BoardReviewSeries_Physiology1995Costanzo
наименование:Board Review Series: Physiology
автор/ы : Costanzo Linda S.
год : 1995
страниц : 280
издательство : Harwal Pub Co
ISBN: 0683021346

печатное издание


Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond. Outline with multiple-choice questions and answers for medical students preparing for the USMLE Step 1. Reflects USMLE changes and includes board-type questions with explanations at the end of the book.



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Preface ix
Acknowledgments xi
1. Cell Physiology 1
I. Cell Membranes 1
II. Transport Across Cell Membranes P2
III. Osmosis 5
IV. Diffusion Potential, Resting Membrane Potential, and Action Potential 7
V. Neuromuscular and Synaptic Transmission 13
VI. Skeletal Muscle 17
VII. Smooth Muscle 94
Review Test 22
2. Neurophysiology 29
I. Autonomic Nervous System 29
II. Sensory Systems 32
III. Motor Systems 44
IV. Higher Functions of the Cerebral Cortex 52
V. Blood-Brain Barrier and Cerebrospinal Fluid 52
VI. Temperature Regulation 53
Review Test 56
3. Cardiovascular Physiology 63
I. Hemodynamics 63
II. Cardiac Electrophysiology 66
III. Cardiac Muscle and Cardiac Output 72
IV. Cardiac Cycle 80
V. Regulation of Arterial Pressure 82
VI. Microcirculation and Lymph 87
VII. Special Circulations (Coronary, Cerebral, Muscle, Skin) 89
VIII. Integrative Functions of the Cardiovascular System: Gravity, Exercise, and Hemorrhage 93
Review Test 96
4. Respiratory Physiology 107
I. Lung Volumes and Capacities 107
II. Mechanics of Breathing 108
III. Gas Exchange--General Information 114
IV. Oxygen Transport 116
V. CO2 Transport 119
VI. Pulmonary Circulation 121
VII. Ventilation/Perfusion Defects 123
VIII. Control of Breathing 124
IX. Integrated responses of the Respiratory System 126
Review Test 128
5. Renal and Acid-Base Physiology
I. Body Fluids 135
II. Renal Clearance, Renal Plasma Flow, and Glomerular Filtration Rate 140
III. Reabsorption and Secretion 143
IV. NaC1 Regulation 146
V. K + Regulation 150
VI. Renal Regulation of Urea, Phosphate, Calcium, and Magnesium 153
VII. Concentration and Dilution of Urine 154
VIII. Renal Hormones 160
IX. Acid-Base Balance 160
X. Diuretics 166
XI. Integrative Examples 166
Review Test 169
6. Gastrointestinal Physiology 179
I. Structure and Innervation of the Gastrointestinal Tract 179
II. Gastrointestinal Hormones 180
III. Gastrointestinal Motility 184
IV. Gastrointestinal Secretion 189
V. Digestion and Absorption 199
Review Test 206
7. Endocrine Physiology 211
I. Overview of Hormones 211
II. Cell Mechanisms and Second Messengers 214
III. Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis) 216
IV. Thyroid Gland 222
V. Adrenal Cortex and Adrenal Medulla 225
VI. Endocrine PancreasGlucagon and Insulin 231
VII. Calcium Metabolism (Parathyroid Hormone, Vitamin D, Calcitonin) P35
VIII. Male Reproduction 238
IX. Female Reproduction 240
Review Test 245
Comprehensive Examination 253
Index 275

A
Acid-base balance, 160-166
buffers of, 160-161
disorders of, 164(t), 164-166,
165(t), 171Q, 175E
Henderson-Hasseibaich equation
for measurement of, 161,
170Q, 175E
Acidosis, 153
metabolic, 164, 166
respiratory, 166
Actin, in skeletal muscle, 17
Action potential, 11-13, 12
ionic basis of, 11-12, 12
propagation of, 13
refractory period of, 12, 12-13
Addison's disease, 230, 247Q, 250E
Adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase),
67
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), 4,
25Q, 27E
Adenylate cyclase, 214, 215
Adrenal cortex. 225-231,227, 229
Addison's disease, 230, 247Q,
250E
adrenocortical hormones, 225-231,
228, 229
aldosterone, 227-229, 228, 247Q,
250E
angioteusin, 228
Conn's syndrome, 231
Cushing's syndrome, 230-231
glucocorticoid, 226-227, 229,
229-230
hyperaidosteronism, 231
mineraiocorticoid, 230
pathophysiology of, 230-231
21-hydroxylase deficiency, 231
Adrenal medulla, 30
Adrenergic receptors, in autonomic
nervous system, 30-31
Adrenocerticai hormones, 225-231,
228, 229
carbon steroid, 225-226
secretion, regulation of, 226-229,
229
synthesis of, 225-226, 228
Adrenocorticai insufficiency,
139-140
Adrenocorticotropic hormone, 217
Airway resistance, 112-113
Albright's osteodystrophy, 237
Aldosterone, 227-229, 228, 247Q,
250E
and potassium secretion, by kid-
ney, 152-153
Aidosterone-renin-angiotensin sys-
tem, 83-85, 86
Alkalosis, 153
metabolic, 166
respiratory, 166, 171Q, 175E
tx receptors, in autonomic nervous
system, 30-31
tx 2 receptors, in autonomic nervous
system, 31
Altitude, respiratory adaptation to,
127, 127(t)
Alveoli, surface tension of. 11 0-111,
111
Amacrine ceil, in retina, 37
Amplification, of sound, 40
Angiotensin, 228
Angiotensin-aldosterone-renin sys-
tem, 83-85, 86
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH),
154-159, 221,221(t)
Aphasia, 52
Arterial pressure, 66, 82-86
Arterioles, 63
Artery, resistance of, 97Q, 102E
Astigmatism, 36
ATP, See Adenosine triphosphate
Atria, 68, 68
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), 86
Atropine, 32, 58Q, 60E, 196
Audition, 40-42
auditory pathway, central, 41-42
inner ear, 40, 41
middle ear, 40
organ of Corti, 40-41, 41
outer ear, 40
sound, encoding of, 41
Auditory pathway, central, 41-42
Auerbach's plexus, 180
Autonomic nervous system. 29-32
adrenal medulla, 30
1 receptors, 30-31
2 receptors, 31
91 receptors, 31
92 receptors, 31
cholinergic receptor, 31-32
drugs acting on, 32, 32(0
effect on organ systems, 33{t)
ganglia, autonomic, 30
muscarimc receptor, 31-32
nerve fiber types, characteristics of,
34(t)
neuron, postganglionic, 30
preganglionic, 30
organization of, 29(t), 29-32, 30
receptor
adrenergic, 30-31
cholinergic, 31-32
nicotinic, 31, 58Q, 60E

B
Baroreceptor reflex. 82-83
Basal ganglia, 51
9 endorphin, 217, 218
9 iipotropin, 217, 218
91 receptors, in autonomic nervous
system, 31
92 receptors, in autonomic nervous
system, 31, 57Q, 58Q, 60E
Bile, secretion of, 198-199
Biogd-brain barrier, 52-53
Blood flow, 64
hormonal control of, 91
local control of, 89-91, 90it)
in skeletal muscle. 92
velocity of, 64
Blood urea nitrogen, 141
Blood vessels, capacitance, 65-66
pressure profile of, 66
resistance of, 64-65
Body fluids, compartments, measure-
ment of, 136(0, 136-137
shift between, 137-140
distribution of, 135, 135-136,
136(t)
Bohr method, of computing physio-
logic dead space in lung, 108
Bombesin, 181
Bowditch staircase, and heart rate
measurement, 73
Bowman's space, oncotic pressure in,
143
Bradykinin, and blood flow control, 91
Braiustem, control of posture, 48-50
serotonin in. 17
Breathing, airway resistance,
112-113
compliance in respiratory system,
109, 109(O, 109-110. 110
control of, 124-126
cycle of, 113. 113-114
expiration, muscles of, 109
inspiration, muscles of, 108-109
mechanisms of, 108-114
surface tension, of alveoli and sur-
factant, 110-111,111
Broca's area, of cerebral cortex, 52
Brown fat, and cold temperatures, 53

C
Calcltonin, 238
Calcium, gastrointestinal absorption
of, 205
kidney regulation of, 154
metabolism of, 235(t), 235-238
calcitonin, 238
parathyroid hormone, 236-237
vitamin D, 237-238, 238
renal regulation of. 153-154
Calsequestrin. 18
Ca +-N celi membrane counter-
transport, 5, 6
Capillaries, 63
Carbohydrate, absorption of, 200, 201
digestion of, 199-201,201, 207Q,
209E
Carbon dioxide, partial pressure of,
l15(t), 115-116
transport of, 119-121
Carbon steroid, 225-226
Cardiac action potentials. 67-69.68.
69
Cardiac cycle, 80-82, 81
Cardiac electrophysioiogy, action po-
tentials of, 67-69, 68, 69
autonomic effects of, 70-72, 71(t)
conduction velocity of, 69-70
electrocardiogram of, 66-67, 67
excitability of, 70, 70
Cardiac muscle, 72-80
cardiac output of, 80, 99Q, 104E
contractility of, 73, 73-74
excitation-contraction coupling of,
72-73
function curve of, 76, 76-79, 77, 78
length-tension relationship of,
74--75, 75
myocardial cell structure of, 72
oxygen consumption of, 79
ventricular pressure-volume loops
of, 75, 75-76
Cardiac output measurement, 80,
99Q, 104E
Cardiovascular physiology, 63-95,
96Q-101Q, 102E-106E
arterial pressure regulation of.
82-86
cardiac cycle, 80-82, 81
cardiac muscle, 72-80
cardiac output, 80, 99Q, 104E
cerebral circulation, 92
coronary circulation, 91-92
edema, 89, 89it), 98Q, 104E
electrophysiology, 66-72
exercise, effect of, 93-94, 94(0
gravitational force, changes in, 93,
93it)
hemodynamics, 63-66
hemorrhage, effect of, 94(t), 94-95
hormonal control of blood flow, 91
local control of blood flow, 89-91,
90(t)
lymph, 88-89, 89(t)
microcirculation, 87-88
skeletal muscle blood flow, 92
skin blood flow, 92-93
Catecholamine, and cardiac stimulation, 734
Cell membrane. 1-2
intercellular connections of, 1-2
lipid bilayer of, 1, 24Q, 27E
oil/water partition coefficient of, 3
osmosis and, 5-7
potential, action, 11-13, 12
propagation, 13
refractory period, 12, 12-13
diffusion, 8-10, 9
calculation of, 2-3
facilitated, 3-4, 22Q, 26E
simple, 2-3, 22Q, 25Q, 26E, 28E
equilibrium, 8-10
Nerst equation calculation of,
9-10
resting, 10-11, 23Q, 27E
proteins of, 1
transport across, 2(t), 2-5
Cell physiology, 1-28, 22Q-25Q,
26E-28E
action potential, See Action poten-
tial
cell membrane, See Cell membrane
diffusion potential, See Diffusion
potential
neuromuscular transmission. See
Neuromuscular transmission
osmosis, See Osmosis
resting membrane potential, See
Resting membrane potential
skeletal muscle, See Muscle, skeletal
smooth muscle, See Muscle, smooth
synaptic transmission, See Synap-
tic transmission
transport across cell membrane,
See Transport, across cell
membrane
Cerebellum, 50-51
movement coordination, 56Q, 59E
Cerebral circulation, 92
Cerebral cortex, higher functions of,
52
Cerebrospinal fluid, 52-53, 53(t)
Chemoreceptor, 32-33
Chewing, 185
Cholecystokinin, 182-183
Cholinergic receptor, in autonomic
nervous system, 31-32
Chorda tympani, 56Q, 59E
Chromaffin cell, 30
Chyme, in duodenum, 195
Cimetidine, for gastric ulcer, 196
Clasp-knife reflex, 47-48
Cl--diffusion potential, 9, 9, 22Q, 26E
Cochlea, 40
Cold temperatures, and brown fat
activation, 53
Competition, of saturation of carrier-
mediated transport, 3
Compliance of lung, 109(t), 109-110
Conduction velocity, cardiac electro-
physiology, 69-70
Cone, in retina, 37
Conn's syndrome, 231
Contractility, of cardiac muscle, 73,
73-74
Coronary circulation, 91-92
Cotransport, of cell membrane, 4-5
Cross-bridge cycle, tropomyosin, 18
Cupula, of vestibular system, 42
Cushing reaction, 85
Cushing's syndrome, 230-231
Cystic fibrosis, pancreas, 198

D
Dalton's law, of partial pressure,
114-115
Decibel, 40
Dermatome, referred pain, 36
Diabetes meilitus, 234-235
Diaphragm, and respiration, 108-109
Diarrhea, 138
Diastasis, 82
Diastolic pressure, 66
Dicrotic notch, 82
Diffusion potential, 7-10, 9, 22Q, 26E
Digestion, 199-203, 200it)
Digitalis, 73, 73-74, 74
Diopter, in refraction, 36
Diuretics, 167(t), 171Q, 176E
Dopamine, 16, 16-17, 24Q, 27E
for Parkinson's disease, 16-17,
23Q, 27E
Drugs, acting on autonomic nervous
system, 32, 32(0
Dysdiadochokinesia, 51

E
Edema, 89, 89(t), 98Q, 104E
Efferent pathway, from central ner-
vous system, 29
Electrocardiogram, 66-67, 67
Electrolytes, gastrointestinal absorp-
tion of, 203-205
Eiectrophysiology, cardiac, See Car-
diac electrophysioiogy
Emmetropia, 36
Emphysema, 110, 116
Endocrine pancreas, 231(t), 231-235
diabetes mellitus, 234-235
glucagon, 232-233, 233(t)
insulin, 233(t), 233-235, 247Q,
250E
organization of, 231,232(t)
somatostatin, 235, 248Q, 251A
Endocrine system, 211-244,
245Q-248Q, 249E-251E
adrenal cortex, 225-231,227
calcium metabolism, 235(t),
235-238
endocrine pancreas, See Endocrine
pancreas
hormones, 211-214, 212(t), 213;
See also Hormones
pituitary gland, 216-222
reproduction
female, 240-244
male, 238-240, 239, 240
second messengers, 214(0, 214-216
thyroid gland, 222-225
Endolymph, of vestibular system, 42
Endopoptidases, in digestion, 201
Endothelial-derived relaxing factor
(EDRF), 89
End plate potential (EPP), in postsyn-
aptic membrane, 14
Enkephalins, secretion of, 184
Epileptic seizure, 51
Epinephrine, 16, 16
EPP, See End plate potential
Esophagus, motility of, 186
Estrogen, 240, 241,241, 241(t), 246Q,
249E
Excitation-contraction coupling, in
cardiac muscle, 72-73
in skeletal muscle, 18-19, 19, 22Q,
25Q, 26E, 28E
in smooth muscle, 21, 22Q, 26E
Excitatory postsynaptic potential
(EPSP), 15
Exercise, effect on cardiovascular sys-
tem, 93-94, 94(t), 97Q, 102E
respiratory response to, 126, 126(t)
Exopeptidases, in digestion, 201
Expiration, muscles of, 109
Expiratory volume, forced (FEV), 108

F
Fever, 54
Fick principle, for cardiac output
measurement, 80
Fluid exchange, Starling equation,
87-88, 143, 143(t)
Follicular phase, of menstrual cycle,
242, 242
Force-velocity, length-tension rela-
tionships, in skeletal muscle,
19-20, 20
Fowler method, of computing dead
space in lung, 107
Fructose, absorption of, 200

G
GABA, See Gamma-aminobutyric
acid
Galactose, absorption of, 200
Gallbladder, 198-199
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA),
17, 22Q, 26E, 50, 51
Ganglia, autonomic, 30
Gas exchange, 114-116, 115(t), l16(t)
carbon dioxide, partial pressure of,
115(t), 115-116
Dalton's law of partial pressure of,
114-115
oxygen, partial pressure of, l15(t),
115-116
Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), 183
Gastric secretion, 192(t), 192-196,
193, 194
Gastrin, 181-182, 208Q, 209E, 210E
Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), 182,
184
Gastrointestinal tract, 179-205,
206Q-208Q, 208E-210E
absorption by, 203-205
bile secretion by, 198-199
carbohydrates, digestion of,
199-201,201, 207Q, 209E
cholecystokinin, 182-183
digestion by, 199-203, 200(t)
enkephalins in, 184
gastric inhibitory peptide, 183
gastric secretion by, 192(t),
192-196, 193, 194
gastrin, 181-182, 208Q, 209E,
210E
gastrin-releasing peptide, 184
histamine, 184
hormones, 180-184, 182(0, 206Q,
208E
classification of, 181
innervation of, 180
lipids, digestion of, 202-203
motility of, 184-189, 186-187
chewing, 185
esophageal, 186
large intestine, 188-189
slow waves, 184-185, 185, 206Q,
208E
small intestine, 187-188
swallowing, 185-186
vomiting, 189
neurocrines, 181, 184
pancreatic secretion, 196, 196-198,
197
paracrines, 181, 184
protein, digestion of, 201-202, 202
salivary secretion by, 189-192, 190,
191, 207Q, 209E
secretion by, 189-199, 190(t)
somatostatin, 184
structure of, 179, 179-180
vasoactive intestinal peptide, 184
Geniculocalcarine tract, 38
Giobus pailidus, 51
Giomerular filtration rate, 141-143,
142, 169Q, 171Q, 174E,
175E
Starling equation, 143, 143(t)
Glucagon, 232-233, 233(t)
Glucocorticoid, secretion of, 226-227,
229, 229-230
Glucose, absorption of, 200
cell membrane diffusion, 22Q, 26E
renal reabsorption of, 144,
144-145
Glutamate, 17
Glycine, 17
Goigi tendon, 58Q, 61E
G protein, 214
Graves' disease, 224, 226(0, 247Q,
248Q, 250E, 251E
Growth hormone, 217-220, 219,
246Q, 249E

H
Hair cells, of vestibular system, 42
Haustra, 188
Heat, exhaustion, 54
generation of, 5354
regulation of, 5355
stroke, 54
Hemiretina, 38
Hemodynamies, arterial pressure, 66
blood flow velocity, 64
capacitance, 65-66
pressure profile, in blood vessels, 66
resistance of blood vessels, 64-65
vasculature, components of, 63
Hemoglobin, characteristics of,
116-117
oxyhemoglobin, 117
Hemorrhage, effect on cardiovascular
physiology, 94(t), 94-95
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, for
acid-base balance calculation,
161, 170Q, 175E
Hering-Breuer reflex, 125
Hertz, 40
Hippocampus, 52
Hirschsprung's disease, 189
Histamine, 17
and blood flow control, 91
in gastrointestinal tract, 184
Horizontal cell, in retina, 37
Hormones, 211-214, 212(t), 213
of gastrointestinal tract, 180-184,
182(t)
classification of, 181
pituitary gland, anterior lobe of,
216-221
radioimmunoaesay of, 211,213
receptors, regulation of, 213-214
renal, 160(t)
secretion, regulation of, 213
synthesis of, 211,213
Hyperaldosteronism, 152-153, 231
Hyperemia, 90
Hyperthyroidism, See Graves' disease
Hypertropia, 36
Hypoaldosteronism, 166-168
Hypophysis, See Pituitary gland
Hypothalamic set point, for body tem-
perature, 54
Hypothalamus, histamine in, 17
during sleep, 52
Hypothermia, 55
Hypothyroidism, 226(t)
Hypotonic urea, 22Q, 26E
Hypoxemia, 119, 120(t)

I
I band, of skeletal muscle, 18
Incisura, 82
Inhibitory postsynaptic potential
(IPSP), 15, 25Q, 28E
Inner ear, 40, 41
Input to synapse, excitatory postsyn-
aptic potential (EPSP), 15
inhibitory postsynaptic potential
(IPSP), 15, 25Q, 28E
Inspiration, muscles of, 108-109
Insulin, 4, 233(t), 233-235
Intestine, large, motility of, 188-189
small, motility of, 187-188
Iodine, thyroid gland, 222-223
Ion channel, 7-8
Iron, gastrointestinal absorption of,
205
Irritable bowel syndrome, 189

J
Jacksonian seizure, 51

K
Kidney, 135-168, 169Q-173Q,
174E-177E
acid-base balance, 160-166
buffers, 160-161
disorders of, 164(t), 164-166,
165(t), 171Q, 175E
Henderson-Hasseibalch equa-
tion, 161,170Q, 175E
antidiuretic hormone (ADH),
154-159
blood flow, 140-141
body fluids, 135-140; See also Body
fluids
calcium, regulation of, 154
clearance, blood flow, 140-141
equation for calculation of, 140
plasma flow, 140-141
Kidney, continued
diuretics, 167(t), 171Q, 176E
glucose, reabsorption of, 144,
144-145
hormones, 160(t)
hypoaldosteronism, 16168
magnesium, regulation of, 154
metabolic acidosis, 164, 166
metabolic alkalosis, 166
NaCi regulation, 146-150
Na + reabsorption, along nephron,
147, 147 150, 148,149
paraaminohippuric acid (PAl-I), se-
cretion of, 145, 14146,
170Q, 175E
phosphate, regulation of, 153-154
plasma flow, 140-141
potassium regulation, 150(t),
150-153, 151, 151(t), 152.
169Q, 170Q, 171Q, 174E,
176E
reabsorption, 143 146
calculation of, 143-144
respiratory acidosis, 166
respiratory alkalosis, 166, 171Q,
175E
secretion, 143-146
calculation of, 143-144
urea, regulation of, 153
urine, concentration of, 154-157,
157
clinical disorders related to,
159(t)
free water clearance estima-
tion of, 158-159
dilution of, 157-158, 158
clinical disorders related to,
159(t}
free water clearance estima-
tion of, 158-159
plasma osmolarity regulation,
154, 155, 156, 169Q, 174E
vomiting, 168
Kinocilium. of vestibular system, 42,
43
Knee-jerk reflex, 47

L
Lactation, 244
Lactose intolerance, 201
Language, cerebral cortex function,
52
Laplace's law, surface tension of lung,
111
Learning, cerebral cortex function,
52
Length-tension, force-velocity rela-
tionships, in skeletal muscle,
19-20, 20
Leydig cells, 238
Lipid, bilayer, of cell membrane, 1,
24Q, 27E
digestion of, 202 203
Long-term memory, 52
Loop of Henle, 149. 149. 154-156.
155, 156
Lung, capacity of, 107, 108
volume of, 107, 107-108
Luteal phase, of menstrual cycle, 242,
243, 246Q, 249E
Lymph, 88-89, 89(t)

M
Magnesium, renal regulation of,
153-154, 154
Mechanoreceptor, of somatosensory
system, 32, 35, 35(0
Meissner's plexus, 179, 180
MelanocyZe-stimulating hormone, 217
Memory, cerebral cortex function, 52
Menses, 243,245Q, 249E
Menstrual cycle, 242, 242-243
Middle ear, 40
Mineralocorticoid, 230
Monoamine oxidase (MAt), 16-17
Motility, of gastrointestinal tract,
184-189
chewing, 185
esophageal, 186
large intestine, 188-189
slow waves, 184-185, 185, 206Q,
208E
small intestine, 187-188
swallowing, 185-186
vomiting, 189 O
Motor cortex, 51
Motor system, 44-51
basal ganglia, 51
cerebellum, 50-51
motor cortex, 51
motor unit, 44-45
muscle reflex, 46(t), 46-48, 47
muscle sensor, 34(t), 45-46, 46
posture, brainstem control of, 48-50
spinal organization of, 48
Motor unit, 44-45
Muscarinic receptor, in autonomic
nervous system, 31-32
Muscle, 17-20
skeletal, action potential of, 18, 19
cell physiology, 17-20
excitation-contraction coupling
in, 18-19.19. 22Q, 25Q, 26E.
28E
filaments, structure of, 17-18, 18
length-tension, forceelocity
relationships in, 19-20, 20
sarcoplasmic reticulum, 18
structure of, 17-18, 18
T tubule, 18
smooth, 21
excitation-contraction coupling
in, 21, 22Q, 26E
types of, 21
Muscle reflex. 46(t), 46-48, 47
Muscle sensor, 34(t), 4546, 46
Myasthenia gravis, 15, 23Q, 26E
Myocardial cell structure, 72 P
Myofibrii, in skeletal muscle, 17
Myopia, 36
Myosin, in skeletal muscle, 17

N
NaCl regulation, by kidney, 146-150
Na+-diffusion potential, 8-9, 9
Na + reabsorption, along nephron,
147, 147-150, 148,149
Nerst equation, for equilibrium po-
tential calculation, 9-10
Nerve action potential, ionic basis of,
11-12, 12, 23E, 24Q, 26A, 27E
Nerve fiber types, characteristics of, 34(t)
Nervous system, autonomic, See Au-
tonomic nervous system
motor, See Motor system
sensory, See Sensory nervous sys-
tem
Neuromuscular junction, 13-15, 14(t),
22Q, 26A
Neuromuscular transmission, l 3-17
Neuron, postganglionic, 30
preganglionic, 30
Neurophysiology, 29-55, 56Q-58Q,
59E-61E
Neurotransmitter, 16-17
monoamine oxidase (MAt), 16-17
tyrosine, 16, 16
N +-glucose cell membrane transport,
5.5
Nicotinic receptor, in autonomic ner-
vous system, 31, 58Q, 60E
Norepinephrine, 16, 16, 58Q, 60E
Nystagmus, 43

O
Oil/water partition coefficient, of cell
membrane, 3
Olfaction, 43-44
Omeprazole, for gastric ulcer. 196
Opioids, and pain, 36
Optical pathway, 38, 38
Optic nerve, 58Q, 61E
Optics, refraction, 36
Organ of Corti, 40-41, 41, 56Q, 59E
Osmolarity, 5-6
Osmosis, 5-7
action potential, 11-13, 12
equilibrium potential, 10
ion channel, 7-8
nerve action potential, ionic basis
of, 11-12. 12. 23E. 24Q. 26A.
27E
osmotic pressure, 6, 7
van Hoffs law, 7
Outer ear, 40
Output, cardiac, 80, 99Q, 104E
Ovary, regulation of, 24C241
Ovulation phase, of menstrual cycle,
242, 243
Oxygen, partial pressure of, 115(t),
115-116
transport of. 11119
Oxyhemoglobin. 117
Oxytocin. 222

P
Pain, 35-36, 36, 48, 56Q, 59E
Pancreas, cystic fibrosis and, 198
secretion by, 196, 196-198, 197,
207Q, .209A
Paraaminohippuric acid (PAH), 140,
145, 145 146, 170Q, 175E
Paracrines, of gastrointestinal tract,
181, 181
Paraplegia, 49
Parathyroid hormone, 236-237
Parkinson's disease, 51
dopamine and, 16-17, 23Q, 27E
Parturition, 244
Pepsin, in digestion, 201
Perilymph, 40
Permeability, of cell membrane, 3
Phenylalanine, and gastrin release,
181
Phosphate, kidney regulation of,
153-154
Phospholipids, 1
Photoreeeption, 29, 32, 39, 56Q, 59E
Pituitary gland, anterior lobe, hor-
mones of, 216-221
adrenocorticotropic hormone,
217
3 endorphin, 217, 218
growth hormone, 217-220, 219,
246Q, 249E
 lipotropin, 217, 218
melanocyte-stimulating hor-
mone, 217
prolactin, 220, 220-221,221(t)
thyroid-stimulating hormone,
217
hypothalamic-pituitary relation-
ship, 216
posterior lobe, hormones of,
221-222
antidiuretic hormone, 221,221(t)
oxytocin, 222
Pneumothorax, 110
Poiseuille equation, for resistance of
blood vessels, 64-65
Pontine reticulospinal tact, of brain-
stem, 49
Posture, brainstem control of, 48-50
Potassium regulation, by kidney,
150(t), 150-153, 151, 151(t),
152, 169Q, 170Q, 171Q, 174E,
176E
Pregnancy, 243, 243-244
Presbyopia, 36
Pressure profile, in blood vessels, 66
PR interval, in electrocardiogram, 66, 67
Progesterone, 240, 241, 241(t), 242,
245Q, 249E
Prolactin, 220, 220-221,221(t)
dopamine inhibition of, 16
Prostaglandins, 57Q, 59E, 91
Proteases, in digestion, 201
Protein, 201-202, 202
of cell membrane, 1
Proton pump, in primary active
transport of cell membrane, 4
Pulmonary circulation, 121-123, 122
Pulse pressure, 66
Purkinje ceil, 50, 58Q, 61E
and cardiac action potential, 68,
70, 68
P wave, in electrocardiogram, 66, 67
Pyramidal tracts, of brainstem, 48

Q
QRS complex, in electrocardiogram,
67, 67
QT interval, in electrocardiogram, 67,
67

R
Rapid eye movement (REM), 52
Reabsorption, by kidney, 143-146
Rebound phenomenon, 51
Receptor, in autonomic nervous system, 30-32
Rectosphincteric reflex, 188
Reflection coefficient, 7
Reflexes, of muscles, 46(t), 46-48, 47
Refraction, optical, 36
Refractory period, of action potential,
12, 12-13
of ventricle, 70, 70
Renal physiology, See Kidney
Renin-angiotensin-aidosterone sys-
tem, 83-85, 86
Renshaw cells, 48
Reproduction, in female, 240-244
estrogen, 240-241,241, 241(t),
246Q, 249E
menstrual cycle of, 242, 242-243
ovary, regulation of, 240-241
pregnancy, 243, 243-244
progesterone, 240, 241, 241(t),
242, 245Q, 249E
in male, 238-240, 239, 240
testes, regulation of, 239, 240
testosterone, 238-240, 239,
246Q, 249A
Respiratory physiology, 107-127,
128Q-131Q, 131E-133E
altitude, adaptation, 127, 127(0,
128Q, 132E
breathing, control of, 124-126
mechanisms of, 108-114
carbon dioxide transport, 119-121
compliance, 109, 109(t), 109-110,
110
exercise and, 126, 126(t)
forced expiratory volume (FEV),
108
gas exchange, 114-116, l15(t),
116(0
lung, capacity of, 107, 108
volume of, 107, 107-108
oxygen transport, 116-119
perfusion, 123-124
pulmonary circulation, 121-123,
122
ventilation]perfusion defect,
123-124
Resting membrane potential, 10-11,
23Q, 27E
Retching, process of, 189
Retina, 57Q, 59E
layers of, 36-37, 37
Retinene, 39
Re)mold's number, 65
Rhodopsin, 39
Rod, photoreception in, 29, 37
Rubrospinal tract, of brainstem,
48-49

S
Saccule, of vestibular system, 42
Saliva, secretion of, 189-192, 190,
191, 207Q, 209E
Sarcomere, 17, 72
Sarcoplasmic reticulum, 18, 72
Saturation of carrier-mediated trans-
port, 3
Second messengers, 214, 214(0,
214-216
Secretin, 183, 208Q, 210E
Secretion, of gastrointestinal tract,
189-199, 190(t)
by kidney, 143-146
calculation of, 143-144
Semicircular canal, of vestibular sys-
tem, 42, 42
Sensory nervous system, 32-44
hearing, See Audition
olfaction, 43-44
pain, 35-36
sensory receptors, 32-35
somatosensory system, 35-36
taste, 44
vestibular system, 42-43
vision, 36-40
Sensory receptors, 32-35
chemoreceptor, 32-33
mechanoreceptor, 32
photoreceptor, 32
Serotonin, 17
and blood flow control, 91
Serum albumin, reflection coefficient
of, 7
Shivering, 53
Short-term memory, 52
Sinoatrial node, 69, 69
Skin, blood flow, 92-93, 97Q, 103E
Sleep, 52
cerebral cortex function, 52
Somatosensory system, 35(t), 35-36
audition, 40-42
cortex, 36
oifaction, 43-44
pain, 36
taste, 44
thalamus, 35-36
vestibular system, 42-43
vision, 36-40
Somatostatin, 184, 235, 248Q, 251A
Somatotropin, 217-220, 219
Sound, See Audition
Spindle, of muscle, 45-46, 46
Standing, cardiovascular responses
to, 93, 93(t)
Starling equation, for fluid exchange,
8748, 143, 143(t)
Stereocilia, of vestibular system, 42,
43
Stereospecificity, of carrier-mediated
transport, 3
Steroid, carbon, 225-226
ST segment, in electrocardiogram, 67,
67
Substance P, and pain, 36
Substantia nigra, 51
Surface tension, of aiveoli and surfac-
tant, 110-111,111
Surfactant, and respiration, 111,111
surface tension of, 110-111,111
Swallowing, 185-186
Sweat, 139
Symport, of cell membrane, defined,
4-5
Synapse, chemical, characteristics of,
13
Synaptic transmission, 13-17
input to synapse, 15
summation at synapses, 15-16
types of, 15
Syndrome of inappropriate antidi-
uretic hormone (SIADH), 139,
154
Systolic pressure, 66

T
Taste, 44
Tectospinal tract, of brainstem, 49
Temperature regulation, 5355
Testes, regulation of, 239, 240
Testosterone, 238-240, 239, 246Q,
249A
Tetanus, mechanism of. in skeletal
muscle, 19
Tetrodotoxin [TTX), 11
Thalamus, 35-36
and second-order neurons, 35
and somatosensory system, 35-36
Thromboxane, and blood flow control,
91
Thyroid gland, 222-225
Graves' disease, 224, 226(t), 247Q,
248Q, 250E, 251E
hormone, secretion, regulation of,
223-224
synthesis, 222(t), 222-223
hypothyroidism, 226 t )
thyroid-stimulating hormone,
223-224, 226(t)
Wolff-Chaikoff effect, 223
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, 217,
223-224, 226(t)
Tidal volume, 107
Tonotopic representation, 42
Transduction, sensory, 33, 33-34
Transport, across cell membrane. 2(t),
2-5
Ca*-Na + countertransport, 5, 6
carrier-mediated, 3
N+-glucose, 5, 5
primary active transport, 4, 25Q,
28E
ATP, 4, 25Q, 27E, 28E
secondary active transport, 4-5
Tropomyosin, 17, 18
Troponin, in skeletal muscle, 17
Tryptophan, and gastrin release, 181
T wave, in electrocardiogram, 67, 67
Tyrosine, as neurotransmitter, 16, 16

U
Ulcer, gastric, 195
medications for, 196
Urea, reflection coefficient of, 7
renal regulation of, 153
Urine. 154-159: See also Kidney,
urine
Utricle, of vestibular system, 42

V
Valsalva maneuver, 188
van HolTs law, osmotic pressure cal-
culation, 7
Vasa recta, of loop of Henle, 155
Vasculature, 63-66
function curve of. 76, 76-79, 77, 78
Vasoactive intestinal peptide, 184
Vasopressin, 85
Veins, 63
Velocity, of blood flow, 64
Ventilation/perfusion defect, 123-124
Ventilation rate, 108
Ventricle, 68, 68
refractory periods of. 70. 70
Venules, 63
Vestibular system, 42-43
Vestibulospinal tact, of brainstem, 49
Vision, optical pathway, 38, 38
optics, 36
photoreception, 39
retina, layers of, 36-37, 37
Visual field, 3940
Vitamin D, 237-238, 238
Vitamins, gastrointestinal absorption
of, 205
Vomiting, 189
case study of. 168

W
Water, compartments, shift between,
137-140
volume measurement of, 136(t),
136-137
distribution of. 135. 13136,
136(t)
Wernicke's area, of cerebral cortex, 52
Wolff-Chaikoffeffect, thyroid gland, 223

Z
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, 182, 196,
207Q, 209E
Zonula occludens, 1
musand