes, 167 239-242 Interleukin 2, 150
Whipple's triad of, 149 Immunoglobulin Interleukins, 237
Hypogonadism, 156-157 selective deficiency of, in immune response to
Hypokalemia 239 intracellular pathogens,
evaluation of, 128f for thrombotic 238
in torsades des pointes, thrombocytopenic in viral defense, 238
42 purpura, 192 Internal capsule, 223
Hypomagnesemia, 166 Immunology concepts, Interstitial cell tumors, 131
Hyponatremia, 126f 231-242, 235-237 Interstitial fibrosis, 63
Hypoparathyroidism, 166 Immunosuppressives, 191 Interstitial nephritis
Hypophosphatemia, 252, Impetigo, 212 acute, 107
279 Indomethacin, 54 chronic tubular,
Hypophyseal artery, Infarct, 1-2, 2 107-108
inferior, 144 bland, 2 Intervertebral discs, 226
Hypopituitary syndrome, hemorrhagic, 2 Intestine
144-146 lacunar, 2 large. See also Colon
Hypopnea, 71 watershed, 2 barium enema of, 94f
Hypothalamic pituitary Infections cancer of, 95-96
axis neurologic, 6-10 disorders of, 91-96
anatomy of, 144, 145f uveitis and, 24 diverticula of, 91-92
disorders of, 144-146 Inflammation, 238 inflammatory disorders
Hypothalamus, 219 neurologic, 6-11 of, 92
Hypothyroidism Inflammatory arthritis, 176 tumors of, 95
causes of, 161-162 Inflammatory bowel lymphangiectasia of, 91
neonatal, 162 disease small. See also
Hypoventilation, 59 comparison of, 93t Duodenum
first degree, 68 of large intestine, 92 barium follow-through
Hypovolemic shock, 245 of small intestine, 89-90 of, 93f
Hypoxemia, 61f uveitis and, 24 cancer of, 91
differential diagnosis of, Inflammatory carcinoma disorders of, 89-91
60 of breast, 85 normal physiology of,
mechanisms of, 59-60 Inflammatory disorders 89
V/Q mismatch in, 61 of female genitourinary pseudoobstruction of,
tract, 136-138 89
| of large intestine, 92-95 Intracerebral capillary
of liver, 98 epithelium, 226
Icterohemorrhagic fever, Inflammatory response, Intracranial neoplasms,
98 231 11-13
Icterus, 27 Influenza, 75t Intracranial pressure, 11
IgA deficiency, 239 Inhalation fevers, 72 Intracranial tumors, 11
Inverse myotatic reflex.
216
Iodine, 158
deficiency of, 247t
Iris, inflammation of, 24
Iron
deficiency of, 188-189,
247t
excess of, 247t
physiology of, 188
Irritable bowel syndrome,
296
Ischemic bowel
disease,
92
lschemic heart disease,
38-41. See also Angina
pectoris; Coronary artery
disease; Myocardial
4 infarct
in dilated
cardiomyopathy, 45
)lsoniazid, 78
I=Elsovalinic acidemia, 228t
Jarisch-Herxheimer
reaction, 142
NJaundice, 27
 acquired causes o|, 97
congenital, 96-97
physiologic of newborn,
96
iJob's syndrome, 242
IJugular venous pressure
tracing, 49f
K vitamin deficiency, 247t
in clotting disorder, 195
Kallman s syndrome, 157
Kaposi's sarcoma,
209-210
AIDS-related, 240
y Kartagener's syndrome,
29-30
lack of mucociliary
escalator in, 262-263,
290
Kasabach-Merritt
syndrome, 228t
Kawasaki's syndrome, 271,
299
Kawashiorkor, 244
Kawaski's syndrome, 213
in cervical
lymphadenitis, 35
Kayser-Fleischer ring, 23
in Wilson's disease, 17
Kelley-Seegmiller
syndrome, 228t
Keloid, 204
Keratitis, 290
bacterial, 24
exposure, 30
viral, 24
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca,
23, 176
Kernig's sign, 6
Keshan's disease, 247t
Ketoacidosis, diabetic,
146-147, 148, 272-273,
301
Kidneys
congenital anomalies of,
1 O6
cystic diseases of,
119-120
diffuse cortical necrosis
of, 117-118
glomerular diseases of,
112-117
horseshoe, 106
renal tubular and
interstitial disorders of,
107-112
thyroidization of, 107
tumors of, 120-121
Kingella kingae
endocarditis, 50
Klebsiella
in pneumonia, 74t
in spontaneous bacterial
peritonitis, 99
Klinefelter's syndrome,
154
KlippeI-Trnau nay-Weber
syndrome, 228t
Klumpke's paralysis, 228t
Klver-Bucy syndrome,
224
Koebner's phenomenon,
275
Kohler's bone disease, 171
Koplik's spots, 204, 275
Korsakoff memory, 224
Krabbe leukodystrophy, 18
Krukenberg tumor, 89
Kussmaul hyperpnea,
146-147
Kyphoscoliosis, 69
I
Labetalol, 37
Laboratory tests, 244
Labyrinthectomy, 28
Labyrinthitis, viral, 28
Lactase deficiency, 90-91
Lactose intolerance, 296
Lactotrophs, 144
Lactulose, 99
Lambert-Eaton syndrome,
71,184
Large cell carcinoma,
lung, 70t
Laser ablation
for diabetic retinopathy,
25
for glaucoma, 25
Laurence-Moon-Biedl
syndrome, 157
Lead poisoning, 189
LeFort fractures, facial, 30
Legg-Calve-Perthe disease,
171
Legionella pneumophila,
74t
Leigh's disease, 228t
Leiomyoma
gastric, 89
uterine, 134
Leiomyosarcoma
gastric, 89
Lens dislocation, 23
Lentigo, 206
Leptospirosis, 98
in meningitis, 8
LES ablation, 86
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome,
228t
Letterer-Siwe disease,
172
Leukemia, 192
acute, 185
acute lymphoblastic,
198
diagnosis of, 283
presentation of, 283
acute myelogenous,
198-199
subtypes of, 198t
chronic lymphocytic,
200
chronic myelogenous,
199
diagnosis of, 256, 283
differential diagnosis
of, 199t
hairy cell (B-cell
subtype), 200
large granular
lymphocyte, 200
lymphocytic, 185
most common by age,
200
myeloproliferative
disease and, 196
T-cell, 200
Leukemoid reaction, 199t
Leukocoria, 26
Leukocyte adhesion
deficiency syndromes,
242
Leukodystrophy, 18
Leukoencephalopathy,
progressive multifocal, 9
Leukoplakia, 32
oral hairy, 32
Leukotriene inhibiting
drugs, 253, 280
Levodopa/carbidopa, 19
Leydig cell, 153
Leydig cell tumor, 131
Lhermitte sign, 228t
Li-Fraumeni's syndrome,
229t
Lichenification, 204
Liddle's disease, 228t
Lidocaine, 42
Lifestyle modification, 37
Limbic system, 224
Linitis plastica, 89
Lipase, serum level of,
297
Lipocortin induction, 150
Lipoprotein
high density (HDL), 36
low density (LDL), 36
Liquefactive necrosis, 1
Listeria monocytogenes, 7
Liver
disorders of, 96-101
in clotting disorder,
195
in immunology, 231
tumors of
benign, 101
malignant, 101
Liver spots, 206
Livor morris, 244
Lockjaw, 32
Long QT syndrome,
congenital, 42
Loop diuretics, 45
Lou Gherig's disease. See
Amyotrophic lateral
sclerosis
Ludwig's angina, 32
Lumbar puncture, 217
Lumboperitoneal shunt, 14
Lung volumes, 58f
Lungs
cancer of
epidemiology of, 69
parenchymal, 70t
infarction of, 68
Lupus, nephropathy of,
115t
Luteinizing hormone, 144,
155
in polycystic ovarian
syndrome, 260, 287
synthesis of, 153
Lymph nodes, 231
Lymphadenitis, cervical,
35
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis,
70t
Lymphatics, 231
Lymphocytes. See also B
lymphocytes; T
lymphocytes
depletion of in
Hodgkin's lymphoma,
202
in immunity, 235
Lymphocytic disorders,
185
Lymphogranuloma
venerum, 141-142
Lymphoid blast, 185
Lymphoid cells, 233-234
Lymphoid interstitial
pneumonitis, 65t
Lymphoid polyps, 95
Lymphoma, 12-13, 192
angiocentric T-cell, 202
Burkitt's, 201
characteristics of, 201
cutaneous T-cell, 202
follicular vs. diffuse type,
201
gastric, 89
grades of, 201
Hodgkin's, 35
classification of, 202
clinical staging of,
202 -203
diagnosis of, 283
male genitourinary, 131
non-Hodgkin's, 201-202
diagnosis of, 283
of small intestine, 91
terrible, 71 t
Lymphotoxin-, 237
Macroglossia, 31-32
Macrolide, 74t, 75t I
Macrophages II
foamy, 1
functions of, 232
in immune response to
intracellular pathogens,
238
Macular degeneration,
age-related, 26
Macules, 204 t-
pigmented, 206
Major histocompatibility
complex (MHC) °
in central tolerance, CO
235
characteristics of, 234 --.I
class I, 234
class II, 232, 234 II
I
in transplant rejection,
235
Malabsorption, 90-91
Maladie de Roger, 53
Malakoplakia, 132
Malassezia furfur, 204
Male gonadal axis
disorders of, 154
normal physiology of,
153-I 54
Malignancy
endocrine, 162-I 63
exudative effusion in,
276
risk of with ulcerative
colitis, 259, 286-287
Malignant tumors
bone, radiographic
findings in, 269,
297-298
skin, 254, 281
Mallory bodies, 98
Mallory-Weiss tear, 87
Malnutrition
in dilated
cardiomyopathy, 45
protein, 244
total calorie, 244
Mamillary bodies, 252,
279
Mammography, 85
 Mannitol, 25
Manometry, 292
ooMAO inhibitors 245
Maple syrup urine disease,
229t
Marasmus, 244
Marble bone, 171-172
Marchiafava-Bignami
syndrome, 229t
Marcus Gunn pupil, 22,
297
Marfan's syndrome, 179
blue sclera in, 27
lens dislocation in, 23
mitral valve prolapse in,
46
Mast cells, 232
degranulation of in
urticaria, 206
Mastalgia, 80
 Mastitis, acute, 293
Maxillary artery, 20t
: McArdle's glycogenosis,
183
McCune-Albright's
syndrome, 171
Measles
German, 211
parmyxovirus in, 267,
295
rash of, 211
Meatal obstruction, 290
Mebendazole, 11
Meckel's diverticulum,
90
Meclizine, 28
Meconium ileus, 102
Mediastinal tumors, 71 t
Medullary cancer, 286
Medullary cystic disease,
120
Medullary sponge kidney,
120
Medulloblastoma, 12
Megakaryocytes, 232
Melanocytes
hyperplasia of, 206
loss of, 206
Melanoma
intraocular malignant,
26
malignant, 208-209
metastasis of, 208
Melanosis coli, 229t
Melasma, 139, 206
Membrane attack complex
deficiency, 241
Memory cells, 235
Mendelson's syndrome,
229t
Menetrier's disease, 88
Meniere's disease, 28
Meningiomas, 12
Meningismus, 6
Meningitis
amebic, 8
aseptic, 78
bacterial, 6-7
complications of, 8
fungal, 78
noninfectious causes of,
8
sarcoid, 8
subacute, 78
TB, 8
viral, 7
Meningocele, 15
Meningoencephalitis,
lymphocytic, 9
Meningomyelocele, 15
Menstrual cycle, 154%
155f
Mental retardation, 15
Mesoderm, 226
embryology of, 20t
Mesothelioma, malignant,
69
Metabolic acidosis, 109
acute and chronic, 121f
determination of, 123f
in diabetes mellitus,
271-272, 299-300
uremia and, 272, 300
Metabolic alkalosis, 121 f
determination of, 124f
loop of Henle injury in,
254, 280-281
Metabolic bone diseases,
168-171
differential diagnosis of,
171t
Metabolic disorders
in dilated
cardiomyopathy, 45
neurologic
characteristics of,
17-18
Metabolic storage disease,
1
Metachromatic
leukodystrophy, 18
Metaproterenol, 253, 280
Metastasis
hepatic, 101
of intracranial
neoplasms, 13
of prostate cancer, 132,
133f
Methimazole, 161
Methotrexate
for polymyositis, 183
for psoriasis, 205
Methylmalonic acid test,
273, 301
Methysergide
for carcinoid, 91
for migraine, 21
Metoclopramide, 88
Metron idazole
for pneumoniae, 74t
for pseudomembranous
colitis, 95
Michaelis-Gutman bodies,
132
Microabscesses of Monro,
275
Microbial endotoxins, 238
Microecephaly, 15t
Microglia, 226
responses to injury, 1
Midbrain, functional
anatomy of, 217
Mid-diastolic murmur, 56t
Middle ear, cholestetomas
in, 264, 291
Migraine, 20-21
Mikulicz's syndrome, 33
Minamata disease, 229t
Mitral valve
prolapse of, 46
murmurs with, 55t
regurgitation of, 46
in congestive heart
failure, 44
murmurs with, 55t
stenosis of, 46-47
murmurs with, 55t
Mixed connective tissue
disease, 180
Molecular mimicry, 236
Molluscum contagiosum,
229t
Monckeberg's
arteriosclerosis, 229t
Moniliasis, 34
Monocytes, 232
in immune response to
intracellular pathogens,
238
Mononuclear cells, 232
Mononucleosis, infectious
in hepatitis, 98
in sore throat, 34
Moraxella catarrhalis
in acute sinusitis, 31
characteristics and
treatment for, 74t
Motor commands, 215
Motor neuron disease. See
Amyotrophic lateral
sclerosis
Motor neuron syndromes
lower, 217
upper, 217
Mucocele, 33
Mucociliary escalator, 73
lack of in chronic
sinusitis, 262-263, 290
Mu copolysaccharidoses,
289
Mucormycosis, 147
in fungal sinusitis, 31
Muehrke's nails, 112
Muller's sign, 47
Multiple endocrine
neoplasia (MEN)
syndromes
type l, 166, 256-257,
283-284
type II, 166
type Ila, 264, 292

type III, 167
Multiple myeloma,
173-174
nephropathy of, 116t
Multiple sclerosis
cerebrospinal fluid
findings in, 250, 277
internuclear
ophthalmoplegia in,
22, 269, 297
neurologic
characteristics of, 16
retrobulbar neuritis in,
26
Mumps, 33
Munchausen's syndrome,
229t
Murmurs, 55t
differential diagnosis of,
56t
Murphy's sign, 102
Muscle
diseases of, 183-184
neurogenic diseases of,
182
physiology of, 182-183
pulmonary function tests
in deficits of, 68-69
type I, 182
type 2, 182
Muscular dystrophy, 183
Musculoskeletal disorders,
168-184
Myasthenia gravis, 184
Mycobacterium
avium-intracel lulare
complex, 240
in Whipple's disease,
9O
leprae, 207
tuberculosis, 77
Mycoplasma
in erythema nodosum,
207
of inner ear, 27
pneumoniae
characteristics and
treatment of, 74t
consolidation in lungs
with, 76f
Mycosis fungoides, 202
Myelodysplasia, 185
Myelofibrosis, idiopathic,
197-198
Myeloid cells, 231-232
Myelopoiesis, 185
Myeloproliferative
diseases, 196-198
Myocardial failure, 44
Myocardial infarct, 40-41
pathologic consequences
of, 40
Myocarditis, 45
Myopathies, 182-183
metabolic, 183
Myotatic reflex, 216
Myxedema, pretibial, 159
Myxedema coma, 162
NAACP pneumonic, 232
Naegleria fowleri, 8
Naegle's rule, 138
Nasal polyps, 290
Natural killer (NK) cells,
234
in immune response to
intracellular pathogens,
238
in viral defense, 238
Neck. See also Throat
congenital disorders of,
33-34
disorders of, 34-35
Necrotizing papillitis, 108
Negri body inclusions, 9
Neig's syndrome, 136
Neimann-Pick disease, 18
description and
symptoms of, 229t
Neisseria
in C6, C7, and C8
deficiency, 241
gonorrhea, 136,
293-294
meningitidis, 6
in urinary tract
infections, 106
Nelson's syndrome, 150
Neomycin, 100
Neonates
hypothyroidism of, 162
physiologic jaundice of,
96
screening of, 245
Neoplasia, muscular,
184
Neoplasm
of female genitourinary
tract, 134-136
metastatic, 13
Neovascularization,
retinal, 26
Nephritic syndrome,
115-116
Nephritis
acute interstitial, 107
chronic tubular
interstitial, 107-108
L Nephritis syndrome, 272,
300
1: Nephroblastoma, 121
Nephrolithiasis, 118-119
Nephrology, 106-129
Nephropathy
ACE inhibitors for. 251,
278
IgA, 116t
minimal change, 112%
113f
, Nephrotic syndrome,
112-115, 300
 Neural crest cells, 226
Neural plate, 226
Neural tube defects, 15
N Neurilemoma, 13
Neuritis
optic, 26-27
retrobulbar, 26
Neurobiology, cellular,
225-226
Neuroblastoma, 2, t, 171 153
Neurocutaneous
syndromes, 209
Neuroectoderm, 226
Neurofibroma, 13-14,
71t
Neurofibromatosis, 209
acoustic neuroma in,
29
type 1, 13-14
type 2, 14
Neurogenic muscle
disease, 182
Neurohypophysis, 222,
223
Neuroleptic Rule of 4, 244
Neurologic cancers,
embryologic derivatives
of, llt
Neurologic disorders
congenital, 15
perinatal, 15
Neurology, 1-19
basic review of,
215-226
Neuroma, acoustic, 13,
14, 29
Neuromuscular disorders,
68-69
esophageal, 86
Neuronal ceroid
lipofuscinosis, 17
Neurons, responses to
injury, 1
Neuropathies, 244
Neurosyphilis, 10
meningovascular, 10
parenchymal, 10
Neurotransmitters, 225
Neutrophils, 231
Nevocellular nevus, 206
Nevus
blue, 206
dysplastic, 206
variations of, 206
Niacin deficiency, 247t
Niclosamide, 10
Nifedipine, 86
Nimodipine, 21
Nipple, Paget's disease of,
265, 292-293
Nitrates, 276
Nitroglycerin, 41
Nitroprusside, 37
Nocardia asteroides, 75t
Nodular sclerosis, 202
Nonhemolytic reactions,
187
Nonsteroidal anti-
inflammatory drugs
(NSAIDs), 21
Noonan's syndrome, 229t
Norepinephrine, 225
North American
blastomycosis, 76f
Nose, congenital disorders
of, 29-30
Notochord, 226
Nucleoside analogues,
240
Nucleus pulposus, 226
Nutritional deficiencies,
244
Nutritional disorders,
17-18
Nystatin liquid, 34
Obesity, tru ncal, 150, 151 f
Obesity hypoventilation
syndrome, 59, 71
Obstructive hypertrophic
subaortic stenosis, 47
Obstructive lung disease
spirogram tracings of,
58f
spirometry in, 57
Occipital lobe lesions,
224
Occupational pulmonary
disease, 72-73
Oculomotor nerve, 217
Olfaction, anatomy of,
224
Olfactory cortex, 224
Oligoclonal bands,
proliferation of in
cerebrospinal fluid, 250,
277
Oligodendrocytes, 226
responses to injury, I
Oligodendroglioma, 12
Oligohydramnios, 106
Oncychomycosis, 204
Onion skinning, 298
Opaque eye, 27
Ophthalmic neonatorum,
141
Ophthalmopathy,
infiltrative, 159
Ophthalmoplegia,
internuclear, 22
median longitudinal
fasiculus lesion in,
269, 297
Opportunistic infections,
AIDS-related, 240
Optic nerve
inflammation of, 26
neuritis of, 26-27, 297
Oromaxillary disease
congenital, 31-32
infectious/inflammatory,
32
neoplastic, 32
salivary, 32-33
Ortner's syndrome, 46
Oseltamivir, 75t
Osgood-Schlatter disease,
171
Osler-Weber-Rendu
syndrome, 30, 290
Osteitis deformans, 169
laboratory findings in,
258, 285
Osteitis fibrosa cystica,
117, 168
lilac crest bone biopsy
for, 168f
Osteoarthritis, 176-177
Osteochondroma,
172-173
Osteodystrophy, renal,
168
Osteogenesis imperfecta,
171
blue sclera in, 27
collagen synthesis
deficiencies in, 262,
289
Osteogenic sarcoma,
1
73
radiographic findings in,
269, 297-298
Osteomalacia, 168
vitamin D deficiency in,
289
Osteomyelitis, pyogenic,
172
Osteopetrosis, 171-172
carbonic anhydrase II
deficiency in, 289
Osteoporosis, 168
Osteosarcoma, 173
radiographic findings in,
269, 297-298
Otitis externa, 27
Otitis media, 27
in cholestetoma, 264,
291
unilateral serous, 27-28
Ovarian tumor secreting
testosterone, 287
Ovary
epithelial tumors of, 135
germ cell tumors of,
135-136
neoplasms of, 135-136
polycystic, 136
Oxacillin, 74t
Oxygen therapy
for myocardial infarct,
40
for pulmonary edema,
67
Oxytocin, 144
Packed red blood cells,
186
Paget's disease
of bone, 169, 292
laboratory findings in,
258, 285
thickening of calvarium
in, 170f
tibial deformity and
pseudo-fractures in,
170f
of breast, 84
of nipple, 265, 292-293
Palpebra, 23
Panacinar, 62
Pancoast tumor, 71
Pancreas
annular, 102
cancer of, 103
exocrine
acquired anomalies of,
103-105
congenital anomalies
of, 102
focal mass in head of,
105f
Pancreatic pseudocyst,
103
Pancreatitis
acute, 103, 104f
chronic, 103, 104f
hypocalcemia in,
268-269, 296-297
malabsorption in, 91
Panencephalitis, subacute
sclerosing, 9-10
Pansinusitis, 290
Pantothenate deficiency,
247t
Pap smear, 134
Papillary bladder
neoplasm, 131-132
Papillary cancer, 259,
286
Papillary carcinoma, 162
Papilledema, 26
Papilloma
of bladder, 131-132
choroid plexus, 12
intraductal, 83, 293
oral, 32
Papule, 204
Paraganglioma, 28, 33-34
Parainfluenza virus, 34-35
Parakeratosis, 204
in psoriasis, 205
Paramyxovirus, 33
in measles, 211
Paraneoplastic syndromes,
167
Parathyroid hormone
(PTH)
calcium in regulation of,
164, 165f
elevated levels of in
malignancy, 165
oversecretion of,
116-117
suppression of, 279
Parathyroid hormone
related protein,
265-266, 293
Parenchymal lung
cancers of, 70t
diseases of, 63
Parietal lobe lesions,
224
Parinaud's syndrome, 22
Parkinson's disease, 19,
223
Parmyxovirus, 267, 295
Parotid gland tumors, 33
Parotitis, acute, 32-33
Pars compacta, 217
Part reticulata, 217
Parvovirus B-19, 211,
295
Pastia's lines, 275
Patau's syndrome, 15t
Patent ductus arteriosus,
54
in hypertension, 36
murmurs with, 55t
Patent urachus, 131
Pathogens
extracellular, 238
intracellular, 238
Pedunculated polyps, 95
Peliosis hepatitis, 229t
Pellagra, 247t
Pelvic inflammatory
disease (PID), 136-137
complications of,
293-294
Pemphigus vulgaris, 210
acantholysis in, 204
diagnosis of, 265, 292
Penicillin
for acute necrotizing
gingivitis, 32
for bacterial pharyngitis,
34
for fungal meningitis, 8
for pneumonia, 75t
for rheumatic fever, 50
Penicillin G
for meningitis, 6
for syphilis, 142
Peptic ulcer disease,
256-257, 283-284
Percutaneous transluminal
coronary angioplasty
(PTCA)
angina pectoris,
for
39
for myocardial infarct,
4o
Pericardial cyst, 71t
Pericardial disease, 50-52
Pericardial effusion, 51f
in pericarditis, 52
Pericardial fluid disease,
50, 51f
Pericardiocentesis, 50
Pericarditis, 52
Perimysial connective
tissue inflammation,
255-256, 282-283
Peripheral blood smear,
191t
Peripheral nerves
damage to in diabetes,
257-258, 285
tumors of, 13-14
Peritonitis, spontaneous
bacterial, 99
Peritonsillar abscess, 32
Petechiae, 204
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome,
96
Phagocytes
defects of, 241-242
in immunity, 235
Phakomatoses, 209
Pharmacology, 244-245
Pharyngitis, 34-35
bacterial, 34
fungal, 34
membranous, 34
viral, 34-35
Pheochromocytoma, 153
in hypercalcemia, 166
in hypertension, 37
hypertension treatment
with, 38
in multiple endocrine
neoplasia syndromes,
166, 167
Philadelphia (Ph)
chromosome, 199
Phlebotomy, 197
Phosphate
decreased excretion of,
279
fractions of, ! 63-164
intestinal absorption of
in hypophosphatemia,
280
Photocoagulation, 25
Pick's disease, 19
Pickwickian syndrome, 71
Pigeon breast, 169
Pigment stones, 101
presentation of, 255,
282
Pigmentation disorders,
206-208
Pink puffer, 57, 61-62
Pituitary apoplexy, 146
Pituitary (hypophyseal)
gland, 144
anatomy and function of,
222-223
postpartum infarction of,
146
tumors of, 21
Pityriasis alba, 207
Pityriasis rosea, 207
Pityrosporum ovale, 204
Placenta, 139
Placenta accreta, 140
Placenta previa, 140
diagnosis of, 288
Plaque, 204
Plasma cells, 231
Plasma exchange, 192
Plasmapheresis, 184
Plasminogen deficiency,
196t
Platelet exchange, 197
Platelet transfusion, 193
Platelets
antibiotic peptide
secretion by, 231
destruction of, 192t
dysfunction of, 193
packed, 187
Pleomorphic adenoma,
salivary gland, 33
Pleural effusions
with congestive heart
failure, 249, 276
in restrictive lung
disease, 63
transudate versus
exudate findings in,
64t
Plummer-Vinson
syndrome, 87, 247t
Plummer's disease, 159
PMN recruitment, 238
Pneumoconiosis, 72
Pneumocystis carin#
pneumonia, 75t, 240
Pneumonia
atypical, 74-75t
bacterial, 74t
exudative effusion in,
276
fungal, 75t, 76f
organisms and
characteristics of,
74-75t
staphylococcal, 260, 287
viral, 75t
PO2, low partial pressure
of inspired, 59
Podagra, 181
Polycystic kidney disease
adult, 119
in hypertension, 37
juvenile onset, 119-120
Polycystic ovarian
syndrome, 260, 287
Polycythemia vera, 197
diagnosis of, 256, 283
Polymyositis, 183
lung presentation of,
66t
Polyps, nasal and sinus,
30
Pompe's glycogenosis, 183
Poncet's disease, 229t
Pontocerebellar lesions, Prostate Pulmonary embolus,
219 cancer of, 132, 133f 276
Porphyria tarda, incidence and Pulmonary fibrosis,
cutaneous, 210, 292 presentation of, 266, idiopathic, 65t
Port-wine stains, 206 294 Pulmonary function tests,
Portal hypertension, 100 diseases of, 132 68-69
ascites and, 99t Prostatitis, 132 Pulmonary hypertension,
Positive end-expiratory Protease inhibitors, 240 68
pressure (PEEP) Protein antigen, 186 with ventricular septal
ventilation, 67 Protein C defects, 53
Potter's syndrome, 106 deficiency of, 196 Pulmonary system
Pott's disease, 77 inhibition of, 195f defenses of, 73
description and synthesis of, 196 diseases of, 72-73
symptoms of, 229t Protein S deficiency, 196 disorders of, 59-79
PPD test Proteinuria, 112 physiology of, 57-58
false negative, 78 Proteus, 118 Pulmonary valve
interpretation guidelines Protozoal infection, 238 regurgitation of, 48
for, 77-78 PRPP synthetase stenosis of, 48, 275
Prader-Willi syndrome, hyperactivity, 181 Pulmonary vascular
156 Psammoma bodies disease, 67-68
Praziquantel in meningiomas, 12 Pulmonary vascular
for cysticercosis, 10 in mesothelioma, 69 physiology, 67
for schistosomiasis, 11 in papillary carcinoma, Pulse-fever dissociation,
Prednisone 162 299
for fungal meningitis, 8 Pseudo-Cushing's Pulsus paradoxus, 50
for systemic lupus syndrome, 150 Purpura, 204
erythematosus, 176 Pseudogout, 182 idiopathic
Preeclampsia, 140 Pseudomembranous thrombocytopenic, 191
Pregnancy colitis, 95 thrombotic
cardiovascular diagnosis of, 296 thrombocytopenic,
circulation during, 139 Pseudomonas 191-192, 204
dating, 138 in burn injuries, 298 Putamen, 223
disorders of, 139-141 in chronic sinusitis, 31 PUVA, 205
ectopic, 140, 288, 294 in cystic fibrosis, 102 Pyelonephritis
endocrine physiology in, of external ear, 27 acute bacterial, 106-107
139 of keratin debris, 28 chronic bacterial, 107
fatty liver of, 98 in pneumonia, 74t Pyloric atresia, 296
GI physiology in, 139 in third degree burns, Pyloric stenosis,
normal physiology of, 214 congenital, 88
138-139 in urinary tract diagnosis of, 268, 296
pulmonary physiology infections, 106 Pyonephrosis, 107
in, 139 Pseudomyxoma peritonei, Pyosalpinx, 137f
renal physiology in, 139 135 Pyrazinamide, 8
Pregnenolone, 149 Pseudopolyps, 95f Pyridoxine deficiency,
Premature labor, 288 Pseudotumor cerebri, 14 247t
Prenatal testing, 245 Psoralens, 205 Pyrimethamine, 8
Prinzmetal's angina, 39 Psoriasis, 204, 205 Pyrizinamide, 78
Prolactin, 299 Psoriatic arthritis, 177
Prolactinoma, 12, 146 Psoriatic plaques, 248,
Propionibacterium aches, 275 Q
212 Pulmonary artery, 20t Quadriplegia, 68
Proprioception, 215 Pulmonary edema, 67 Quincke's sign, 47
Propylthiouracil, 161 Pulmonary embolism, Quinidine, 42
Prostaglandin, 54 67-68 Quinolone, 74t, 75t
Quinsy peritonsillar
abscess, 35
R-L shunt, 60
Rabies encephalitis, 9
Raccoon's eyes, 30
Rachitic rosary, 169
Radiation therapy, 13
Radiation toxicity, 244
Radioiodine, 161
Ranula, 33
Raynaud's disease, 178f
Reactive airway
dysfunction syndrome
(RADS), 72
with acute 73
gassing,
Reactive polycythemia,
197t
Reanastomosis, 55
Recombinant factor VIII,
194
Red eye, 27. See also
Conjunctivitis
Red Man Syndrome, 245
Reed-Sternberg cells, 202
Reflexes, 216-217
Refsum's disease, 229t
Reiter's syndrome, 177
uveitis and, 263,
290-291
Renal agenesis
bilateral, 106
unilateral, 106
Renal amyloidosis, 115t
Renal artery stenosis, 117
Renal cell carcinoma, 121
metastatic to lung, 71
presentation of, 281
Renal cyst, solitary, 120
Renal 37
dsease,
Renal ectopia, 106
Renal failure
acute, 108-109
with acute tubular
necrosis, 109
chronic, 111-112
in hypercalcemia, 166
in hypocalcemia, 166
laboratory characteristics
of, 108t
Renal papillary necrosis,
1 O8
Renal tubular acidosis,
1 O9
type II, 110
type IV, 272, 300
Renal tubular disorders,
107-112
functional, 109-111
Renal tumors
benign, 120-121
malignant, 121
Respiratory acid-base
differential, 125f
Respiratory acidosis
acute and chronic, 121f
differential diagnosis of,
125f
Respiratory alkalosis
acute and chronic, 121f
differential diagnosis of,
125f
Respiratory muscles, 68
Respiratory physiology,
57-58
Respiratory tract cancers,
69-71
Resting tremor, 223
Restrictive lung disease,
62-64
spirogram tracings of,
58f
spirometry in, 57
Reticuloendothelial
scavenger cells, 1
Reticuloendothelial
system, 231
Retina
classic physical findings
of, 26
detachment of, 26
disorders of, 25-26
pigmented ireckle on, 26
Retinal artery occlusion,
25
Retinal vein occlusion, 25
Retinitis pigmentosa, 26
Retinoblastoma, 12
Rett's syndrome, 229t
Reverse transcriptase,
239
Reye's syndrome, 98
Rh, 186
Rh immune globulin
(RhoGAM), 187
Rh incompatibility, 140
Rhabdomyosarcoma, 184
in tuberous sclerosis, 15
Rheumatic fever, 50
Rheumatoid arthritis,
174-175
Rheumatoid factor, 175
Rheumatoid lung, 66t
Riboflavin deficiency, 247t
Rickets, 169
vitamin D deficiency in,
289
Rifampin
for fungal meningitis, 8
for tuberculosis, 78
Right ventricular failure,
49f
Rigor mortis, 244
Rinne's test, 29
Rodent ulcers, 209
progression to, 254, 281
Rombert test, 219
Rose spots, 213
Roseola infantum, 211
cause of, 295
Roth spots, 26
Rotor syndrome, 97
Rubella, 211
cause of, 295
congenital hearing loss
with, 29
Rubeola, rash of, 211
Rye classification,
Hodgkin's lymphoma,
2O2
Salivary gland disorders,
32-33
Salmonella
in sickle cell anemia,
172
in subarachnoid
hemorrhage, 4
typh;, 213
Salpingitis, 136-137
Sarcoid, 299
Sarcoidosis, 180
in hypercalcemia, 166
lung presentation of, 65t
Scarlet fever, 212
Schafer's disease, 229t
Schatzki ring, 87
Schilling test, 188
Schindler's disease, 229t
Schistosomiasis
in brain abscess, 11
in hepatitis, 98
Schmidt's syndrome, 161
with B12 deficiency with
diabetes mellitus, 301
diagnosis of, 301
thyroid stimulating
hormone levels in, 302
Schwannoma, 13, 71t
Sclera
blue, 27
perforation of, 24
Scleritis, 24, 291
Scleroderma, 177-178,
179f
lung presentation of, 6@
Scrofula, 77
in cervical
lymphadenitis, 35
Scrotum, masses in, 130
Scurvy, 169, 247t
vitamin C deficiency in,
289
dermatitis, 208
Seborrheic
Seborrheic keratosis, 208
Seizures
absence, 224
complex, 224
grand mal, 225
partial, 224
simple, 224
in tuberous sclerosis, 15
Selegiline, 19
Selenium deficiency, 247t
Self-antigens, 235, 236
Seminoma, 130
Senile dementia,
AIzheimer type, 18-19
Septic shock, 245
Serotonin, 225
bronchial carcinoid
tumor secretion of, 293
inhibition of, 150
Sertoli cell tumor, 131
Sertoli cells, 153, 154
Sertoli-Leydig tumors,
uterine, 136
Serum effectors, 235
Serum proteins, 231
Sessile polyps, 95
Severe combined
immunodeficiency
(SCID), 241
Sexually transmitted
diseases, 141-143
in pelvic inflammatory
disease, 293-294
Szary syndrome, 202
Sheehan's syndrome, 146
Shilder's diffuse cerebral
sclerosis, 16
Shingles, 212
Shock, 245
Sialadenitis, 32
Silicosis, 65t
Simmond's syndrome, 146
Sinuses
congenital disorders of,
29-30
polyps of, 30
Sinusitis, 31
chronic, 262-263, 290
complications of, 31
with cystic fibrosis, 30
Sipple's syndrome, 166
parafollicular C cell-
derived thyroid nodule
in, 264, 292
Sister Mary Joseph sign,
89
Sjogren's syndrome, 23,
176
xerostomia and parotid
swelling in, 33
Skin
cancer of, 208-210
in immunity, 231,235
layers of, 204
malignant tumors of,
254, 281
Skull
fractures of, 30
passageways of, 218
Sleep apnea
obstructive, 71
probability of, 71
types of, 71
Small cell carcinoma
of lung, 71
characteristics and
histology of, 70t
SIADH in, 293
Small cell tumors, ACTH-
secreting, 293
Smoking
cessation of
for angina pectoris, 39
for myocardial infarct,
41
squamous cell
carcinoma and,
265-266, 293
Sodium benzoate, 100
Somatostatin, 91
Somatotrophs, 144
Spasticity, 223
Spermatocytic seminoma,
130
Spermatogenesis, 153
Sphingolipidosis, 17-18
Sphingomyelinase
deficiency, 18
Spina bifida, 15
Spinal cord
anatomy of, 215, 217
cavitation of in
syringomyelia, 15
disorders of, 215-217
Spinal tracts, ascending
and descending, 216f
Spinocerebellum
degeneration of, 19
lesions of, 219
SDrochetes, 261-262, 289
Spirometry, 57, 58f
Spironelactone, 44
Spitz nevus, 206
Spleen, 231
Splenic sequestration, 193
Spondyloarthropathy,
seronegative, 176-177
Spongiosis, 205
Squamous cell cancer,
oral, 32
Squamous cell carcinoma,
209
incidence of, 281
increased calcium levels
in, 265-266, 293
lung, 70t
vaginal, 134
Staghorn renal calculi,
119f
Stapedial artery, 20t
Staphylococcus
aureus
in C3 or C45
deficiency, 241
in cervical
lymphadenitis, 35
in chronic sinusitis, 31 pyogenes, 34, 212 Syringomyelia, 15
in cystic fibrosis, 102 viridans, 248, 275 Systemic diseases
in pneumonia, 74t Streptomycin, 75t cutaneous manifestations
in pyogenic Stroke, 1 of, 213
osteomyelitis, 172 vascular distribution of, lung presentation of, 64,
in toxic shock 3t 65-66t
syndrome, 136 Stromal neoplasms, Systemic lupus
in phagocyte defects, uterine, 136 erythematosus (SLE),
242 Struma ovarii, 160 175
in pneumonia, 260, 287 Struvite stones, 118 antihistone antibodies in,
saprophyticus Sturge-Weber syndrome, 253, 280
in ammonium 209 diagnosis of, 175-176
magnesium Subarachnoid hemorrhage, drug-induced, 176
phosphate stones, 21 in Libman-Sacks
118 with severe headache, endocarditis, 50
in urinary tract nausea and vomiting, lung presentation of, 66t
infections, 106 257, 284 serum laboratory tests
in sore throat, 34 Subclavian arteries, 20t for, 273, 301
 Status asthmaticus, 62 Substance P, 231
Stein-Leventhal syndrome, Substantia nigra, 217 T
136 Succinylcholine, 245
Stem cells, 185 Sudden death, 45 T-cell deficiencies
Steroid eye drops, 23t Sulfacetamide, 23t acquired, 239-241
Steroids Sulfadiazine, 8 congenital, 239
for eczema, 205 Sulfonylurea, 149 T lymphocytes
253, Sumatriptan, 21 tolerance, 235
inhaled,
28O
in
central
pathways of synthesis of, Superior sulcus tumor, 71 cytotoxic, 233
157f Superoxide dismutase in AIDS, 240
for temporal arteritis, 21 gene mutation, 19 antigen to, 234
 Stomach Surfactant, 73 in viral defense, 238
cancer of, 88-89 Surgery, complications of, in immune response,
disorders of, 87-89 245 233, 235
normal physiology of, 87 Sweet's syndrome, 229t two-signal theory of
Stratum corneum, Swinging flashlight test, 22 activation of, 236
thickening of, 204 Sydenham's chorear 50 Tabes dorsalis, 10
Stratum granulosum, Synaptic input, loss of, 1 Tachycardia
thinning of, 204 Syndrome of inappropriate nodal, 43t
Streptococcus antidiuretic hormone sinus, 43t, 68
agalact;ae, 6-7, 172 (SIADH), ! 11 supraventricular, 42
in cervical in small cell carcinoma, ventricular, 42, 43t
lymphadenitis, 35 293 Tachydysrhythmias, 43t
in chronic sinusitis, 31 Syndrome X, 230t Taenia, 98
in glomerulonephritis, Syndromes, 227-230 solium, 10
272, 300 Syphilis Takayasu arteritis, 299
group A, 50 in aortic dissection, 52 TAN HATS acronym, 219
in phagocyte defects, congenital hearing loss Tay-Sachs disease, 17
242 with, 29 description and
pneumoniae, 6 diagnosis of, 261-262, symptoms of, 230t
in acute sinusitis, 31 289 Tears, artificial, 23
characteristics and genitourinary Telangiectasia
treatment for, 74t manifestations of, 142 hereditary hemorrhagic,
in spontaneous Hutchinson's teeth with, 30
bacterial peritonitis, 31 with systemic sclerosis,
99 in vaginosis. 295 179f
Telencephalon, 223-224
Temporal arteritis, 21
ESR in, 260-261,
287-288
Temporal lobe lesions, 224
Tensilon screening test,
! 84
Teratogens, 244
Teratoma, 71 t
ovarian, 160
of testes, 130
uterine, 136
Testicular feminization
syndrome, 154
Testis
masses in, 130
tumors of, 130-13!
Testosterone, 149, 153
Tet spell, 54
Tetanus, 32
Tetracycli ne
for granuloma inguinale,
142
toxicity of, 98
Tetralogy of Fallot, 54
murmurs with, 55t
Thalamus
anatomy and function of,
219
coronal sections
through, 220-221f
Thalassemias, 190
Theca cells, 155
Thecoma, uterine, 136
Theophylline, 253, 280
Thiamine
for alcoholic liver
disease, 1 O0
deficiency of, 247t
neurologic
characteristics of, 17
Thiazide diuretics
for congestive heart
failure, 45
for hypertension, 38
Thoracentesis, 63
Throat. See also Neck
congenital disorders of,
33-34
disorders of, 34-35
sore, 34-35
Thrombocythemia,
essential, 197
presentation of, 283
Thrombocytopenia,
191-193
Thrombolytics, 249, 276
Thrombus prophylaxis, 2
Thrush, oral, 34
Thumb sign, 35
Thymoma, 71 t
suppressing ACTH
secretion, 167
Thymus, lymphocytes of,
235-236
Thyroglossal cysts, 158
Thyroglossal duct cysts, 33
in neck mass, 250,
276-277
Thyroid gland
adenoma of, 159
congenital disease of,
158
disorders of, 158-163
malignancy of, 162-163
in neck mass, 277
physiology of, 158
Thyroid hormones, 158
Thyroid nodules,
parafollicular C cell-
derived, 264, 292
Thyroid stimulating
hormone, 158
in Schmidt's syndrome,
302
Thyroid storm, 161
Thyroid tumor, 71t
Thyroiditis
Riedel's, 162
silent, 160
subacute, 159, 161-162
Thyrotoxicosis, 166
Thyrotrophs, 144
Thyrotropin (TSH), 144
loss of, 146
Thyroxin, 158
Timolol, 25
Tinea, 204
Tinea capitis, 204
Tinea versicolor, 204
Tinnitus, 28
Togavirus, 211,295
Tolerance, 235
central, 235-236
oral, 236
peripheral, 236
Tongue, squamous cell
cancer of, 32
Tonsillitis, 34-35
ToRCHS, 8
Torsades des pointes, 42
EKG in, 44f
Torticollis, 33
Toxic shock syndrome,
136, 294
Toxicology, 243, 244-245
Toxoplasma, AIDS-related,
240
Toxoplasmosis, 8
TPA, 40
Tracheoesophageal fistula,
86
Transaminases, 97
Transferrin, 188
Transforming growth factor
I (TGF-I), 237-238
in peripheral tolerance,
236
Transfusion medicine,
186-187
hazards of, 187
Transient ischemic attack
(TIA), 1-2
Transitional cell
carcinoma, 281
Transplant rejection, 235
Traube's sign, 47
Trauma
AEIOU TIPS for,
245-246
to nose, face and
sinuses, 30
Trench mouth, 32
Treponema pallidum, 142,
295
TRH secretion, 158
Triamcinolone, 205
Trichomonas
vaginalis, 138f, 143
symptoms of, 266-267,
294-295
in vulvovaginitis, 137,
138t
Tricuspid valve
regurgitation of, 48, 49f
murmurs with, 55t
stenosis of, 48
heart sounds in, 277
murmurs with, 55t
Tricyclic antidepressants,
42
Triiodothyronine, 158
Trismus, 32
Tropheryma whippelii, 90
Tropical sprue, 90
Trousseau's sign, 166
Trousseau's syndrome, 103
Trypanosoma cruzi
in Chagas' disease, 292
in dilated
cardiomyopathy, 45
Trypsin, serum level of,
297
Tuberculosis
active, 78
diagnosis and treatment
of, 77-78
Ghon complex in, 262,
290
inflammatory response
in, 237
latent, 77-78
miliary, 77, 79f
postprimary, 79f
primary, 77, 79f
secondary, 77
Tuberous sclerosis, 15,
209
Tuberous sclerosis
syndrome, 120-121
Tubo-ovarian abscess, 137
Tubular colonic adenoma,
95
Tubular necrosis, acute,
109
diagnosis of, 252, 279
Tubulovillous adenoma,
95
necrosis factor-a,
Tumor
lie 237
Tumors
of appendix, 96
colonic, 95
gastric, 88-89
hepatic, 101
mediastinal, 71 t
v neurologic, 11-14
of nose, face, and
sinuses, 30
oromaxillary, 32
pituitary, 146
Turcot's syndrome, 96
in glioblastoma
multiforme, 11
Turner's syndrome, 156
Typhoid fever, 213
pulse-fever dissociation
in, 299
Tyramine, 245
Ulcerative colitis, 92, 95f
barium enema of, 94f
versus Crohn's disease,
93t
symptoms of, 259,
286-287
Uncus, transtentorial
herniation, 4
Urachal cyst, 131
Urease, 118
Uremia
in chronic renal failure,
111
in metabolic acidosis,
272, 300
in platelet dysfunction,
193
Urethritis, 106
Urinalysis, 116-117
Urinary colic, 118
Urinary incontinence, 3t
Urinary tract infection,
1 O6
acute, 106-107
chronic, 107
Urinary tract obstruction,
118-119
Uroporphyrins, 210
Urticaria, 206
Usher syndrome, 230t
Uterus
leiomyosarcoma of, 287
neoplasms of, 134
Uveitis, 24
eye symptoms of, 263,
290-291
V/Q inequality, 60
V/Q mismatch, 61
V/Q ratio, 67
Vagina, neoplasms of, 134
Vaginosis, 266-267,
294-295
Vagotomy, 87-88
Valve replacement
for aortic regurgitation,
47
for mitral stenosis, 47
Valvulae conniventes,
thickening of, 93f
Valvular diseases, 46-48
Vancomycin
for meningitis, 6, 7
for pseudomembranous
colitis, 95
toxicity of, 245
Varicella, 211-212
Varicella-zoster virus,
211-212, 295
Vasa previa, 288
Vascular liver disorders,
100-101
Vascular system, 231
Vascul itis
laboratory tests for, 244
of medium-sized vessels,
271,299
Vasodilators
for aortic regurgitation,
47
for cardiomyopathy, 46t
for mitral regurgitation,
46
Vasopressin, 144
in paraneoplastic
syndromes, 167
Vena caval occlusion, 1 O0
Veno-occlusive disease,
100-101
Ventral horn, 215
Ventricular fibrillation, 42,
43t
Ventricular septal defect
(VSD), 53-54, 276
murmurs with, 55t
Verner-Morrison
syndrome, 230t
Verruca plana, 212
Verruca plantaris/palmaris,
212
Verruca vulgaris, 212
Verrucae, 212
Vertebrobasilar embolus,
classic, 2
Vertigo, 28-29
benign paroxysmal
positional, 28
Vesicle, 204
Vestibular neurectomy, 28
Vestibulocerebellar
lesions, 219
Duroziez's sign, 47
Dust disease. See
Pneumoconiosis
Dysfibrinogenemia, 196t
Dysgerminoma, 135
Dysphagia, 264, 291-292
Dysplastic nevus
syndrome, 206
Dyspnea, 44
Dystrophin, X-linked lack
of, 183
E vitamin deficiency, 247t
Ears
disorders of, 27-29
inner, 28-29
tumors of, 28
Echinococcus
in brain abscess, 11
granulosa, 98
Eclampsia, 140-141
Ectoderm, 225
embryology of, 20t
Ectopic pancreatic tissue,
1 O2
Eczema, 205-206
Vibration sense, 215
Villous adenoma, 95
Vincent's infection, 32
Viral defense, 238
Virchow's node, 89
Virchow's triad, 67
Virilization, 260, 287
Visual agnosia, 224
Visual field deficits, 22f
Visual inattention, 224
Vitamins, deficiencies and
excesses of, 247t
Vitiligo, 2O6
von Gierke's glycogenosis,
183
von HippeI-Lindau
syndrome, 209
hemangioblastoma in,
12
von Recklinghausen's
disease, 168
von Recklinghausen's
neu rofibromatosis,
13-14
von Willebrand factor
deficiency, 193
Vulvovaginitis, 137
differential diagnosis of,
138t
WAGR complex, 121
Waldeyer's ring, 34
Wallerian degeneration,
1
Warfarin
for congestive heart
failure, 45
for transient ischemic
attack, 2
Warts, 212
Water deprivation test,
110-111
Water-hammer pulse, 47
Waterhouse-Friderichsen
syndrome, 6, 152
Weber's test, 29
Wegener's granulomatosis,
1 O8
Wegener's syndrome,
65t
Weil's disease, 98
Werdnig-Hoffmann
disease, 19
Werner's syndrome, 166
in peptic ulcer disease,
256-257, 283-284
Wernicke encephalopathy,
252, 279
Wern icke-Korsakoff's
syndrome, 247t
Wernicke's aphasia, 224
Wernicke's
encephalopathy, 100
classic triad of, 279
Wernicke's triad, 17
Westergren erythrocyte
sedimentation rate,
260-261,287-288
Wheals, 204
in urticaria, 206
Whipple's disease, 90
White blood cells, 231
types of, 231-234
White matter, 215
Whole blood, 186
Willis, circle of, 3f
Wilms' tumor, 121
presentation of,
254-255, 281
Wilson's disease
in fulminant hepatitis, 97
Kayser-Fleischer ring in,
23
neurologic
characteristics of, 17
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome,
241
Wrist drop, 244
Xanthelasma, 23, 207
Xanthochromia, 4
Xanthoma, 207
Xeroderma pigmentosa,
230t
Xerophthalmia, 23
Xerostomia, 176
XYY syndrome, 154
Yellow eye, 27
Yolk sac tumor, 130-131,
136
Zanamivir, 75t
Zebras, 227-230
Zenker's diverticulum, 86
Zinc deficiency, 247t
Zollinger-Ellison
syndrome, 103
in duodenal ulcer, 89
Zoster, 212
musan