Anatomy&Physiology3ed2002Saladin
наименование:Anatomy and Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function with OLC bind-in card
автор/ы : Saladin Kenneth S., Wynsberghe Donna Van
год : 2002
страниц : 1216
издательство : McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math; 3rd edition
ISBN: 0072429038

печатное издание


Launch your students on a journey through the human body–form and function–bringing each fascinating system to life with Anatomy & Physiology: the Unity of Form and Function, Second Edition, by Ken Saladin. From the unique organization to the exceptional art, to the complete integration of the text with technology, Saladin has formed a teaching system that will both motivate and enable your students to understand and appreciate the wonders of anatomy and physiology.
This distinctive text was developed to stand apart from all other anatomy and physiology texts with a unique approach, unparalleled art, and a writing style that has been acclaimed by both users and reviewers. Designed for a two-semester college course, Saladin requires no prior knowledge of college chemistry or cell biology.
Saladin's second edition is the most market responsive text ever published for this course. What does this mean to you and your students? It means that you will receive the most effective anatomy and physiology learning system available.




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указатель


Preface
Pedagogical Aids Promote Systemic Learning
Vivid and Captiving Illustrations
1 Organization of the Body

1 Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology
Atlas A General Orientation to Human Anatomy
2 The Chemistry of Life
3 Cellular Form and Function
4 Genetics and Cellular Function
5 Histology
2 Support and Movement
6 The Integumentary System
7 Bone Tissue
8 The Skeletal System
9 Joints
10 The Muscular System
Atlas B Surface Anatomy
11 Muscular Tissue
3 Integration and Control
12 Nervous Tissue
13 The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Somatic Reflexes
14 The Brain and Cranial Nerves
15 The Autonomic Nervous System and Visceral Reflexes
16 Sense Organs
17 The Endocrine System
4 Regulation and Maintenance
18 The Circulatory System: Blood
19 The Circulatory System: The Heart
20 The Circulatory System: Blood Vessels and Circulation
21 The Lymphatic and Immune Systems
22 The Respiratory System
23 The Urinary System
24 Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
25 The Digestive System
26 Nutrition and Metabolism
5 Reproduction and Development
27 The Male Reproductive System
28 The Female Reproductive System
29 Human Development
Appendixes
A Periodic Table of the Elements
B Answers to Chapter Review Questions
C Lexicon of Biomedical Word Elements
Clinical Examples
Credits
Glassary
Index

A
Abbe, Ernst, 6
ABCD rule, 209, 209f
Abdominal cavity, 36, 36f, 37, 37t, 50f
Abdominal pregnancy, 1094i
Abdominal region
arterial supply to, 776f–778f,
776t–778t
muscles of, 332f, 346–347,
347f–349f, 347t
quadrants and regions of, 32,
33f–35f
surface anatomy of, 33f, 394f
venous drainage of, 787f–789f,
787t–789t
Abduction
of joints, 303, 304f
of vocal cords, 846, 847f
ABO blood group, 695–697, 695f, 696t,
697f, 825t
Abortion, 1070, 1079t, 1105
Abruptio placentae, 1079t
Abscesses, 814
Absorption. See also Reabsorption;
specific substances
by bone, 218t, 222i
by brush border, 103
by large intestine, 976
by lymphatic vessels, 800, 801, 801f
by skin, 199, 199i
by small intestine, 968–974
by stomach, 956
Absorptive state, 1007–1008
Accommodation of lens, 618, 618f
ACE inhibitors, 759, 793i
Acetabulum, 277, 279f, 280t, 312, 314f
etymology of, 21i
Acetaldehyde and alcohol metabolism,
1012i
Acetate and alcohol
metabolism, 1012i
Acetoacetic acid, 669, 1005
Acetone, 669, 1005
poisoning by, 199i, 907i
Acetylcholine (ACh). See also
Cholinergic neurons;
Cholinergic receptors;
Cholinergic synapses
in Alzheimer disease, 475i
in autonomic nervous system, 566,
566f, 566t, 574
digestion, effects on, 957
discovery of, 458
heart, effects on, 738, 740t
in myasthenia gravis, 437i
in neuromuscular physiology, 414,
416t, 417, 418f, 421f, 422,
429, 434
in neuronal physiology, 458, 465,
466t, 469
in Parkinson disease, 475i
structure of, 465f
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), 414, 414i,
416t, 421f, 422, 468, 574
Acetyl-coenzyme A, 999, 999f,
1004–1005, 1005f
Achilles tendon. See Tendons, specific:
calcaneal
Acid, 67, 68f. See also Hydrogen ion; pH
in bone resorption, 230
in kidney tubules and urine,
893–894, 893f, 900,
928–929, 929f, 932–933
metabolic origins of, 926
peptic ulcer and, 956i
stomach, 952, 954f
strong and weak, 927
Acid-base balance, 926–933. See also
Acidosis; Alkalosis
bone and, 218, 230i
buffers and, 927–928
disturbances of, 930–933
linked to fluid and electrolyte
balance, 932t, 933
renal control of, 880, 895, 928–933
respiratory control of, 867–868, 928
Acid mantle, 199, 809
Acidosis, 230i, 867–868, 930
compensated, 931–932
electrolyte imbalances and,
925–926, 930, 931f, 932t
fluid therapy and, 933i
heart, effect on, 739, 740t
membrane potentials and, 930
renal failure and, 907i
respiratory and metabolic, 930–931,
932t, 989
vasomotor effect of, 758–759
Acid phosphatase, 230, 1029i
Acinus, 180, 180f
mammary, 1077, 1078f
pancreatic, 962, 963f
salivary, 947, 947f
Acne, 208t, 1031
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
(AIDS), 114, 701, 829–832, 831f.
See also Human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Acromegaly, 667, 667f
Acromial region, 33f
Acromion, 271, 273f, 312f,
394f–395f, 398f
Acronyms, 20
Acrosin, 1090
Acrosome, 1035, 1036f
acrosomal reaction, 1090, 1091f
ACTH. See Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Actin
in cell movement, 101
in cytoskeleton, 103, 104f, 120, 140t
in erythrocytes, 689
in muscle contraction, 409–410,
411f, 413t, 417, 419,
419f–421f, 422. See also
Myofilaments
Action of a muscle, 328
Action potentials
in muscle fibers, 416, 417, 418f
myocardial, 729, 730f
in neurons, 457t, 458–461,
458f–460f, 470f
of sinoatrial node, 729f
Activation energy, 82, 83f
Active sites
of actin, 410, 417, 419f, 422
of enzymes, 83, 84f
Active transport
in digestive tract, 969, 969f
in kidney, 893–894, 893f, 898
Na-K pump as, 110–111, 110f
in placenta, 1097
primary, 110, 115t
secondary, 111, 111f, 115t, 894
Acuity, visual, 624–625
Acutane, 1104
Acute glomerulonephritis, 828
Acute pancreatitis, 978t
Acute pericarditis, 741t
Acute rhinitis, 871t
Adaptation
evolutionary, 10
sensory, 587, 624
to stress, 662–664
Addiction, 580i, 1012i
Addison disease, 670t, 923
Adduction
of joints, 303, 304f
of vocal cords, 846, 847f
Adenine, 85, 85f, 130, 131f
Adenocarcinoma, 870
Adenohypophysis, 638–639, 641f
Adenoids, 806
Adenosine, 85f, 580i
vasomotor effect, 757, 766
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), 85
in hemostasis, 704
Adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), 85
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
energy yield from, 85–86, 86f
in fat oxidation, 1005
heat released from, 85, 111, 169
in membrane transport, 106, 110
in muscle physiology, 417,
418f–426f, 420, 422,
427–429, 428f, 435
nervous tissue, consumption by, 456
as pain stimulus, 590
structure of, 85, 85f
synthesis of, 86f, 997–1002, 997f,
999f, 1001f–1002f
Adenylate cyclase, 102, 102f, 467, 467f
ADH. See Antidiuretic hormone
Adhesion
of cells, 101, 103t, 168, 178–179
of water, 64
Adipocytes, 167, 169, 170f, 669
hormone secretion by, 986, 987i
hypertrophy of, 987
Adipose capsule of kidney, 50f,
881–882
Adipose tissue, 77, 167, 169, 170f. See
also Brown fat
autonomic effects on, 576t
subcutaneous, 50f
Adolescence, 234, 263i, 1030. See also
Puberty
Adrenal gland
anatomy of, 648–649, 649f
cortex, 571, 648–649, 649f, 653t
hormones of, 649, 653t, 1070
medulla, 571, 574, 648, 649f,
653t, 664
position of, 46f, 570f, 636f
sympathetic nervous system,
relationship to, 571
Adrenergic neurons, 574, 574t, 575f
drug actions on, 579i
Adrenergic receptors, 574–575, 575f, 759
in heart, 738
Adrenergic synapses, 467, 467f
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
function of, 642, 645t
hypersecretion of, 666
in pregnancy, 1071, 1071t
secretion by B lymphocytes, 833
secretion by pituitary gland, 641f,
642, 643f, 645t
in stress response, 664
Adrenogenital syndrome (AGS),
668, 669f
Adventitia, 941
Aerobic exercise, 431
Aerobic respiration, 84, 84f, 86, 86f, 996
generation of free radicals by,
60, 124
metabolic pathway and ATP yield
of, 998–1002, 999f–1002f,
1003t
in muscle, 427, 428, 428f, 429, 433
Affective language area, 544
Afferent arteriole, 884f, 885, 885f, 888f
Afferent neurons and nerve fibers, 446,
446f, 492t, 504
Afterbirth, 1075, 1076f
After-discharge, 473
Agglutination, 694, 696f, 697f
of antigens, 823, 825f
Agglutinins, 695, 696, 825t
Agglutinogens, 695
Aggression, brain centers for, 531, 539
Aging, 1107. See also Senescence
anemia and, 693t
blood pressure and, 755, 755t
endocrine function and, 644
sexual function and, 1031–1032
Agnosia, 538
Agonists, 328
Agranulocytes, 699, 701t, 701f. See also
Lymphocytes; Monocytes
AIDS. See Acquired immunodeficiency
syndrome
Air
composition of, 859–860, 860t
compressed, in diving, 871
in pleural cavity, 853
pressure of, 851–854, 854f,
859–860, 860t
at water surface, 860, 860f
Air embolism, 764i
Airflow, 851–854, 854f
Ala nasi, 393f
Alarm reaction, 663
Albinism, 198
Albumin
bilirubin transport by, 692
glomerular filtration and, 887
hormone transport by, 657
intravenous administration of, 933i
as plasma component, 683,
683t–684t
Albuminuria, 887
Alcohol (ethanol)
absorption of, 956, 1011i–1012i
alcoholism and, 1012i
blood-brain barrier and, 524
detoxification of, 1004t, 1012i
effects on body, 902, 1012i
metabolism of, 117–119, 1012i
structure of, 61f
teratogenic effect of, 1104
Alcohol dehydrogenase, 1012i
Alcoholism, 148, 506, 1012i
Aldosterone
action of, 896, 901t, 922, 923f
blood pressure, effect on, 759, 792i
imbalances, 925
potassium balance and, 924
in pregnancy, 1071, 1071t, 1072
secretion of, 649, 653t, 891
in stress response, 663–664
structure and synthesis of, 656f
transport of, 657
Alkaline tide, 952
Alkalosis, 664, 867–868, 930
compensated, 931–933
electrolyte imbalances and,
925–926, 930, 931f, 932t
fluid therapy and, 933i
hypovolemia and, 932t
membrane potentials and, 930
respiratory and metabolic,
930–931, 932t
Allantois, 1096f, 1098, 1098f
Alleles, 147, 150t
Allergens, 828
Allergy, 688, 813, 825t, 828
Allografts, 211
Alloimmunity, 828
All-or-none law, 460
Alopecia, 203
Alpha cells (pancreatic), 650f, 651, 664
Alpha helix, 80, 81f
Alpha motor neurons, 504, 505, 505f, 507
Alpha particles, 59, 151i
Alpha-tocopherol. See Vitamin E
Alpha waves, 536–537, 536f–537f
Alveolar ducts and sacs, 848, 851f–852f
Alveolar macrophages, 810, 849, 852f
Alveolar ventilation rate, 855
Alveoli
dental, 247f, 247t, 257, 944
pulmonary, 841f
in emphysema, 862f
gas exchange in, 860–863,
865f, 866
in pneumonia, 862f, 871t
in respiratory distress
syndromes, 871t,
1103–1104
in scuba diving, 872i
structure of, 848–849, 851f–852f
surface tension of, 855
ventilation of, 855, 863f
Alzheimer, Alois, 475i
Alzheimer disease, 125i, 455i, 475i, 1110
Amacrine cells, of retina, 620f, 621
Amination, 1005
Amino acids, 79, 79t, 80f, 136, 139f
dietary, 993, 993i
essential, 993
genetic code and, 134–135, 135t
hormones derived from, 654
intestinal absorption of, 970, 971f
metabolism of, 1006–1008, 1006f
as neurotransmitters, 464, 465f, 466t
oxidation of, 1005–1006, 1006f
in protein synthesis, 136–137, 137f,
139f, 1006
reabsorption in kidney, 894
Amino group, 72, 72f, 79
Aminopeptidase, 970, 971f
Ammonia, 881
buffering by, 929, 930f
conversion to urea, 1006, 1006f
detoxification of, 1006
production of, 1006
secretion of, 895
structure of, 881f
Amnesia, 539
Amniocentesis, 1105
Amnion, 211, 1094f–1096f,
1097–1098, 1098f
etymology of, 21i
Amniotic cavity, 1093–1094,
1094f, 1096f
Amniotic fluid, 1075, 1097–1098, 1098f
Amphetamines, 580i
Amphiarthroses, 294–295, 295f
Amphiphilic substances, 77
Ampulla of semicircular duct, 607, 608f
Amputation and diabetes, 668, 670
Amygdala, 534, 539, 594, 596
Amylase
pancreatic, 962, 963t, 969
salivary, 83, 946, 948, 969
Amyloid protein, 1110
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 490i
Anabolic-androgenic steroids, 87i
Anabolism 16, 70, 71t
Anaerobic fermentation, 85, 86f
in erythrocytes, 689
metabolic pathway of, 996, 997f,
998, 1003t
in muscle, 427, 428, 428f, 430t
in neurons, 557f
Anagen phase, 203
Anal canal, 51f, 941f, 974, 975f
Analgesia, 590–591
Anal triangle, 350, 355f, 1024f
Anamnestic response, 825f, 826
Anaphase, 143, 144f, 1032, 1033f, 1034
Anaphylactic shock, 828
Anaphylaxis, 828, 854
Anastomoses
arterial, 748, 748f, 772f–773f,
772t–773t, 777f–778f,
777t–778t
coronary, 724
venous, 748f, 749, 782, 784t–785t,
785f, 790f–791f, 790t–791t
Anatomical planes, 31, 31f
Anatomical position, 30, 30f
Anatomical snuffbox, 366, 399f
Anatomical terminology, history of, 19
Anatomy, 2
comparative, 2
gross and microscopic, 2–3, 158
history of, 3–6
overview of, 43f–51f
surface, 33f, 392, 393f–406f
variation in, 14, 15f
Androgen-binding protein (ABP),
1030, 1031f
Androgen-insensitivity syndrome,
659i, 1021i
Androgens, 653t. See also
Dihydrotestosterone;
Testosterone
in female, 649, 1060, 1064, 1066
in male, 649, 652, 1019, 1021i,
1030–1032, 1031f
in pregnancy, 1070
in puberty, 1059
Anemia
blood viscosity and, 755
forms of, 692–694, 693t
hypoxia and, 869
in old age, 1110–1111
in pregnancy, 1072
in renal failure, 907i
Anencephaly, 1072, 1104
Anergy, 817
Anesthesia, 504, 529
blood-brain barrier and, 524
epidural, 483
history of, 627i–629i
Aneuploidy, 1105, 1105f–1107f
Aneurysm, 754i, 854
Anger, brain centers for, 531, 539
Angina pectoris, 725i, 742i, 1111
Angiogenesis, 757
Angiography, 22i, 23f
Angioplasty, 743i
Angiotensin, 579i, 652, 759, 792i,
890–891, 892f, 901t
dehydration and, 917
in stress response, 663
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE),
652, 759, 891, 892f
Angiotensinogen, 652, 653t, 890, 892f
Angular gyrus, 544, 545f
Anions, 59
Ankle. See Tarsal region
Ankylosis, 320i
Anorexia, 986, 987f
Anosmia, 257i
Antabuse, 1012i
Antagonistic effects in autonomic
nervous system, 575, 577
Antagonistic interactions of hormones,
662, 1077
Antagonistic muscles, 329, 422
Antebrachium, 33f, 36, 273
external anatomy of, 398f
Anterior lobe. See Pituitary gland
Anterior superior spines of ilium, 43f,
394f, 396f
Anterograde amnesia, 539
Anterograde axonal transport, 449
Anterolateral system, 486t, 487, 487f
Anti-A and anti-B, 696, 696f–697f,
696t, 825t
Antibodies, 827t. See also
Autoantibodies;
Immunoglobulins
actions of, 816, 823–824
agglutination by, 695–696,
696f–697f, 823–824,
825f, 825t
blood types and, 695, 696t
classes of, 822, 825t
in inflammation, 812
secretion of, 167, 684, 822, 823f
structure of, 822, 824f, 825t
Antibody titer, 826
Anticoagulants, 704, 707, 708i–709i
Anticodon, 136, 139f
Anti-D, 697–698, 698f, 825t
Antidepressants, 468
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH). See also
Diabetes, insipidus
action of, 644, 645t, 660, 891, 896,
898, 901t, 919, 919f
blood pressure, effect on, 759
in cold weather, 920i
dehydration and, 917
hypersecretion, 920
hyposecretion, 902
hypothalamic source of, 530f,
531, 640
sodium balance and, 923
structure of, 655f
Antigen-antibody complexes, 696f,
824, 825f
Antigenic determinants. See Epitopes
Antigen-presenting cells (APCs), 804,
813, 817, 818f, 819, 827t
Antigens, 816, 827t
agglutination of, 695–696,
696f–697f, 823–824,
825f, 825t
as allergens, 828
blood types and, 695, 696t
processing and presentation of, 817,
818f, 819, 822
receptors for, 817, 822, 823f, 825t
recognition of, 819, 820f, 822,
823f, 828
structure of, 816
Antihistamines, 828
Anti-inflammatory drugs, 386i,
649, 666i
Antioxidants, 60, 510, 995, 1114
Antiports, 110, 115t
in kidney, 893f, 894
Antipyretic drugs, 666i, 814
Antithrombin, 707
Antrum
of follicle, 1062f, 1064, 1065f
of stomach, 950, 951f, 955
Anuclear cells, 116
Anuria, 901
Anus, 51f, 355f, 941f
Aortic arch. See under Arteries
Aortic bodies, 758, 758f, 867, 867f
Aortic hiatus, 770f, 774t
Aortic sinus, 758, 770
Aortic valve, 721f, 722, 735f. See also
Semilunar valves
Apes, 11, 12f, 204, 286f–287f,
286i–287i. See also
Chimpanzee; Gorilla
Apgar score, 1103i
Aphasia, 544, 545
Apnea, 857t
Apneustic center, 858, 858f
Apocrine sweat glands, 182, 201f,
206–207, 206f, 207t, 595i, 1031
Apoferritin, 687f, 688
Aponeuroses, 327, 334, 346, 347f, 380
Apoptosis, 119, 157f, 185
perforins and, 809, 810f
in spinal cord injury, 509
Appendicitis, 978t
Appendicular region, 36
Appendicular skeleton, 244, 245f
Appendix, 45f, 941f, 974, 975f
Appetite, 986–987, 1112
Appositional growth, 229
Aprosodia, 544
Aquaporins, 107, 894, 898, 919
Aqueous humor, 612, 613, 613f,
614i, 1110
Arachidonic acid, 77, 664, 665f, 990
Arachnoid mater, 483, 484f, 495f, 519,
520f, 521i
Arachnoid villi, 520f, 523, 523f
Arboreal habitat, adaptation to, 10
Arbor vitae, 526, 527f
Arches
aortic, 717, 719f, 770f, 770t–771t
arterial, 365f, 773f, 774t, 779f–780f,
780t, 784t, 785f
of feet, 282, 284, 284f, 286i, 402f,
404f–405f
of pharynx, 943f, 944
pubic, 280f, 280t, 1029
venous, 784t, 785f, 790f–791f,
790t–791t
vertebral, 264, 264f
zygomatic, 250f, 254, 258, 336f
Archicortex, 534
Areola, 196, 394f, 1057, 1057f
during intercourse, 1068–1069
in pregnancy, 1072
Areolar glands, 1057, 1057f
Areolar tissue, 168–169, 170f
as barrier to infection, 809
Arginine, 79f
Arginine vasopressin (AVP), 644. See
also Antidiuretic hormone
Aristotle, 3, 4, 516, 716, 872i
Arm (brachium), 36, 273
arterial supply to, 773f, 773t–774t
bones of, 273–274, 274f
extrinsic muscles acting on,
356–357, 358t, 359f–360f
movements of, 302–306,
303f–306f, 361t
muscles in, 357, 359f–360f
surface anatomy of, 33f, 394f–395f,
397f–398f
venous drainage of, 784t–785t, 785f
Arousal, role of brainstem in, 530
Arrector pili. See Piloerector muscles
Arrhythmia, 728, 732f, 732i,
732t, 881
Arsenic poisoning, 199i, 202i, 693t, 699
Arterial pressure points, 781, 781f
Arteries, specific
aorta, 345f, 717, 719f, 721f
abdominal, 46f–47f, 50f, 770f,
770t, 776f, 776t, 778f
anatomy of, 769f–770f, 770t, 776t
aneurysm of, 754i
aortic arch, 717, 719f, 770f,
770t–771t
ascending, 45f, 770f, 770t
blood pressure in, 736, 755f
blood velocity in, 757, 757f
descending, 769f–770f, 770t
elasticity of, 750
rupture of, 172i
thoracic, 46f–47f, 49f, 770f,
770t, 774t, 775f
arcuate
of foot, 780f, 780t
of kidney, 884f, 885, 886f
of uterus, 1054, 1055f
arterial circle, cerebral, 771f, 772t
auricular, posterior, 771f
axillary, 45f, 769f, 773f, 773t
basilar, 771f, 772f, 772t
brachial, 45f, 769f, 773f, 773t, 781f
brachiocephalic trunk, 47f,
769f–771f, 770t–771t
bronchial, 767, 774t, 775f, 848
carotid
common, 44f, 47f, 769f–771f,
770t–771t, 781f
external, 769f, 771f, 771t
internal, 769f, 771f–772f, 772t
celiac trunk, 769f, 776f–778f,
776t–777t,
cerebellar, 771f, 772f
cerebral, 771f–772f, 772t
circumflex
coronary, 724, 725f
femoral, 779f–780f
humeral, 773f, 773t
clitoral, 1056
colic, 778f, 778t
common hepatic, 777f, 777t
communicating, 771f–772f, 772t
coronary, 724–725, 725f. See also
Coronary artery disease
costocervical trunk, 771f, 771t
deep
of clitoris, 1068
of penis, 1030f, 1038, 1038f, 1040
deep brachial, 773f, 773t
deep femoral, 769f, 779f–780f, 780t
digital, 773f, 774t, 779f
dorsal, of penis, 1030f, 1038
dorsal pedal, 405f, 769f,
779f–781f, 780t
esophageal, 774t, 775f
facial, 771f, 772t, 781f
femoral, 44f, 377f, 769f,
779f–781f, 780t
fibular, 779f–780f, 780t
gastric, 777f, 778t
gastroduodenal, 777f, 777t
gastroepiploic, 777f, 778t
genicular, 779f, 780t
gluteal, 779t, 780f
gonadal, 769f, 776f, 776t
helicine, of penis, 1039
hepatic, common and proper,
777f, 777t
ileocolic, 778f, 778t
iliac
common, 46f, 769f, 776f, 776t,
779f–780f, 779t
external, 769f, 779f–780f,
779t–780t
internal, 769f, 779f–780f, 779t
iliolumbar, 779t, 780f
intercostal, 567f, 769f, 774t–775t,
775f
interlobular, 884f, 885, 886f, 888f
internal pudendal, 1038, 1039f, 1056
interosseous, 773f, 774t
interventricular, 718f, 724, 725f
intestinal, 778f, 778t
left anterior descending (LAD), 724
lingual, 771f, 771t
lobar, of lung, 767, 768f
lumbar, 776f, 776t
marginal, 724, 725f
maxillary, 771f, 772t
mediastinal, 774t
mesenteric, 46f, 50f, 769f,
776f–778f, 776t–778t
metacarpal, 773f, 774t
metatarsal, 780f, 780t
obturator, 779t, 779f–780f
occipital, 771f, 772t
ophthalmic, 771f, 772t
ovarian, 776t, 1050, 1052f, 1055f
palmar arches, 773f, 774t
pancreatic, 778t
pancreaticoduodenal, 777f,
777t–778t
pericardiophrenic, 775f, 775t
peroneal. See fibular
phrenic, 774t, 776f, 776t
plantar, 779f–780f, 780t
plantar arch, 779f–780f, 780t
popliteal, 769f, 779f–781f, 780t
principal, of thumb, 773f
pudendal, 779f–780f, 779t
pulmonary, 719f, 721f, 767, 768f,
848–849
pulmonary trunk, 717, 719f, 721f,
767, 768f
radial, 365f, 769f, 773f, 774t, 781f
radial recurrent, 773f, 773t
rectal, 778t–779t, 778f, 780f
renal, 14, 769f, 776f, 776t, 883f,
885, 886f
sacral, 776f, 776t, 779t, 780f
sigmoid, 778f, 778t
spiral, of uterus, 1054, 1055f, 1067
splenic, 46f, 777f, 778t
subclavian, 45f, 47f, 769f–771f,
770t–771t, 773f, 775f
subcostal, 774t
subscapular, 775f, 775t
superficial palmar arterial arch, 365f
superficial temporal, 771f, 772t, 781f
superior thyroid, 499f
superior vesical, 1103
suprarenal, 776f, 776t
testicular, 769f, 776t, 1024,
1026f–1028f, 1027
thoracic, 769f, 775f, 775t
thoracoacromial trunk, 775f, 775t,
thyrocervical trunk, 771t, 771f
thyroid, 771f, 771t
tibial, anterior and posterior, 769f,
779f–781f, 780t
ulnar, 365f, 769f, 773f, 774t
ulnar recurrent, 773f, 773t
umbilical, 1097, 1099, 1100f
uterine, 779t, 780f, 1054
vaginal, 779t, 780f, 1055f
vertebral, 265, 769f, 771f–772f,
771t–772t
vesical, 779t, 780f
Arteries in general, 716
autonomic innervation, 575,
577, 578f
blood flow in, 754, 757t
blood pressure in, 754, 755f
blood volume in, 753f
fetal, 1099–1100, 1100f, 1103
gross anatomy of, 767–780
histology of, 749f, 750, 750f
pressure points of, 781, 781f
receptors in, 564, 565f, 738–739,
758, 758f
systemic
overview of, 769f
tables of, 770t–780t
types of, 749f, 750
Arterioles, 749f, 750, 760
Arteriosclerosis, 741. See also
Atherosclerosis
Arthritis, 319t, 320i
Arthrology, 294
Arthroplasty, 320i
Arthroscopy, 316i
Articulations. See Joints
Artificial insemination, 1115i
Arvin, 709
Ascites, 683i, 737i, 978t, 1012i
Ascorbic acid. See Vitamin C
Asepsis, 628i
Aspartate (aspartic acid), 464, 465f,
469, 594
Aspirin
absorption of, 956
anticoagulant effect of, 708i
antipyretic effect of, 666i, 814
eicosanoid synthesis, effect on,
665f, 666i
ion trapping of, 68i
peptic ulcer and, 956i
Reye syndrome and, 815i
for rheumatoid arthritis, 320i
for shingles, 493i
Association areas, 540, 541f
Asthma, 828i–829i, 854–855,
856, 869
Astigmatism, 619t
Astrocytes, 450, 450t, 451f, 459, 468,
490i, 524
Astrocytosis, 450
Ataxia, 544
Atelectasis, 853
Atheroma, 741i–742i, 742f, 743i
Atherosclerosis, 87i, 169, 230
aneurysm and, 754i
cerebral, 766
coronary, 741i–743i
in diabetes mellitus, 670
hypertension and, 793i
obesity and, 987i
in old age, 1111
renal, 889, 907i
Athletes. See also Exercise
amino acid intake by, 993i
bone density in, 228
bradycardia in, 741
carbohydrate loading in, 429
in competition, 431
injuries in, 386i
muscle fiber types in, 430t
osteoporosis in, 239i
steroid abuse among, 87i, 234
training, effects of, 685, 741, 757
Athlete’s foot, 208t
Atomic mass, number, and weight, 56,
57f, 58
Atoms, 56, 57f
ATP. See Adenosine triphosphate
ATPase. See Adenosine triphosphatase;
Sodium-potassium pump
ATP synthase, 1001, 1001f
Atresia, 1061, 1064
Atria, 719f, 720, 721f
in cardiac cycle, 734, 735f, 736
Atrial flutter, 732i
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), 652,
653t, 759
action of, 660, 896, 901t
in cold weather, 920i
sodium balance and, 923
Atrioventricular (AV) bundle, 727,
727f, 729
Atrioventricular (AV) node, 727, 727f,
728, 738
Atrioventricular (AV) valves, 718f,
721f–723f, 722, 734, 735f
Atrophy, 183
of brain, 1110
denervation, 412, 454f, 455, 1109
disuse, 1109
of integumentary system, 1108
of kidneys, 1111
of lymphatic organs, 833i
menopause and, 1060
muscular, 412, 455, 490i, 669, 1109
of stomach, 954, 1111, 1112
Atropine, 574, 579i
Attitudes, effect on immune
system, 833i
Auditory association area, 540, 541f
Auditory canal, 598, 599f
Auditory ossicles, 259, 598, 599f, 602
Auditory projection pathway,
604–606, 605f
Auditory reflexes, 486t
Auditory (eustachian) tube, 598, 599f,
844f, 845
Auricle
of ear, 598, 598f–599f
of heart, 719f, 720
Auricular region, 393f
Auscultation, 2, 734
Australopithecines, 11, 11t, 287i
Autoantibodies, 179i, 666–667, 669,
829, 832t
Autografts, 211
Autoimmune diseases
anemia, 693t
diabetes mellitus, 666, 669, 828, 829
myasthenia gravis, 437i
pemphigus vulgaris, 179i, 828
rheumatic fever, 723i, 829
rheumatoid arthritis, 319t, 320i
senescence, as cause of, 1114
systemic lupus erythematosus,
828, 832t
toxic goiter, 666, 670t, 828
Autolysis, 119, 1075–1076
Autonomic nervous system, 563–584.
See also Parasympathetic
nervous system; Sympathetic
nervous system
disorders of, 579t
hypothalamic control of, 531
motor pathways of, 565–566,
566f, 566t
somatic, compared to, 566t
Autonomic tone, 565
Autophagy, 119
Autoregulation, 757, 889
Autorhythmicity, 432t, 433, 434, 727
Autosomes, 146, 150t
Avicenna, 4
Awareness, 526
Axes of endocrine system, 640,
642, 643f
Axial region, 32
Axial skeleton, 244, 245f
Axillary folds, 397f
Axillary hair, 202, 204, 207, 1060
Axillary region, 33f, 397f
Axis (vertebra C1), 265, 266f
Axon, 175, 447f, 448. See also Nerve
fibers
Axonal transport, 449, 455i
Axoneme, 104f, 105, 120
Axon hillock, 447f, 448
Axoplasmic flow, 449
Azidothymidine (AZT), 831–832
Azotemia, 881, 907i

B
Back
injuries, 349i–350i
muscles of, 347, 349, 350f–352f,
429–430
surface anatomy of, 33f, 395f
Background radiation, 59
Bacon, Francis, 7
Bacteria, 124i, 142, 199. See also
Infections, bacterial
genetically engineered, 709
intestinal, 695, 976
Bacterial toxins
as pain signals, 812
shock caused by, 765
Balance, sense of, 486t, 507
Baldness, 203
Ballismus, 542
Banting, Frederick, 671i–672i
Barbiturate tolerance, 118
Barium sulfate, 22i
Baroreceptors, 564, 565f, 758, 758f
Baroreflexes, 564, 565f, 739, 758
in cardiac function, 738–739
Barotrauma, pulmonary, 872i
Bartholin glands, 1056f, 1068
Basal body, 104f, 105, 120, 124t
Basal ganglia. See Nuclei of brain, basal
Basal metabolic rate, 1008
Basal nuclei. See Nuclei of brain, basal
Baseball finger, 386i
Basement membrane, 98f, 160, 182f
glomerular, 887, 888f
Base pairs, 132, 132f, 134t
Bases
nitrogenous, 130, 131f
pH and, 67, 927
strong and weak, 927
Base triplets, 134, 135t
Basilar membrane, 600, 601f, 602, 603
Basophils
appearance of, 681f, 699, 700f, 700t
formation of, 686f
function of, 809, 812, 812t,
825t, 828
Bayliss, William, 964
B cells (lymphocytes), 804, 824f
action of, 822, 823f, 826t–827t
development of, 805, 817
IgM on, 825t
memory, 826, 826t
secretions of, 833i
Beard, 202, 204, 207
effect of pheromones on, 595i
Beaumont, William, 977i–978i
Becquerel, Henri, 58i, 222i
Bed sore, 185
Belladonna, 579i
Bell palsy, 556i
Belly of a muscle, 328, 328f
Bends, 872i
Benign prostatic hyperplasia,
1029i, 1112
Benign tumors, 151i
Benzene poisoning, 693t
Bernard, Claude, 17
Best, Charles, 671i–672i
Beta-amyloid protein, 475i
Beta-blockers, 579i, 793i
Beta-carotene, 60
Beta cells (pancreatic), 650, 650f, 664,
669, 829
Beta-endorphin, 464, 465f, 466t, 591
Beta-hydroxybutyric acid, 669, 1005
Beta-oxidation, 1004t, 1005
Beta particles, 59, 151i
Beta sheet, 80, 81f
Beta waves, 536, 536f–537f
Bicarbonate
in acid-base balance, 928–929, 931f
blood concentration of, 683t
buffer system, 927
in carbon dioxide transport, 864,
865f, 866
chloride shift and, 864, 865f, 952
in hydrochloric acid secretion,
952, 954f
in pancreatic juice, 962, 963t, 964
reabsorption of, 893f, 894, 928–929
in saliva, 946
in treatment for acidosis, 230i
in urine, 932–933
Bicarbonate:carbonic acid ratio, 931f
Bicuspid (mitral) valve, 722, 722f, 723i
Bile, 961–962, 970
Bile acids, 78t, 742i, 962, 970,
972f, 1004t
Bile duct, 961, 961f
Bile pigments, 692, 895, 962, 1104
Bile salts. See Bile acids
Biliary calculi (gallstones),
707i, 962i
Bilirubin, 198, 691f, 692, 962, 1004t
Biliverdin, 691f, 692
Biochemistry, 56
Biofeedback, 564i
Biogenic amines. See Monoamines
Biological clock, 530f
Biomechanics, 294
Biotin, 995, 995t
Bipedalism, 11, 286f–287f, 286i–287i
Bipolar cells, of retina, 620–621, 620f,
624, 625f
Birth. See Childbirth
Birth-control pill, 1080f, 1081i, 1081t
Birthmarks, 198
Bisphosphoglycerate (BPG), 866
Bitter taste, 594
Black lung disease, 854
Bladder. See Urinary bladder
Blagden, Charles, 18i
Blastocyst, 1070–1071, 1092f, 1093,
1093f, 1099t
Blastomeres, 1f, 1091, 1092f
Bleeding. See also Coagulation;
Hemostasis
in childbirth, 1075
in premature infants, 1104
Blindness
in AIDS, 831
in diabetes, 668, 670
eye diseases, caused by, 614i, 615
in infants, 869, 1104
nerve and brain damage, caused by,
549t, 627, 766
Blind spot, 615, 615f
Blöbel, Gunter, 137
Blocker’s arm, 386i
Blood, 174f, 175, 680–709
aging, effects on, 1110–1111
alcohol level, 1012i
banking, 694i–695i
calcium and phosphate in,
230–233, 232f
cells. See individual types
childbirth, loss in, 1075
clotting. See Coagulation
distribution of, 760f
functions of, 680, 680t
gases, 684, 861, 861f–862f, 863
glucose concentration, 988, 1004t
menstrual loss of, 1067
osmolarity of, 681–682, 682t
pH of, 682t, 867, 926
placental, 1095, 1096f, 1097
plasma, composition of, 175, 680,
683–684, 684t, 916
physical properties of, 65, 66t,
680–682, 682t
transfusions, 694, 696–698
and HIV, 831
types, 694–698
genetics of, 148, 151, 696t
glycoproteins and, 103, 695f
viscosity of, 680–681, 682t
volume of, 682t, 692, 807,
921, 1072
Blood-brain barrier, 450, 451i,
524, 629i
Blood clots, 679f, 703f, 704–706,
707–708, 709i. See also
Coagulation
dissolution of, 706, 707f, 709i
retraction of, 706
Blood-CSF barrier, 524, 868
Blood flow
principles of, 753–760, 757t
routing by vasomotion, 759f, 760
through heart chambers, 724, 724f
Blood pressure, 682, 733, 754. See also
Hypertension
aging, effects of, 755, 755t
arterial, 754, 755f
baroreflexes and, 564, 565f, 758
capillary exchange and, 761f, 762
chemoreflexes and, 758–759
distance from heart and, 754f
glomerular, 887, 889f
homeostasis of, 738–739, 758, 758f
hormonal control of, 759–760
measurement of, 754
negative feedback control of,
757–760, 758f
polycythemia and, 692
pulmonary, 766–767, 849
venous, 754, 755f
Blood sugar. See Glucose
Blood-testis barrier, 829, 1023, 1034,
1034f, 1035f
Blood-thymus barrier, 806
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), 881
Blood vessels. See also Arteries;
Capillaries; Veins
autonomic innervation of, 568f,
569, 570, 577
blood flow and, 753–757,
755f–756f, 757t
in hemostasis, 703, 703f
in inflammation, 812, 814f
layers of wall, 749–750, 749f
lymphatic vessels, relationship to,
800, 801f
senescence of, 1011
Body cavities, 36, 36f, 37t
Body fat, 1060, 1110
Body mass index, 987i
Body temperature, 83, 1009, 1066i. See
also Thermoregulation
Body weight, 986–987, 987f. See also
Obesity
Bohr, Niels, 56
Bohr effect, 866
Bone marrow, 218t, 219, 220f, 223,
225f, 227f
B cell maturation in, 817
hemopoiesis and, 685, 688
in vertebrae, 51f
Bones, specific
atlas (C1), 265, 266f
axis (C2), 265, 266f
calcaneus, 245f, 246t, 281,
283f–284f, 286i
ankle ligaments and, 317f
in surface anatomy, 401f,
403f–405f
capitate, 275, 276f, 365f
carpal, 245f, 246t, 275–277
clavicle, 225, 245f, 246t, 269f, 271,
273, 273f
in shoulder joint, 342f, 352
in surface anatomy, 393f–394f
coccyx, 246t, 268, 279f, 280t
conchae, nasal, 256–257,
256f–257f, 259
cranial, 226, 226f, 246t, 248–257
cuboid, 282, 283f–284f
cuneiforms, 282, 283f–284f
ethmoid, 246t, 249f–251f, 256–257,
256f, 257i, 258f
facial, 246t, 257–259
femur, 225f, 245f, 246t, 281, 282f
adaptation to bipedalism,
286f, 286i
in coxal joint, 312–313, 314f
in knee joint, 315f–316f, 316
muscles acting on, 369,
372t–373t, 373,
373f–374f, 383f
in surface anatomy, 401f–402f
fibula, 245f, 246t, 281, 283f–284f
joints involving, 296,
317f, 318f
muscles acting on, 374,
375t, 383f
in surface anatomy, 401f
frontal, 245f, 246t, 248f–251f,
251, 302t
of neonate, 260, 260f
hamate, 275, 276f, 365f
humerus, 245f, 246t, 274, 274f
in elbow joint, 312, 313f
muscles acting on, 356–357,
358t, 359f–361f,
361t, 367f
in shoulder joint, 311, 312f
hyoid, 246t, 259–260, 260f
muscles acting on, 338–340,
339t–340t, 341f–342f
ilium, 277, 279f, 286f, 286i–287i, 302t
in surface anatomy, 394f–396f
incus, 246t, 259, 598, 599f
inferior nasal concha, 246t, 259
ischium, 277, 279f, 280, 302t
lacrimal, 246t, 248f–249f, 257f,
258f, 259
lunate, 275, 276f
malleus, 246t, 259, 598, 599f
mandible, 245f, 246t, 248f–249f,
259, 259f
biomechanics of, 309, 309f
muscles acting on, 338, 339t,
340, 341f
of neonate, 260, 260f
maxilla, 245f, 246t, 248f–251f,
257–258, 257f–258f
metacarpals, 245f, 246t, 275, 276f
muscles acting on, 363t–364t,
365f, 367f–368f, 369t,
370f, 371t
metatarsals, 245f, 246t, 282,
283f–284f
muscles acting on, 374–375,
378t–379t, 380f–383f
in surface anatomy, 402f,
404f, 405f
nasal, 246t, 248f–249f, 257f, 259
navicular
of foot, 281, 283f–284f
of wrist. See scaphoid
occipital, 245f, 246t, 249f–251f, 255
of neonate, 260f
os coxae, 245f, 246t, 277,
279f–280f, 302t
palatine, 246t, 249f–250f, 257f, 258
parietal, 245f, 246t, 248f–251f, 251
of neonate, 260f
patella, 245f, 246t, 281, 282f
knee joint and, 314, 315f–316f
relationship to quadriceps
tendon, 376f–377f
in surface anatomy,
400f, 402f
phalanges
of foot 245f, 246t, 281, 283f
muscles acting on, 374–375,
377, 378t–379t,
380f–383f, 384t, 385f
of hand, 245f, 246t, 275, 276f
muscles acting on,
363t–364t, 365f,
367f–368f, 369t,
370f, 371t
pisiform, 275, 276f, 370f
pubis, 277, 279f, 280, 302t, 355f
radius, 30, 30f, 245f, 246t, 274, 275f
joints involving, 296, 313f, 367f
muscles acting on, 357, 361,
361t–362t
in surface anatomy, 398f–399f
ribs, 49f, 245f, 246t, 268, 269–270,
269f–270f, 271t
articulations of, 266–267,
270f, 271t
muscles acting on, 346, 346t
sacrum, 246t, 267–268, 279f, 280t
scaphoid, 275, 276f, 365f
scapula, 245f, 246t, 271, 273, 273f
muscles acting on, 352, 356,
356f, 357t
in surface anatomy, 395f
sphenoid, 246t, 255–256, 256f
stapes, 246t, 259, 598, 599f–600f,
602, 606i
sternum, 245f, 246t, 269, 269f
location of, 49f, 245f, 269f
in surface anatomy, 393f–394f
talus, 281, 283f–284f, 318f
temporal, 245f, 246t, 248f–250f,
251, 254–255, 254f
tibia, 245f, 246t, 281, 283f–284f
ankle joint and, 317, 317f–318f
knee joint and, 315f–316f, 316
muscles acting on, 373–374,
375t, 383f
trapezium, 275, 276f
trapezoid, 275, 276f
triquetrum, 275, 276f
turbinate. See Conchae, nasal
ulna, 30, 30f, 245f, 246t, 274, 275f
muscles acting on, 357, 361,
361t–362t
vertebrae, 245f, 246t, 262–268,
262f–268f
muscles acting on, 347, 349,
350f–352f, 353t
vomer, 246t, 249f–251f, 259
zygomatic, 245f, 246t, 248f–251f,
258, 258f
Bones in general
disorders of, 234–239, 238t
fractures, 234–237, 236f–237f, 237t
gross anatomy of, 219–220, 220f
growth and remodeling of, 220,
228–229
number of, 244, 246t
senescence of, 1109
sesamoid, 244
shapes of, 218–219, 219f
surface features of, 244, 247f
sutural, 244
Bone spurs, 238t
Bone tissue, 217–242
cells of, 221, 222f
compact, 172, 174f, 219, 220f, 224f
contamination of, 222i
deposition of, 230, 234f, 239i
ectopic deposition of, 230, 382, 383
histology of, 172, 174f, 221–223, 224f
hormones affecting, 234, 235t
matrix of, 221–222
osteoporosis and, 239f, 239i
pH balance and, 230i
resorption of, 234f
spongy, 172, 217f, 219, 220f, 223,
224f–225f, 228
Bony joints, 297
Bowman capsule. See Glomerular
capsule
Boyle’s law, 851, 853, 853t
B progenitor cells, 686f, 688
Brachial region, 33f, 36, 398f. See also
Arm
Bradycardia, 509, 738
Bradykinin, 590, 757, 762, 812, 813t
Brain, 516–548. See also Central
nervous system; specific regions
anatomical overview of, 516,
517f, 546t
arterial supply to, 524, 766,
771f–772f, 771t–772t
atrophy in old age, 1110
cranial fossae, relationship to,
248, 253f
cranial nerves, relationship to,
547, 548f
disorders of, 521i, 523–524, 538,
538i, 556t
embryonic, 517, 519, 519f–520f
evolution of, 11, 11t
historic views of, 516
imaging techniques for, 22i–24i,
24f, 557f, 557i
neurotransmitters of, 466t
radiological images of, 24f, 515f, 557f
senescence of, 1110
size of, 516
tumors of, 451i, 515f
venous drainage of, 783f, 783t–784t
ventricles and CSF of, 521,
523–524, 523f–524f
Brain barrier system, 524
Brain cells, replacement of, 143i
Brain death, 1114
Brainstem, 48f, 516
anatomy and functions of,
524–531, 525f
autonomic nervous system, role
in, 578
hunger, role in, 531, 986, 987f
pain, role in, 529, 590–591, 590f
respiratory centers of, 526,
858–859, 858f
reticular formation of, 528–529, 529f
spinal tracts, relationship to,
486–489, 486t, 488f–489f
thirst, role in, 531, 917–918
vasomotion, control of, 526, 757–759
Brain-testicular axis, 1030, 1031f
Brain trauma, 538i–539i
Brain waves, 536–537, 536f–537f
Braxton Hicks contractions, 1074
BRCA (breast cancer) genes, 1058
Breaking point, respiratory, 859
Breast, 49f, 207, 394f
anatomy of, 1057–1058, 1057f
development of, in puberty, 1059
intercourse, changes during, 1068
lymphatics of, 803f
Breast cancer. See under Cancer
Breast-feeding, 1076
Breast milk
antibodies in, 816, 822, 825t
benefits of, 1078
composition of, 1077–1078, 1078t
HIV in, 831
Breast self-examination (BSE), 1058
Breathing. See also Pulmonary
ventilation
acid-base balance and,
867–868, 928
Breathing. See also Pulmonary
ventilation—Cont.
aging and, 1111
circulation, effect on, 764
measurement of, 855–856, 856t, 857f
muscles of, 345–346, 345f
neonatal, 1103
neural control of, 472, 493, 526,
553t, 857–859, 858f, 859i
onset at birth, 1103
patterns of, 856, 857t
in pregnancy, 1072
in premature infants, 1103–1104
scuba diving and, 872i
water loss by, 916, 918f, 920i
Brittle bone disease, 222, 238t
Broca’s area, 544
Bromhidrosis, 207
Bronchi, 46f, 847–848, 848f, 850f
Bronchial tree, 841f, 847–848, 848f, 851f
Bronchioles, 848, 851f–852f, 854
asthma and, 829, 869
autonomic innervation of, 575
muscle of, 434
Bronchitis, 869, 1111
Bronchoconstriction, 828, 854, 859
Bronchodilation, 666t, 855
Bronchopulmonary segments, 848, 851f
Bronchospasm, 829i
Bronzing, 198
Brown fat, 166, 169, 1011, 1103
Bruising, 1108. See also Hematoma
Brush border, 103, 964
enzymes, 965, 969, 970
in kidney tubules, 883
in small intestine, 964, 965
Buccal cavity, 246, 251f, 341f
Buccal region, 393f
Buffers, 67, 927
Bulbourethral glands, 905, 1020f, 1025,
1029, 1036, 1038f, 1040
Bundle branch block, 728
Bungarotoxin, 437i
Burns, 209–211, 210f
hypoproteinemia and, 211, 682i
Bursae, 299, 300f
of elbow, 312, 313f
of knee, 315f
of shoulder, 311, 312f
of wrist, 365f
Bursitis, 319t
B vitamins, 995, 995t, 976. See
also Vitamin B1 through
Vitamin B12
Byers, Eben, 222i

C
Cachexia, 152i
Cadaver, 2, 2f, 167f
abdominal viscera of, 50f
head, internal anatomy of,
48f, 844f
joints of, 312f, 314f, 316f, 318f
muscles of, 334f, 344f, 349f, 352f,
360f, 370f, 377f–378f
nervous system of, 495f,
499f, 567f
pelvic viscera of, 51f
respiratory system of, 844f, 850f
thoracic viscera of, 49f, 850f
Cadmium poisoning, 202i
Caffeine, 580i
blood-brain barrier and, 524
cardiac effect of, 739
diuretic effect of, 902
Caisson disease, 872i
Calbindin, 973
Calcaneal region, 33f
Calcidiol, 231, 652, 653t
Calcification, 227, 227f
Calcitonin, 232, 232f, 234f, 235t, 648,
653t, 926
Calcitriol. See Vitamin D
Calcium, 57t
bone metabolism and,
230–234, 234f
calcitriol and, 231–232, 233f
in coagulation, 704, 705f
in colostrum and breast milk, 1078t
deficiency in old age, 1109, 1112
excretion of, 234f
fertilization and, 1091
functions of, 230, 925
heart, effect on, 433, 728–729,
730f, 740
homeostasis, 230–233, 232f, 234f,
648, 652, 667, 925–926
in hormone action, 660, 661f
imbalances in, 231, 926
intake of, 239i, 1109
intestinal absorption of, 973, 1112
in neuronal function, 465, 474
osteoporosis and, 239i
phosphate balance and, 230–232,
233f–234f
in pregnancy and lactation, 1071,
1072, 1078
RDA and dietary sources of,
994, 994t
reabsorption by kidney, 894, 896
in rigor mortis, 422i
as second messenger, 575
in skeletal muscle physiology, 409,
417, 418f–419f, 421f, 422,
423, 424, 430, 432t
in smooth muscle contraction, 433,
434–435
Calcium-ATPase, 973
Calcium carbonate, 221, 232f
Calcium channel blockers, 101i, 793i
Calcium channels, 417, 435, 465,
470, 660
in cardiac muscle, 728–729,
730f, 740
in smooth muscle, 101i, 433, 435
Calcium chloride, treating heart attacks
with, 740
Calcium phosphate, 221, 225, 230, 230i
Calculus, 230
biliary (gallstone), 962i
dental, 946i
renal (kidney stone), 904i
Calices of kidney, 882, 883f
Callus
epidermal, 196
osseous, 235, 236f
Calmodulin, 432t, 435, 660
Calories, 64, 988
in ATP, 1003
in carbohydrates, 988
in lipids, 75, 988, 990
and loss of body heat, 1010
in pregnancy, 1072
in proteins, 988
Calorigenic effect, 647, 659
Calsequestrin, 422
Calvaria, 248, 251f
Canal
auditory, 598, 599f
in bone anatomy, 247f, 247t
hypoglossal, 249f
vertebral, 264, 264f
Canaliculi
bile, 960f, 961
of bone, 172, 221, 222f, 224f
Cancer, 151i
aging and, 1111
AIDS and, 830, 831f
anal, 1043i
basal cell carcinoma, 209, 209f
bone, 222, 234, 238t
brain, 152i, 451i, 515f
breast, 87i, 151i, 152i
female, 833i, 987i, 1058, 1059f
male, 1042t
cartilage, 238t
causes of, 142, 151i, 210i, 222i, 869,
990, 1043i, 1058
cells, 101
destruction of, 799f, 810, 819,
820, 821f
immortality of, 1113
cervical, 1043i, 1053, 1053i, 1054f
colon, 152i, 978t, 987i, 990
defense against, 103t, 809, 810
effects of, 152i, 707i, 870
esophageal, 152i, 978t, 1012i
estrogen-sensitive, 1058
free radicals and, 60, 151i
genetics of, 148, 151i
of hemopoietic tissues, 692
interferons and, 810
Kaposi sarcoma, 831
leukemia, 151i
liver, 152i, 707i, 978t, 987i,
1003, 1043i
lung, 152i, 869–871, 870f
lymphatic, 832t
malignant melanoma, 209, 209f
metastasis of, 806
ovarian, 151i
pancreatic, 978t
penile, 1042t, 1043i
prostate, 987i, 1029i
rectal, 987i
retinoblastoma, 151i
risk factors and susceptibility to,
664, 987i, 1042t
skin, 198, 208–209, 209f, 210
squamous cell carcinoma
of lung, 870
of skin, 209, 209f
stomach, 978t
stress and, 833i
testicular, 1037i, 1042t
uterine, 987i
vaginal, 1043i
Candida infection, 830
Cannon, Walter, 17, 564, 565
Capacitation of sperm, 1090
Capillaries
blood, 106, 716, 750–751
alveolar, 767, 768f, 849
beds, 751, 751f
blood flow in, 754, 757t
blood pressure in, 755f,
761f, 762
discovery of, 4, 5
fluid exchange by, 761–762, 761f
glomerular, 882, 885, 885f,
887, 888f
intestinal, 965, 966f
peritubular, 884f, 885, 886f
permeability in inflammation,
812
pulmonary, 849, 852f
structure and types of, 749f,
750–752, 750f, 752f
lymphatic, 801–802, 801f–802f,
965, 966f
Carbaminohemoglobin, 865f
Carbohydrate craving, 646i, 990i
Carbohydrate loading, 429
Carbohydrates, 72–75, 74f
in absorptive and postabsorptive
states, 1007–1008
body content of, 988
in dietary fiber, 990
dietary deficiency and ketogenesis,
1005
dietary requirement and sources of,
989–990, 989t
digestion and absorption of,
968–970, 969f
energy yield from, 988, 1003
functions of, 73–75, 75t, 988, 989t
metabolism of, 996–1004, 997f,
999f–1003f
on plasma membrane. See
Glycocalyx
structure of, 72–74, 74f
synthesis of, 118
Carbon, 57f, 57t, 58, 72, 97t
Carbonate, in bone, 221
Carbon dioxide
in air, 860–861, 860t
in blood, 861, 864, 865f
effect on oxygen unloading,
865f, 866
heart rate affected by, 739
loading, 861f, 864, 866–867
pH and, 739, 867–868
respiratory effect of, 863f, 868
transport of, 864
unloading of, 860–861, 861f
vasomotor effect of, 757, 766
Carbonic acid
in CO2 transport, 864, 865f, 867
pH and, 867–868, 927, 928–929, 929f
production of, 70, 864
Carbonic anhydrase (CAH), 83, 689,
864, 865f, 928, 929f
Carbon monoxide poisoning, 861,
863, 864i
Carbon tetrachloride poisoning, 199i, 907i
Carboxyhemoglobin, 864i, 865f
Carboxyl group, 72, 72f, 79
Carboxypeptidase, 962, 963t, 970, 971f
Carcinogens, 151i
Carcinoma, 151t. See also Cancer
Cardiac arrest, 732i, 739
Cardiac arrhythmia, 732i–733i, 732f
in old age, 1111
Cardiac center, 18, 526, 529, 738
Cardiac conduction system, 727, 727f,
728–729
Cardiac cycle, 733–735, 735f
Cardiac (fibrous) skeleton, 720, 1111
Cardiac glands, 952
Cardiac muscle, 118
anaerobic fermentation in, 998
autonomic effects on, 574, 576t,
738–739
contraction of, 729
electrophysiology of, 728–733,
729f–732f. See also
Electrocardiogram
metabolism of, 727
properties of, 432–433, 432t
structure of, 176, 177f, 177t,
726–727, 726f
Cardiac output, 735, 737–741, 737f
in old age, 1111
in pregnancy, 1072
Cardiac reserve, 737, 1111
Cardiac suction, 764
Cardiac tamponade, 741t
Cardinal signs of inflammation,
810–811
Cardiocytes, 432, 726, 726f
Cardiology, 716
Cardiomyopathy, 741t
Cardiovascular disease, 78i, 148
Cardiovascular system, 715–798. See
also Arteries; Capillaries; Heart;
Veins
Caries, dental, 946i, 1112
Carotene, 196, 995
Carotenoids, 60
Carotid bodies, 758, 758f, 867, 867f
Carotid sinus, 758, 758f
Carpal region, 33f, 36, 273, 365f
bones of, 275, 276f
Colles fracture of, 236f, 237t, 239i
surface anatomy of, 398f–399f
tendon sheaths and bursae of, 300f
Carpal tunnel, 365, 365f
Carpal tunnel syndrome, 365i–366i
Carpopedal spasm, 231, 231f
Carrier-mediated transport, 106, 109–111
Carrier proteins in plasma membrane,
101, 109
Carriers
disease, 1041i
genetic, 148, 150t
Cartilage in general, 75, 172, 173f,
218, 227
articular, 220, 220f, 226f, 228, 299,
299f, 299i, 320i
degeneration of, 299
elastic, 172, 173f
exercise and, 299i
in endochondral ossification,
226–228, 227f–228f
in epiphyseal plate, 226f, 228,
228f, 229
fibrocartilage, 172, 173f, 264, 277,
297, 310
in fracture repair, 235, 236f
growth of, 229, 229i
hyaline, 172, 173f
Cartilages, specific
alar, 842, 843f
arytenoid, 845f, 846, 847f
corniculate, 845f, 846, 847f
costal, 269, 269f, 271t
cricoid, 845f, 846, 847f–848f
cuneiform, 845f, 846
epiglottic, 845f, 846
septal, 843f
thyroid, 394f, 845f, 846, 847f–848f
tracheal, 845f, 846
Cartilaginous joints, 295, 295f, 297,
298f, 302t
Casein, 140t, 1078t
Catabolism, 16, 70, 71t
Catagen phase, 203
Catalase, 120
Catalysts, 70, 80
Cataracts, 614i, 1110
Catecholamines. See also Dopamine;
Epinephrine; Histamine;
Norepinephrine; Serotonin
excretion of, 895
as hormones, 648, 654
and metabolic rate, 1009
as neurotransmitters, 464, 465f, 466t
as paracrines, 664
Catechol-O-methyltransferase, 574
Categorical hemisphere, 544
Cations, 59
Caudal direction, 516
C (calcitonin) cells, 232, 648
CD4 cells, 819, 826t, 829
CD8 cells, 819, 826t
Cecum, 45f, 50f, 941f, 974, 975f
Cell-adhesion molecules, 82, 101, 101f,
103, 103t, 812
Cell cycle, 142, 142f
Cell-identity markers, 101, 101f
Cells, 13, 93–124
cytoskeleton of, 120–121,
121f–123f, 124t
death of, 183, 185
discovery and history of, 5–6, 94
general structure of, 96–97, 98f
inclusions in, 121, 124t
junctions between, 178–179
organelles of, 116–120, 116f–120f,
123t–124t
plasma membrane of, 98–103,
99f–102f
shapes and sizes of, 94–95, 94f–95f
size of, 95, 95f, 97t
surfaces of, 98f, 160
Cell theory, 6, 21, 94
Cellular immunity, 816, 818–821
compared to humoral, 827t
Cellulose, 73, 75t, 968, 989, 990
Cell volume, 111
Cementum, 946
Central canal
of bone, 172, 174f, 223, 224f, 228
of spinal cord, 484f, 485, 517, 521, 523
Central gray matter, 527
Central nervous system (CNS), 444,
444f. See also Brain; Spinal cord
Central pattern generators, 482, 529
Central sulcus, 517f–518f, 531, 532
Central venous pressure, 764
Centrioles, 97t, 98f, 120, 121f, 124t,
142, 144f, 446
Centromere, 143, 145f, 1033f
Centrosome, 98f, 120, 124t
Cephalic region. See Head
Cerebellum
anatomy of, 526, 527f
equilibrium and, 540, 608
memory and, 539
location of, 48f, 516, 517f–518f
motor functions of, 543, 543f, 544
in somatic reflexes, 504, 508
spinal tracts, relationship to, 487
synapses in, 463
Cerebral aqueduct, 521, 522f–523f
Cerebral cortex, 516, 533–534, 534f. See
also Cerebrum
relationship to cerebellum, 543f
in somatic reflexes, 508
synapses in, 468
Cerebral hemispheres, 516, 517f
Cerebral lateralization, 544–545, 545f
Cerebral palsy, 556t
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 521, 523–524
hydrocephalus and, 262i, 523–524
pH of, and respiration, 867–868
source and circulation of, 451, 521,
523, 523f
skull injuries and, 257i
spina bifida and, 484i
of spinal cord, 483, 485
spinal tap for, 521i
Cerebrovascular accident. See Stroke
Cerebrum, 48f, 531–536
functions of, 531–532, 534, 536–545
gross anatomy of, 516, 517f–518f,
522f, 531–532, 532f–533f,
535f
Ceruloplasmin, 684t, 688
Cerumen, 207, 598
Ceruminous glands, 207, 207t
Cervical curvature, 263, 263f, 265–266,
266f, 287i
Cervical mucus, 1066i, 1090
Cervical region
of body, 32, 393f
of spinal cord, 482, 483f
Cervix, uterine, 51f, 1051f–1052f, 1053,
1053i, 1055
in childbirth, 18, 19f, 1074–1075,
1075f
during intercourse, 1068, 1069f
Chancre, 1042i
Channel proteins, 100, 101f. See also
Calcium channels; Chloride
channels; Potassium channels
and gates; Sodium channels
Chaperones, 137–138
Charles’ law, 853, 853t
Charley horse, 386i
Charnley, Sir John, 320i
Cheeks, 943–944. See also Muscles,
specific: buccinator
Chemical bonds, 61–63, 61t, 62f–63f
Chemical equations, 69
Chemical formulae, 61, 61f
Chemical messengers, types of, 636
Chemical reactions, 69–71, 69f, 71t
Chemical senses, 592–596
Chemical synapses, 463, 464f
Chemiosmotic mechanism, 1001
Chemoreceptors, 587
cardiac function and, 738–739
respiration and, 859, 867–868, 1072
for taste and smell, 592–596,
593f, 595f
Chemoreflexes, 739, 758
Chemotaxis, 813, 814f
Chemotherapy, 451i
Chewing
muscles of, 337, 339t, 340, 341f
neural control of, 551t
Chicken pox, 493i, 701, 815i
Chief cells, 952, 953f–954f, 955t,
957, 958f
Child abuse, 311, 521
Childbirth
abdominal muscles aiding in, 346
coccyx damaged in, 268
endogenous opioids released
during, 591
epidural anesthesia in, 483
oxytocin, role in, 18, 19f, 644,
646, 1074
pain in, 286i, 591
positive feedback in, 18, 19f, 1074
process of, 1073–1075, 1075f–1076f
Valsalva maneuver in, 855
Chimpanzee, 10, 11f, 200f
skeleton of, 286f–287f
Chlamydia, 1042i
Chloasma, 1073
Chloride
anesthesia and, 629i
cystic fibrosis and, 105i
functions of, 925
homeostasis, 925
imbalances, 925
intestinal absorption of, 973
ionization and, 59–60, 60f
in neuron function, 467
RDA and dietary sources of,
994, 994t
reabsorption of, 893–895, 893f
in stomach acid, 954f
Chloride-bicarbonate exchanger, 864
Chloride channels, 466, 469
Chloride pumps, 105i
Chloride shift, 864, 865f, 952, 954f
Chlorine, 57t
Chloroform, 629i
Chlorpromazine, 580i
Choanae, 842, 844f
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
absorptive state metabolism, role in,
1007, 1007t
as appetite suppressant, 986
digestion, role in, 955, 957f,
958, 963
as neuropeptide, 465f, 466t
Cholelithiasis, 962i
Cholera, 920
Cholesterol, 55f
amount in body, 78
absorption of, 113i, 970
anabolic steroids and, 87i
in atherosclerosis, 741i–742i
bile acids and, 962
blood concentration of, 113i, 683t,
991–992
dietary sources and intake of,
990–991
disposal of, 742i
functions of, 78t, 100, 654, 990
“good” and “bad,” 78i
hormone synthesis from, 654, 656f
hypertension and, 792i
intestinal absorption of, 970–971, 972f
in lipoproteins, 78i, 991–992,
991t, 992f
in myelin, 451
in plasma membrane, 99f, 100
in sperm capacitation, 1090
structure and synthesis of, 78,
78f, 1004t
Choline, 77f
Cholinergic neurons, 475i, 574, 574t,
575f, 579i
Cholinergic receptors, 414, 415f, 416t,
422f, 437i, 465, 574
Cholinergic synapses, 465, 467f
Cholinesterase inhibitors, 414i, 437i, 475i
Chondroblasts, 172
Chondrocytes, 172, 173f, 226, 227f,
228, 234
Chondroitin sulfate, 168f, 211
Chondrosarcoma, 238t
Chordae tendineae, 718f, 721f, 722, 729
Chorion, 1093, 1094f, 1096f, 1098, 1098f
Chorionic villi, 1094f, 1095, 1096f,
1097, 1098f
diagnostic sampling of, 1105
Choroid (of eye), 612, 612f, 615
Choroid plexus, 521, 522f–523f, 524
Chromaffin cells, 648
Chromatids, 143, 144f–145f, 1033f
Chromatin, 116, 130, 131f
Chromium, 57t, 994t
Chromosomes, 146–147, 150t
autosomes, 1106
genes and, 133, 147
haploid and diploid number,
146–147
homologous, 1033f, 1034
karyotype of, 146, 146f, 1107f
in meiosis, 1032, 1033f, 1034
in mitosis, 143, 144f, 1032
nondisjunction of, 1105, 1105f
sex chromosomes, 1019, 1019f,
1105–1106, 1105f
structure of, 131f, 143, 145f
telomeres of, 1113
in trisomy syndromes, 1105–1106,
1105f–1107f
Chronic bronchitis, 869, 1111
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
(COPD), 869, 1111
Chronotropic agents, 738, 740t
Chyle, 973
Chylomicrons, 971, 972f, 991,
991t, 992f
Chyme, 950, 955
Chymosin, 952, 954, 955t
Chymotrypsin, 962, 963t, 970, 971f
Chymotrypsinogen, 962, 963t
Cilia
respiratory, 103, 105f, 843, 846,
848, 848f–849f
structure of, 97t, 103, 104f, 120, 123t
of uterine tube, 1053f, 1065, 1066
Ciliary body, 612, 612f, 618
Ciliary muscle, 618
Cimetidine, 956i
Cingulate gyrus, 534, 535f
Circadian rhythms, 530f, 531, 537, 621
in hormone secretion, 644
Circuits, neural, 472–473, 473f
Circulation
of aqueous humor, 613, 614f, 614i
of blood, 753–760, 763–765
cerebral, 760f, 766
of cerebrospinal fluid,
523–524, 523f
coronary, 724–725, 725f
historic views of, 748
pulmonary, 767, 768f
renal, 885–886, 886f
systemic, 770–791. See also specific
arteries and veins
Circulatory system, 679–798. See also
Arteries; Blood; Heart; Veins
autonomic effects on, 576t
fetal and neonatal, 1099,
1100f, 1103
interaction with other
systems, 794
overview of, 41f, 716–717
in pregnancy, 1072
senescence of, 1110
Circumcision, 1029
Circumduction, 305, 305f
Circumferential lamellae, 223, 224f
Circumventricular organs, 524
Cirrhosis, 198, 707i, 1003, 1012i
Cisterna, 116, 117, 117f, 118, 139
Cisterna chyli, 800f, 802, 803f
Citric acid cycle, 998–1000, 999f, 1002f,
1004, 1005, 1005f–1006f
Clathrin, 112, 139, 140f
Cleavage, embryonic, 1091, 1092f, 1099t
Cleft lip and palate, 1104
Climacteric, 1032, 1060
Climax. See Orgasm
Clinical application essays
alcohol and alcoholism,
1011i–1012i
Alzheimer disease, 475i
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 490i
anabolic-androgenic steroids, 87i
androgen-insensitivity syndrome,
659i, 1021i
aneurysm, 754i
angina, 725i
anti-inflammatory drugs, 666i
arthritis, 320i
artificial joints, 320i
asthma, 828i–829i
atherosclerosis, 741i–743i
athletic injuries, 386i
back injuries, 349i–350i
Bell palsy, 556i
biofeedback, 564i
blood clotting, 707i–709i
brain tumors, 451i
calcium channel blockers, 101i
cancer, 151i–152i
carbon monoxide poisoning, 864i
cardiac arrhythmias, 732i–733i
carpal tunnel syndrome, 365i–366i
cartilage health, 299i
cataracts, 614i
cervical cancer, 1053i
cholesterol, 78i, 741i–742i
congestive heart failure, 737i
contraception, 1079i–1081i
coronary artery disease, 741i–743i
cystic fibrosis, 105i
deafness, 606i
decompression sickness, 872i
dental caries, 946i
drug action on the nervous system,
579i–580i
drug injections, 366i
dust mites, 195i
dwarfism, 229i, 657i
ectopic pregnancy, 1094i
embolism, 764i
erectile dysfunction, 1040i
ethmoid bone fractures, 257i
familial hypercholesterolemia, 113i
gallstones, 962i
gingivitis, 946i
glaucoma, 614i
hair analysis, 202i
hemodialysis, 907i–908i
hernias, 351i–352i
hormone receptor disorders, 657i
hypertension, 792i–793i
isoenzymes, 82i
keloids, 185i
kidney stones, 904i
knee surgery, 316i–317i
lactose intolerance, 970i
liver disease, 707i
Marfan syndrome, 172i
medical imaging methods,
22i–24i, 557i
melatonin and mood disorders, 646i
meningitis, 521i
middle-ear infections, 599i
muscular dystrophy, 437i
myasthenia gravis, 437i
myelin diseases, 453i
myocardial infarction, 725i
neonatal assessment, 262i, 1103i
nerve growth factor, 455i
neuroimmunology, 833i
neuromuscular toxins, 414i
neuronal replacement, 143i
obesity, 987i–988i
Ondine’s curse, 859i
osteoporosis, 239i
ovulation, 1066i
Parkinson disease, 475i
pemphigus vulgaris, 179i, 828
peptic ulcer, 956i
pH and drug action, 68i
pH and osseous tissue, 230i
poliomyelitis, 490i
pollution and reproduction, 1037i
premenstrual syndrome, 646i
prostate diseases, 1029i
protein and athletic performance,
993i
renal failure, 907i–908i
reproductive technology,
1115i–1116i
Reye syndrome, 815i
rigor mortis, 422i
seasonal affective disorder, 646i
sexually transmitted diseases,
1041i–1043i
shingles, 493i
situs inversus, 14i
skin grafts, 211i
spina bifida, 484i
spinal cord trauma, 508i–510i
spinal curvatures, 263i
spinal nerve injuries, 494i
starvation, 682i
stem cells, 143i, 186i
sunscreens, 210i
TMJ syndrome, 310i
tooth and gum disease, 946i
tracheostomy, 846i–847i
transdermal absorption, 199i
trigeminal neuralgia, 556i
twins, 1092i
urinary tract infections, 905i
valvular diseases, 723i
varicose veins, 753i
Viagra, 1040i
water balance, 920i, 933i–934i
Clitoris, 1051f, 1055, 1056f, 1068, 1069f
embryonic, 1021, 1022f, 1050
hypertrophy of, 668, 669f
Clonal deletion, 817
Clonal selection, 819,
820f–821f, 822
Clostridium tetani, 414i
Clot-dissolving drugs, 709, 716
Clots. See Blood clots
CNS. See Central nervous system
Coagulation. See also Blood clots
alcoholism, inhibited by, 1012i
aspirin, inhibited by, 666i
clinical control of, 708–709
disorders of, 707–708, 1081i
in inflammation, 813, 813t
liver disease and, 707i
pathways of, 704–705, 705f
prevention of, 706–707, 708i–709i
procoagulants (clotting factors),
703, 704–705, 705f, 706t
of semen, 1037t
vitamin K, promotion by, 707i
in wound healing, 184f, 185,
235, 236f
Cobalamin. See Vitamin B12
Cobalt, 57t, 994t
Cocaine, 580i
Coccyx, 262, 262f, 268, 268f
in surface anatomy, 395f
Cochlea, 599–604, 599f–600f
Cockroaches and asthma, 828i
Codes, neural, 470, 586–587
Codominance, 148, 150t
Codons, 135, 135t, 139f
Coelom, 36
Coenzyme Q, 1000–1001,
1000f–1001f
Coenzymes, 83, 84f, 995, 996–997
Cofactors, 83, 84
Coffee and LDL level, 992. See also
Caffeine
Cognition, 526, 538
Cohesion, 64
Coitus interruptus, 1079i
Cold, common, 871t
Cold receptors, 588, 589t
Cold sores, 1043i
Cold weather, fluid balance in, 917,
919, 920i
Collagen, 80, 211
aging of, 1114
in bone, 221, 222, 224f, 230, 233
in cartilage, 172, 173f, 173t
diseases of, 172
in fibrous connective tissue, 167,
167f, 169, 170f–171f,
170t–171t
in heart and blood vessels, 703f,
704–705, 720, 749f, 750
in muscles, 326–327
properties of, 409
in skin, 171f, 171t, 194f, 195
Collagenase, 1065
Collateral ganglia, 570, 570f, 571t
Collecting ducts
renal
anatomy of, 883, 884f
concentration of urine by,
897–899, 897f, 900f
in fluid homeostasis, 919
and sodium balance, 922
lymphatic, 802, 803f
Colliculi of midbrain, 525f, 527f, 528
inferior, 605f, 606
superior, 627, 628f
Collip, J. B., 671i–672i
Colloid osmotic pressure (COP), 682,
761f, 762
in renal capillaries, 889, 889f, 895
Colloids, 65, 65f, 66t
Colon, 50f, 51f, 941f, 974, 975f
Colony-stimulating factors
in hemopoiesis, 685, 688
in inflammation, 813, 813t
Color blindness, 625–626, 626f
Color vision, 625–626, 626f
Colostrum, 1077, 1078, 1078t, 1103
immunity conferred by, 816, 822
Columns of spinal cord, 484f, 485
Coma, 529, 537
Commissural tracts, 532
Commissures
cerebral, 527f, 532, 533f
of eye, 393f, 610f
Communicable period of STDs, 1041i
Communicating rami, 496f, 567,
567f, 569f
Compartments
of forearm, 363t–364t, 366, 367f
of leg, 374–375, 378t–379t, 383f
of thigh, 373, 375t, 383f
Compartment syndrome, 386i
Complementary base pairing, 132, 132f
Complement fixation, 810
Complement system, 810, 811f, 812,
813t, 823, 825t, 827t
Complexity, hierarchy of, 12–13, 22
Compliance, pulmonary, 854
Composites, 222
Compounds, 61
Computed tomography (CT), 22i, 24f
measures of, 66–67, 108
in osmosis and osmolarity,
107–109, 108f
reaction rates, effect on, 70
Concentration gradients
active transport and, 110–111
diffusion and, 106–107, 106f,
110, 110f
gas exchange and, 861, 862f
Concentric contraction, 426–427
Concentric lamellae, 223, 224f
Conceptus, 1070, 1094f. See also
Embryo; Fetus
Conchae, nasal, 248f, 251f, 256
Concussion, 521, 556t
Condensation reactions, 72
Condoms, 831, 1079i, 1080f, 1081t
Conduction
cardiac, 727, 728–729
heat loss by, 1010
nerve, 453, 460–461, 461f–462f
Conductivity
of muscle, 408
of neurons, 445
Condyles, 247f, 247t
femoral, 281, 282f
mandibular, 249f, 259, 259f
occipital, 250f, 255
Condyloma, 1043i
Cones, 619–621, 620f–621f,
624–625, 625f
Conformation, 80
Congenital anomalies, 1104–1107,
1104f–1107f
Congenital hypothyroidism, 667, 670t
Congenital infections, 1104
Congestive heart failure (CHF), 737i,
763, 902
Conjugated macromolecules, 75
Conjunctiva, 610, 610f, 611f
Connectin, 410
Connective tissue, 159t
of blood vessels, 703–704, 703f,
749f, 750–751
components of, 167–168
diseases of, 172i
embryonic, 158
functions of, 166
of muscles, 326–327, 327f, 408–409
of nerves, 491–492, 491f
of skin. See Dermis
types of, 166–175, 170f–171f,
170t–171t, 173f–174f,
173t–174t
Connexon, 178f, 179
Consciousness, brainstem centers
for, 529
Consensual light reflex, 616
Constipation, 973, 1072
Constrictors
pharyngeal, 339t, 340, 341f–342f, 948
pupillary, 615–616
Contact dermatitis, 832t
Contact digestion, 965
Contact inhibition, 145
Contaminants in bone, 221, 222
Contraceptives, 1079i–1081i, 1080f
Contractile proteins of muscle, 410
Contractility
of muscle, 408
myocardial, 739–740
uterine, 1074
Contractions
concentric and eccentric,
426–427, 426f
of digestive tract, 948, 949f, 955,
965, 967, 967f, 976–977
of heart, 729–730, 730f, 732i,
733–736, 735f
isometric and isotonic,
425–426, 426f
of myoepithelial cells, 206,
615, 1077
in orgasm, 1038f, 1041, 1068
peristaltic, 904, 948, 949f, 955, 967,
967f, 1068
of skeletal muscle, 417, 420f,
422–427, 422f–426f
of smooth muscle, 434–436, 435f
of urinary tract, 904–906, 906f
uterine, 1068, 1071, 1074
Contracture, 436t
Contralateral neglect syndrome, 538
Contralateral reflex arcs, 507–508
Control group, 8
Convection, heat loss by, 1010
Convergence of eyes, 617–618, 617f
Converging circuit, 472, 473f
Cooperative effects in autonomic
nervous system, 577
Copper, 57t, 684t, 688, 994t
Copulines, 595i
Cornea, 611f, 612, 614f
refraction by, 616–617, 617f
Coronal plane, 31, 31f
Coronal suture, 251, 251f
Corona radiata
of cerebrum, 532
of ovarian follicle, 1064, 1066f
Coronary artery bypass surgery, 716,
742i, 791t
Coronary artery disease, 87i, 741i–743i
Coronary circulation, 724–725, 725f
Corpora quadrigemina, 528
Cor pulmonale, 740, 869
Corpus albicans, 1051f, 1063f, 1067
Corpus callosum
commissural tracts in, 532, 533f, 535f
position of, 516, 517f
in sectional views of brain, 518f, 522f
sexual dimorphism of, 545
Corpus cavernosum
clitoral, 1068
penile, 51f, 1025f, 1029,
1030f, 1040
Corpus luteum, 642, 651, 1051f, 1062,
1062f–1063f, 1066–1067,
1070–1071
Corpus spongiosum, 51f, 1025f, 1029,
1030f, 1040
Corpus striatum, 534, 535f
Cortex
adrenal, 571, 648–649, 649f, 653t
auditory, 605f, 606
cerebellar, 516
cerebral, 516, 533–534, 534f
gustatory, 532, 540, 541f
hair, 201f, 202, 203f
of lymph node, 805, 805f
olfactory, 532, 540, 541f,
596, 596f
of ovary, 1050, 1051f
prefrontal, 538, 539, 542
renal, 882, 883f, 884f
somesthetic, 488f, 540, 590, 590f
visual, 627, 628f
Cortical granules, 1091
Cortical reaction, 1091, 1091f
Corticospinal tracts, 486t, 489, 489f,
526, 542
Corticosteroids, 649, 651, 653t,
654, 666i
for arthritis, 320i
for asthma, 829i
Corticotropin. See Adrenocorticotropic
hormone
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH),
641f, 642t, 643f, 832
Cortisol
adrenal secretion of, 649
adverse effects of, 662, 668, 833i
anti-inflammatory effect of, 666i
for arthritis, 320i
blood glucose, effect on, 651
bone, effects on, 235t, 662
fetal, 1074
functions of, 649, 653t
hypersecretion of, 666
immune system, effect on, 662,
668, 833i
lactation, role in, 1077
in stress response, 664
structure and synthesis of, 656f
transport of, 657
Cortisone, action of, 665f
Costal cartilages, 44f, 269, 269f, 271,
297, 302t
Costal margin, 394f
Costimulation, 819, 820f
Cotransport, 110, 115t, 922
Coughing, 526, 855, 859
Coumarin, 708i
Countercurrent exchange system,
renal, 898
Countercurrent heat exchanger,
1027, 1028f
Countercurrent multiplier, renal,
898, 899f
Countertransport, 110, 115t
Cousteau, Jacques, 872i
Covalent bonds, 61t, 62, 62f, 69
Cowper glands. See Bulbourethral
glands
Coxal joint, 312–313, 314f
Coxal region, 33f
C-peptide, 655–656, 657f
Cramps, 436t
Cranial cavity, 37t, 48f, 246, 251f
Cranial nerves
brainstem, relationship to,
525f, 548f
disorders of, 556, 556t
mnemonic devices for, 547
tables of, 549t–555t
Cranial region, 33f
Craniosacral division, 571
Cranium, 48f
Creatine kinase, 82i, 427, 428f
Creatine phosphate, 427, 428f, 429, 1109
Creatinine, 881
reabsorption of, 894
secretion of, 895
structure of, 881f
Crepitus, 320i
Crest
of a bone, 247f, 247t
neural, 519, 519f, 648
Cretinism. See Congenital
hypothyroidism
Cribriform plate, 249f–250f, 256f–257f,
257, 595f, 844f
Crick, Francis, 132i, 133f, 140
Crista ampullaris, 607, 608f
Cristae, mitochondrial, 120, 120f
Crista galli, 249f–250f, 256f–257f, 257
Crohn disease, 978t
Cro-Magnon, 11
Cross-bridges, 409, 420f
Crossed extensor reflex, 507–508, 507f
Crossing-over, 1033f, 1034
Cross-linking, 1114
Cross sections, 31, 31f, 159f–160f, 160
Cross-training, 431
Crowning, in childbirth,
1075, 1076f
Cruciate ligaments of knee, 307, 315f,
316, 316i–317i
Crural region. See Leg
Crush syndrome, 436t
Crutch paralysis, 494i
Cryptorchidism, 1023, 1037i, 1042t
Crypts
intestinal, 965, 966f
tonsillar, 806, 806f
CSF. See Cerebrospinal fluid
CT. See Computed tomography
Cubital region, 33f
Cumulus oophorus, 1064, 1065f
Cuneate fasciculus, 486t, 487,
487f–488f, 495f, 525f, 526
Cupula of semicircular duct, 607
Curare, 415i, 574
Curie, Marie, 58i, 58f, 222i
Curie, Pierre, 58i, 222i
Current, electrical, 455
Cushing syndrome, 666i, 668,
668f, 793i
Cusps
of heart valves, 715f, 721–722,
722f, 723i
of teeth, 944
Cutaneous glands, 205–207,
206f, 207t
Cutaneous membrane, 182
Cyanide poisoning, 869
Cyanosis, 197, 869
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate
(cAMP)
in adrenergic synapses, 467,
467f, 575
in cardiac function, 739, 740
in hormone action, 660, 660f
in olfaction, 596
as second messenger, 86, 102, 102f
in sensory transduction, 596
structure of, 85f, 86
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate
(cGMP)
in hormone action, 660
and Viagra, action of, 1040i
in vision, 623–625, 623f
Cyclooxygenase, 664, 665f, 666i
Cyclopropane, 629i
Cysteine, 79f, 80, 82f
Cystic duct, 961, 961f
Cystic fibrosis, 105i, 202i
Cystitis, 905i
Cytochromes, 688, 1000–1001,
1000f–1001f
Cytogenetics, 130
Cytogenic glands, 180
Cytokines, role in inflammation, 811,
813, 813t, 817
Cytokinesis, 143, 144f
Cytology, 94. See also Cells
Cytolysis, and complement, 810, 811f, 823
Cytomegalovirus, 831
Cytoplasm 96, 116–124
Cytosine, 130, 131f
Cytoskeleton, 97, 100, 120–121,
122f–123f, 140t
Cytosol, 97, 98f
Cytotoxic T (TC) cells, 818, 819–820,
819t, 820f
Cytotrophoblast, 1093, 1093f

D
Dalton, John, 56
Dalton’s law, 853t, 860
Dark adaptation, 624
Darwin, Charles, 9, 10i
Darwinian medicine, 12
Davy, Sir Humphry, 628i
Day vision, 620, 624–625, 625f
Dead air and dead space, 855
Deadly nightshade, 579i
Deafness, 606i, 1110
Deamination, 880, 1004t, 1005
Death, 422i, 1108, 1114
Debridement, 211
Decidual cells, 1071, 1095
Decomposition reactions, 69, 69f, 71t
Decompression sickness, 872i
Decubitus ulcer, 185
Decussation
in hearing, 606
in medulla oblongata, 525f, 533f
in spinal tracts, 486, 488f–489f, 540,
542, 589
in vision, 626–627, 628f
Deduction, scientific, 7
Defecation, Valsalva maneuver in, 855
Defensins, 809
Defibrillation, 732i
Deglutition. See Swallowing
Degranulation, 704
Dehydration, 262i, 644, 919, 921t
blood viscosity, effect on, 755
in diabetes mellitus, 669
in old age, 1112
and polycythemia, 692
urine, effect on, 898
Dehydration synthesis reactions, 72,
73f, 75, 76f, 79
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA),
649, 653t
Delayed onset muscle soreness, 436t
Delirium tremens, 1012i
Delta cells (pancreatic), 651, 664
Delta waves, 536–537, 536f–537f
Democritus, 56
Denaturation, 80
Dendrites, 175, 446, 447f, 448, 463
Dendritic (Langerhans) cells, 193f, 194,
804, 810, 1055, 1108
Dendritic spines, 474, 533
Denervation atrophy, 412, 490i, 1109
Denervation hypersensitivity, 564, 566t
Dens, 265, 266f
Dense bodies, 433
Dense connective tissue, 169,
171f, 171t
Dentin, 946
Dentition. See Teeth
Deoxyhemoglobin, 863, 865f, 867
Deoxyribonuclease (DNAase), 962,
963t, 973
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), 10, 86,
129, 210
discovery of, 130
mitochondrial, 124i
mutations in, 142
in protein synthesis, 134–136
replication of, 139–142, 141f
ribonucleic acid (RNA) compared
to, 130, 133, 134t
structure of, 97t, 130–133, 132f,
132i, 134t
Depolarization
myocardial, 731f, 734
of neurons, 456, 458f
of skeletal muscle, 416, 417
Depo-Provera, 1080f, 1081i, 1081t
Deprenyl, 475i
Depression
emotional, 468, 580i, 646i
of a joint, 303, 304f, 356f
Depth perception, 11, 11f
Dermal papillae, 195
Dermatitis, 208
Dermatology, 192
Dermatomes, 502f, 504, 508i
Dermatophagoides,195f, 195i
Dermis, 167, 169, 171f, 192, 194f,
195–196, 197t
Descartes, René, 7, 455, 646
Descending analgesic fibers, 489,
529, 591
Desmosomes, 178f, 179, 179i, 199
in cardiac muscle, 726, 726f
Desquamation. See Exfoliation
Detached retina, 615
Detoxification, 117, 119, 218, 880,
1004t, 1012
Detrusor, 904–906, 905f–906f
Detumescence, postorgasmic,
1041, 1069
Deuterium, 58, 58f
Development, 16
prenatal, 1070, 1090–1100,
1099t, 1101t
Developmental biology, 1090
Dextran, I.V. administration of, 933i
Dextrinase, 969
Dextrocardia, 14i
Diabetes, 902
gestational, 902, 1079t
insipidus, 666, 670t, 902, 919
mellitus, 668–670
atherosclerosis and, 670, 741i
and contraception and, 1081i
dehydration caused by, 919
glycosuria in, 895, 902
history of, 671i–672i
insulin-dependent (IDDM),
828, 829
insulin receptor defects in, 657i
ketogenesis in, 1005
neuropathy in, 589, 670
non-insulin-dependent
(NIDDM), 669
obesity and, 987
osteoporosis and, 239
reflexes, effect on, 506
respiratory effects of, 868
urine, effect on, 902
renal, 902
Diacylglycerol, 660, 661f
Dialysis, in renal insufficiency,
908, 908f
Dialysis membranes, 107
Diapedesis, 812, 814f
Diaphoresis, 206
Diaphragm
contraceptive, 1079i, 1080f, 1081t
muscular. See under Muscles
Diaphysis, 219, 220, 220f
Diarrhea, 231, 920, 925, 926, 970i, 973
Diarthroses, 294–295, 295f. See also
Synovial joints
movements of, 302–307, 303f–307f
Diastasis, 734
Diastole, 728
atrial, 736
ventricular, 734
Diastolic blood pressure, 754
Diazepam (Valium), 629i
Dicrotic notch, 735f, 736
Dideoxycytidine (ddC), 832
Dideoxyinosine (ddI), 832
Diencephalon, 516, 519, 520f, 525f,
529–531, 530f
Diet, 61, 792i, 989, 992–993, 1005. See
also Nutrition; Recommended
daily allowance
weight-loss, 988i
Differential WBC count, 700t–701t, 702
Differentiation, 16, 183
Diffuse junctions, 434
Diffuse lymphatic tissue, 804
Diffusion
in capillary exchange, 761, 761f
facilitated, 110, 110f, 115t
in gas exchange, 860–862, 860f, 862f
simple, 106, 106f, 115t
Digestion, 939–983, 940
autonomic effects on, 575, 576t,
941, 956–958, 957f
of carbohydrates, 968–969, 969f
of lipids, 970–973, 972f
of nucleic acids, 973
in pregnancy, 1072
of protein, 970, 971f
in stomach, 954f, 955–956
Digestive system, 941f
anatomical checklists of, 950t,
968t, 976t
autonomic innervation of, 568f,
569, 570, 571t, 572f,
573–574, 576t
excretory function of, 881
interaction with other systems, 979
overview of, 42f, 941f
in pregnancy, 1072
senescence of, 1112
Digitalis, 716, 740, 740t
Digital rays, 1101t, 1102f
Digital rectal examination (DRE),
1029, 1029i
Digits, 36
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 1031
Dilation
of blood vessels. See Vasodilation
of bronchioles, 666t, 855
of cervix, 1074
of pupil, 576t, 577, 577f,
615–616, 624
Dipeptidase, 970, 971f
Dipeptides, 79, 79f, 970, 971f
Diploe, 219, 220f, 250f, 251
Diploid chromosome number, 146,
1032, 1033f, 1090
Diplopia, 618
Directional terms
in brain anatomy, 516
in general anatomy, 31, 32t
Disaccharides, 73, 74f, 75t
Discharge zone, 472, 472f
Disease, historic views of, 3, 6, 716
Dislocation of joints, 310, 311, 313,
314f, 319t, 494i
Dissecting aneurysm, 754i, 792t
Dissection, 2, 4
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
(DIC), 708t, 765
Dissociation
of ionic bonds, 62
of neurotransmitters from receptors,
422, 467–468
Distal convoluted tubule (DCT), 883,
884f–885f, 890, 890f, 896, 922
Disulfide bonds, 80, 82f, 822, 824f
Disulfiram, 1012i
Disuse atrophy, 436t
Diuresis, 897, 901
Diuretics, 716, 902
overuse and dehydration, 919
in treating hypertension, 793i
Diverging circuit, 472, 473f
Diverticulitis, 978t
Diving physiology. See Scuba diving
DNA. See Deoxyribonucleic acid
DNA fingerprinting, 202i
DNA helicase, 140
DNA polymerase, 141, 141f, 142, 1113
Dominant alleles, 147, 150t, 151
Dominant hemisphere, 544
L-DOPA, 475i
Dopamine, 464, 465f, 466t, 475i, 571,
580i, 653t, 654
as prolactin–inhibiting hormone, 1077
Dormitory effect, 595i
Dorsal horn, 484f, 485, 591
Dorsal ramus, 493, 495f–496f
Dorsal root, 485, 491f, 492,
495f–496f
Dorsal root ganglion, 484f, 491f, 492,
493f, 495f–496f
Dorsiflexion, 306, 307f
Double-blind method, 8
Double covalent bond, 61t, 62, 62f
Double helix, discovery of, 132i, 133f
Double-jointedness, 307
Double vision, 618
Down-regulation, 661, 663f
Down syndrome, 1106, 1107f, 1110
Dreaming, 537–538
Drew, Charles, 694i–695i, 695f
Dropsy, 737i
Drugs. See also Aspirin; Caffeine;
Insulin; Steroids
of abuse, 580i
administration of, 196, 199i,
366i, 369i
alcohol as, 1011i–1012i
antacids, 956i
anticoagulants, 704, 707, 708i–709i
antidepressants, 468
anti-inflammatory, 386i, 649, 666i
clearance of, 895
clot-dissolving, 709
cocaine, 580i
cold medicines, 579i
cutaneous absorption of, 199i
digitalis, 740, 740t
diuretics, 793i, 902, 919
dosage and age, 1111
excretion of, 206
for glaucoma, 614i
for hypertension, 793i
nervous system, effects on,
579i–580i
parasympatholytic and
parasympathomimetic, 579i
for peptic ulcer, 956i
pH, effect of, 68i
phenylephrine, 579i
reactions to, 693t, 829i, 832t
sympatholytic and
sympathomimetic, 579i
tubular secretion of, 895
Dual innervation, 575
Ducts, gland, 179, 180f–181f
Ductus arteriosus, 1100, 1100f
Ductus deferens, 45f, 1024,
1026f–1027f, 1028
embryonic, 1020f, 1023f
Ductus venosus, 1099, 1100f
Duodenal glands, 965
Duodenum, 46f, 50f, 957, 964, 964f, 965
Duplicity theory, 624, 625f
Dural sheath, 483, 484f
Dura mater, 248, 483, 484f, 495f, 519,
520f, 521
Duration of stimulus, coding for, 587
Dust mites, 195f, 195i, 828i
Dwarfism, 229f, 229i, 657i, 659, 667
Dynamic equilibrium, 17
Dynein, 104f, 105, 143, 449
Dynorphins, 591
Dysphagia, 978t
Dyspnea, 857t, 1072
Dystrophin, 437i

E
Ear
anatomy of, 598–602, 609t
cilia in, 103
external, 173f
infections of, 521i, 599i
Eardrum, 598, 599f–600f, 1110
Earlobe, 147, 147f, 185
Earwax, 207
Eating disorders, 464
Eccentric contraction, 426–427
Eccrine glands, 180, 181f
Eclampsia, 1079t
Ectoderm, 158, 517, 519, 519f,
1093–1094, 1094f–1096f, 1099t
Ectopic focus, 728
Ectopic ossification, 230, 382, 383
Ectopic pregnancy, 1079t, 1094i, 1104
Eczema, 208t
Edema, 682, 683, 693
in allergy, 828
causes and effects of, 682i–683i,
737i, 762–763
cerebral, 920
in inflammation, 812, 813
in premature infants, 1104
pulmonary, 737f, 737i, 763,
920, 934i
spinal, 509
water balance and, 921
Edward syndrome, 1106
Effacement of cervix, 1074
Effectors, 18, 444
Efferent arteriole, 884f–886f, 885, 888f
Efferent ductules, 1020f, 1026f, 1028
Efferent nerve fibers and neurons, 446,
446f, 492t, 504
Egg. See Oocyte
Eicosanoids, 77, 78t, 664–666, 665f,
666i, 990
Ejaculation, 1031, 1032, 1039f, 1041
spinal cord injury, effect on, 509
Ejaculatory duct, 1025f, 1028
Ejection fraction, 736
Ejection of blood, 736
Elastic arteries, 749f, 750, 754
Elastic cartilage, 172, 173f, 173t
Elastic fibers, 168
Elastic filaments of muscle, 410, 412f,
413t, 423
Elasticity
of arteries, 754
of collagen, 409
of muscle, 408
Elastin, 168
Elbow
biomechanics of, 308, 308f–309f, 310
joint anatomy of, 311–312, 313f
Electrical current, 455
Electrical junctions. See Gap junctions
Electrical potentials, 417, 418f, 455. See
also Action potentials; Resting
membrane potential
Electrocardiogram (ECG), 730, 731f,
732f, 732t, 734, 735f
Electrochemical gradients
in excitable cells, 415–416,
455–456, 456f
in mitochondria, 1001, 1001f
Electroencephalogram (EEG), 536,
536f–537f
Electrolytes, 60, 61t
in blood plasma, 683t, 684
concentration, units of, 66
effect of growth hormone on, 644
excretion of, 666t
functions of, 921–926, 994
homeostasis of, 921–926, 1112
imbalances in, 506, 670, 922t, 923,
924–925, 926, 932t
and pH imbalances, 932t
tubular reabsorption of,
892–894, 893f
Electromagnetic energy, 69
Electron acceptors, 71, 1000
Electron donors, 71
Electrons, 57, 57f, 71
transfer of, 84
valence, 57
Electron shells, 57, 57f
Electron transport, 1000–1001, 1000f
Electrophysiology, 415, 424i, 455–462
Eleidin, 195
Elements, chemical, 56, 57t, 1121
Elephantiasis, 801f
Elevation of a joint, 303, 304f, 356f
Ellis, Havelock, 1037
Embolism, 692, 707–708, 742i, 764i
Embryo, 1f
adoption, 1115i
central nervous system of, 517,
519, 519f
development of, 1070, 1093–1095,
1093f, 1099t, 1102f
Embryoblast, 1093, 1093f
Embryonic membranes, 1094f–1096f,
1097–1098, 1098f
Embryonic tissues, 158, 1093–1094,
1099t
Emetic center, 955
Emigration of WBCs. See Diapedesis
Emission of semen, 1038f, 1041
Emmetropia, 617, 617f, 619f
Emotion, 526, 530f, 531, 539–540
cerebral centers for, 531, 532
digestion affected by, 978i
language and, 544
Emphysema, 687, 862f, 869, 1111
effect on RBC count, 692
Empty calories, 988, 1012i
Empty magnification, 96, 96f
Emulsification droplets, 970, 972f
Emulsions, 65
Enamel, 946
Encapsulated nerve endings, 588, 589t
Encephalitis, 556t
End-diastolic volume, 734, 739
Endergonic reactions, 70, 71t
Endocannabinoids, 987
Endocardium, 182, 720, 720f
Endochondral ossification, 226–228, 226f
Endocrine disruptors, 1037i
Endocrine glands, 179, 636f, 637
Endocrine system, 635–677, 1110
compared to nervous system, 637,
638f, 638t
overview of, 41f, 636–637, 636f
interaction with other systems, 673
Endocrinology, 636
Endocytosis, 112, 112f, 115t
Endoderm, 158, 1093–1094,
1094f–1096f, 1099t
Endogenous opioids, 590–591
Endolymph, 599, 600, 600f, 602, 607
Endometrium, 1052f, 1053, 1097
histology of, 1053–1054, 1054f
in menstrual cycle, 1062, 1063f,
1064t, 1067–1068
response to implantation, 1093
Endomysium, 326, 408f, 409, 432t
Endoneurium, 453, 491, 491f
Endonuclease, 185
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER), 98f, 117f,
123t. See also Sarcoplasmic
reticulum
in plasma cells, 822, 824f
in protein synthesis, 138–139, 140f
rough, 93f, 116–117
smooth, 116–118, 985f
Endorphins. 464, 465f, 466t, 591
Endosteum, 220, 220f, 221, 224f
Endothelins, vasomotor effect, 757
Endothelium
atherosclerosis, damage in, 741i
in blood-brain barrier, 524
as blood vessel lining, 182,
749f, 750
capillary exchange through,
761–762
diapedesis through, 814, 814f
embryonic, 1099
glomerular, 888f
inflammation, role in, 812t
lipid uptake by, 991
lymphatic, 801
nitric oxide secretion by, 574, 664
platelet repulsion by, 703
transcytosis through, 113, 114f
End-plate potential, 417, 418f
End-systolic volume, 736
Endurance exercise, 431
Energy, 68, 120
Energy-storage molecules, 990, 1002
Engram, 473
Enkephalins
as autonomic neurotransmitters, 574
B lymphocytes, secretion by, 833
as neuropeptides, 465f, 466t
in pain modulation, 590, 591, 592f
structure of, 465f
sympathetic nerve fibers, secretion
by, 574
Enteric hormones, 652, 653t
Enteric nervous system, 573, 941
Enteroendocrine cells, 652, 952,
953f, 955t
Enterogastric reflex, 957f, 958
Enterohepatic circulation, 962
Enterokinase, 962, 965
Environment and gene expression,
149, 150f
Enzyme amplification, 660, 662f,
705, 706f
Enzymes, 80, 82. See also Coenzymes
cofactors for, 83–84
digestive
gastric, 954, 955–956, 958f, 971f
intestinal, 963f, 965, 969f, 971f
nutrients, action on. See
Digestion
pancreatic, 962, 963f, 963t,
971f–972f
salivary, 946–948
in metabolic pathways, 84
in plasma membrane, 100, 101f
structure and function of, 83,
83f–84f
Enzyme-substrate complex, 83, 84f
Enzyme-substrate specificity, 83
Eosinophilia, 813
Eosinophils
action of, 809, 824
appearance of, 681f, 699, 700f, 700t
in asthma, 829i
formation of, 686f
role in inflammation, 812t
stimulation of, 820, 825t
Ependymal cells, 450, 450t, 451f, 485,
521, 524
Epicardium, 718, 720f–721f
Epicondyles, 247t, 247f
femoral, 281, 282f
humeral, 274, 274f, 398f
Epidermis, 192–195, 193f, 197t,
1108–1109, 1109f
Epididymis, 45f, 51f, 1025f–1027f, 1028
embryonic, 1020f, 1023f
Epidural space, 483, 484f
Epigastric region, 32, 35f
Epiglottis, 48f, 340, 844f–845f, 845,
847f, 948
Epilepsy, 540, 556t
Epimysium, 326, 432t
Epinephrine
adrenal medulla, secretion by, 571,
648, 653t
blood glucose, effect on, 651
blood vessels, effect on, 756,
756f, 759
bronchioles, effect on, 854–855
heart, effect on, 739, 740, 740t
hypersecretion of, 666
kidney, effect on, 901t
lipolysis stimulated by, 1005
lymphocytes, effect on, 833i
metabolic regulation by, 1007–1008,
1007t
as monoamine, 465f, 654
as neurotransmitter, 464, 466t
second messenger employed by, 102
in stress response, 663
structure of, 465f
Epineurium, 491f, 492
Epiphyseal line, 220
Epiphyseal plate
closure of, 234
formation of, 226f, 228
fracture at, 237t
in long bone structure, 220,
220f, 228f
as synchondrosis, 297, 302t
Epiphysis
of bone, 219, 220, 220f, 228
cerebri. See Pineal gland
Episiotomy, 1074
Epistaxis, 843
Epithalamus, 531
Epithelium, 159t
types of, 160–166, 161f–165f,
162t–165t, 166f
Epitopes, 816, 819, 822
Eponyms, 20
EPSPs. See Excitatory postsynaptic
potentials
Equilibrium
chemical, 70
osmotic, 107, 108f, 761f, 762
sensory, 606–608, 1110
brainstem centers for, 526, 530
cerebral cortex and, 540
and cranial nerve VIII, 553t
Equivalents, 67
Erectile dysfunction, 1032, 1040i, 1042t
Erectile tissues
female, 1055–1056, 1056f, 1068, 1069f
male, 1029, 1030f, 1038f–1039f,
1040
nasal, 84
Erection, 509, 1031, 1038f, 1039–1040
Eriksson, Peter, 143i
Erythema, 198
Erythroblastosis fetalis. See Hemolytic
disease of the newborn
Erythroblasts, 685, 686f
Erythrocyte (RBC) count, 682t, 691
effect of testosterone on, 1031
regulation of, 685, 687f
Erythrocytes (RBCs). See also Blood,
types; Erythrocyte count;
Erythropoiesis
death and disposal of, 691–692,
691f, 692t, 807
disorders of, 692–694
as formed elements, 175, 680
function of, 689
life span of, 691
morphology of, 174f, 175, 681f, 689,
689f–690f
production of. See Erythropoiesis
tonicity and, 107, 109f
Erythropoiesis, 685, 686f–687f,
1031, 1111
Erythropoietin (EPO), 652, 653t, 685,
687f, 693, 869, 880, 907i
Eschar, 209, 211
Escherichia coli, 142, 905i
Esophagus
anatomy of, 948
muscle layers of, 434f
position of, 46f, 48f, 49f, 341f, 345f
in swallowing, 948–949, 949f
Essential hypertension, 792i
Essential nutrients, 988
amino acids, 993
fatty acids, 990
Estradiol
adrenal secretion of, 649
ovarian secretion of, 651–652, 653t
in pregnancy, 1070, 1070f
in puberty, 1059–1060
structure and synthesis of, 656f
Estriol, 652, 1059, 1070
Estrogen. See also Estradiol; Estriol;
Estrone
adrenal, 649, 653t
bone, effects on, 234, 235t,
239i, 1060
breast cancer and, 1058
conversion of testosterone to, 1031
menopause and, 1060
placental, 654t, 1097t
in pregnancy, 652, 1019,
1070, 1071t
in puberty, 1059
replacement therapy, 1060
in sexual cycle, 1063f, 1064, 1066,
1066f, 1067
sodium balance and, 923
and uterine contractility, 1074
Estrogen mimics, 1037i
Estrogen-sensitive tumors, 659i
Estrone, 1059
Ethanol, 61, 61f. See also Alcohol;
Alcoholism
Ether, 61, 61f, 628i–629i
Ethylene, 629i
Eumelanin, 202, 203f
Eupnea, 857t
Eustachian tube. See Auditory tube
Evaporation
heat loss by, 1010
water loss by, 916–917, 918f
Eversion of foot, 307, 307f
Evolution, 9. See also Evolutionary
medicine essays
of blood, 690i, 691
of cerebral cortex, 534
of labor pains, 1074
of morning sickness, 1072
as property of life, 16, 22
of salt craving, 994
of senescence, 1114
of vision, 11, 625, 626
Evolutionary medicine essays. See also
Evolution
bipedalism, 286i–287i
hemoglobin, 690i–691i
kidney function, 879i
menopause, 1060i
mitochondrial evolution, 124i–125i
palate, 258i
pheromones, 595i
sweets, taste for, 990i
vestigial organs, 10i
Excess postexercise oxygen
consumption (EPOC), 429
Exchange reactions, 69f, 70
Excitability, 16, 175, 415, 445
Excitation-contraction coupling, 417, 419f
Excitation of muscle, 417, 418f
Excitatory postsynaptic potentials
(EPSPs), 458, 468–469,
469f–470f, 472, 474
Excitement, sexual, 1038f, 1040,
1068, 1069f
Excretion, 16, 881
Excursion of a joint, 304f, 305
Exercise 239i, 299, 428
ATP synthesis during, 427–428, 428f
blood pressure, effect on, 792i
cardiovascular effects of, 740, 742i
cholesterol level, effect on, 992
in cold weather, 920
fluid balance and, 917, 920
injuries from, 386i
joints, effect on, 299i
kidneys, effect on, 887
muscle and, 762
RBC count and, 692
resistance and endurance, 431
senescence, effect on, 1112
as therapy for pain, 591
venous return, effect on, 764–765
Exergonic reactions, 70, 71t, 85
Exfoliation, 161, 166f
Exocrine glands, 179, 180f–181f, 637
Exocytosis, 112, 114f, 115t, 140f
of sperm acrosome, 1090
of synaptic vesicles, 417, 465, 467f
Exons, 136
Exophthalmos, 670t
Experimental design, 7
Expiration, 851, 853–854, 854f. See also
Breathing
Expiratory center, 858, 858f
Expiratory reserve volume, 856, 856t, 857f
Expression of genes, 147, 149, 150f
Expulsion stage
in labor, 1075, 1075f–1076f
in orgasm, 1039f, 1041
Extensibility of muscle, 408
Extension of a joint, 302, 303f
Extensor retinacula, 365, 370f, 375,
378f, 380f
External tension of muscle, 423
Exteroceptors, 587
Extracellular fluid, 97, 112, 158,
415, 916
Extracellular material, 158
Extrafusal fibers, 504, 505f
Extrasystole, 728. See also Premature
ventricular contraction
Extrathalamic cortical modulatory
system, 529
Extrinsic muscles, 329
of eye, 611, 612f
of larynx, 342, 846
of tongue, 338, 341f
Extrinsic salivary glands,
946–947, 947f
Eye, 75. See also Orbital region; Vision
anatomy of, 612–615, 616t
autonomic effects on, 575, 576t
color of iris, 148, 150f
movements, control of, 526, 530,
550t, 552t
muscles of, 24f, 430, 430t, 611,
611f–612f
Eyebrows and eyelashes, 202, 204,
610, 610f
Eyelids, 610, 610f

F
Fabricius, Heironymus, 763
Facets of bones, 247t
Facial expression, 200, 200f
muscles of, 330–335, 337t–338t
neural control of, 526, 552t
Facial region, 33f, 393f
Facilitated diffusion, 110, 110f, 115t
Facilitated zone, 472, 472f
Facilitation (neural), 470, 474
Factor VIII (procoagulant), 704, 705f, 707
Facts in science, 9
FAD. See Flavin adenine dinucleotide
Fads and pseudoscience
anabolic-androgenic steroids, 87i
body piercing and keloids, 185i
hair analysis, 202i
high-protein diets and supplements,
992–993, 993i
hyperventilation and swimming, 877
low-carbohydrate diets, 989, 1005
megavitamins, 996
melatonin and jet lag, 646i
radium tonic, 222i
suntanning, 210i
versus scientific method, 7
Fainting. See Syncope
Fallen arches, 284
Fallopian tube. See Uterine tube
False labor, 1074
Falsifiability, 7
Falx cerebelli, 521
Falx cerebri, 520f, 521
Familial hypercholesterolemia, 112,
113i, 148, 742i
Faraday, Michael, 628i
Fascia, 326, 386i
adherens, in cardiac muscle, 726
antebrachial, 366, 367f
lata, 369, 373
penile, 1027f, 1030f
plantar, 385
thoracolumbar, 349, 350f, 352f
Fascicles
of muscles, 326, 431
of nerves, 481f, 491, 491f
Fasciculi of spinal cord. See Tracts
Fast glycolytic (fast-twitch) muscle
fibers, 430, 430f, 430t, 431
Fat. See Adipocytes; Adipose tissue;
Triglycerides
Fat embolism, 792t
Fatigue
in cardiac muscle, 433, 727
after complete tetanus, 425f
lactic acid as cause of, 427, 429
muscle perfusion and, 766
in skeletal muscle, 428–430, 430t, 431
in smooth muscle, 435
Fat-soluble vitamins. See under
Vitamins
Fatty acids, 75, 78t
absorption of, 970–971
essential, 990
as fuel, 427, 429
mobilization in pregnancy, 1071
oxidation of, 1004t
Fatty streak, 741i
Fauces, 845, 943
Fear, 531, 539
Feces, 232f, 974, 976
Feedback loops. See Negative feedback
loops; Positive feedback loops
Feeding center, 986, 987f
Female, 1018. See also Reproductive
system, female
genetic determination of, 1019
reference, 16
Femoral region, 33f, 279. See also Thigh
Femoral triangle, 781, 781f
Fenestrated capillaries, 752, 752f,
887, 888f
Fenestrations, 752f, 761, 761f, 888f
Ferritin, 687f, 688
Fertilization, 103t, 1070, 1089f,
1090, 1092f
Fertilization membrane, 1091, 1091f
Fetal alcohol syndrome, 1104
Fetal brain tissue transplants, 475i
Fetal nervous system, 450, 451, 482,
517, 519, 519f, 520f
Fetus, 1070, 1098, 1099t
development of, 1099–1101,
1101t, 1102f
radiographic images of, 23f, 1049f
skeleton of. See Ossification
vertex position of, 1073, 1073f,
1074, 1101t
Fever
as defense mechanism, 814,
815f, 1011
positive feedback in, 18, 19f, 1011
prostaglandins and, 666i, 666t
Reye syndrome and, 815i
in spinal shock, 508i
Fiber, dietary 75, 742i, 990
Fibrillation, 732f, 732i
Fibrillin, 172i
Fibrin, 679f, 704, 705f
Fibrinogen
in blood clotting, 704, 705f, 706t
in blood plasma, 683, 683t–684t
in inflammation, 812–813
in semen, 1037t
Fibrinolysin
in menstrual fluid, 1067
in semen, 1037t
Fibrinolysis, 706, 707f
Fibroblasts
cell cycle of, 142
in connective tissues, 158, 167, 169,
170f–171f
in hemostasis, 706
in inflammation, 812t
in tissue engineering, 211
in tissue repair, 186, 814
Fibrocartilage
in fracture repair, 235, 236f
histology of, 172, 173f
in intervertebral discs, 264, 297
in shoulder and hip joints,
310, 313
in symphyses, 277, 297
Fibromyalgia, 436t
Fibronectin, 160
Fibrosis, 184f, 185, 186, 432t
myocardial, 726
pulmonary, 854, 856
Fibrous connective tissue, 166–169,
170f–171f, 170t–171t
Fibrous joints, 295, 295f–296f, 296
Fibrous proteins, 80
Fibrous skeleton, 720
Fight or flight reaction, 565, 578
Filtration, 106, 115t
capillary, 761–762, 761f
coefficient, renal, 889
equilibrium with osmosis, 107–108,
108f, 761–762, 761f
membrane, glomerular, 887
pressure, 762, 887, 889f
slits, 887, 888f
Fimbriae, 1050, 1051f–1052f,
1065, 1066f
Fingernails. See Nails
Fingerprints, 198
Firing frequency, 471, 471f
First-order neurons, 486–487,
488f, 589
of pain, 590f
of vision, 626
Fissures
in bones, 247t
longitudinal, of brain, 516,
517f, 522f
Fixation point, visual, 626, 627f
Fixatives, 158
Fixators, 329
Flagellum, 105, 120, 123t, 1035, 1036f
Flat bones, 225
Flat feet, 284
Flatus, 976
Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD),
996–997, 999–1001, 999f–1000f,
1002f
Flavor, compared to taste, 594
Flexion creases and lines, 198,
398f–399f
Flexion of a joint, 302, 303f
Flexor reflex, 506–507, 507f
Flexor retinaculum, 300f, 365,
365f, 370f
Floating kidney, 882, 907t
Fluid balance. See Water balance
Fluid compartments, 916, 917f
Fluid deficiency, 919–920, 920i, 921t
Fluid excess, 920, 921t
Fluid exchange
capillary, 761–762, 761f
lymphatic, 801, 802f
Fluid replacement therapy, 933i–934i
Fluid sequestration, 921
Fluoride, 221, 994t
Fluorine, 57t
Fluoxetine, 580i
Foam cells, 741i
Folia, 526, 527f
Folic acid
absorption, in old age, 1112
bacterial synthesis of, 995
in erythropoiesis, 688, 693t
in pregnancy, 1072
RDA and dietary sources of, 995t
and spina bifida, 484i
Follicles
hair, 201f, 202
ovarian, 1050, 1051f
developmental stages of,
1062f–1063f, 1063–1064,
1065f
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
in male, 642, 1030, 1031f, 1032
pituitary gland, secretion by, 641f,
642, 643f, 645t
in pregnancy, 1071
in puberty, 1058–1059
in sexual cycle, 1063f, 1064–1065,
1066
T lymphocytes, secretion by, 833
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
receptors, 1064
Follicular cells
ovarian, 1064, 1065f. See also
Granulosa cells
thyroid, 647, 647f,
656–657, 658f
Follicular fluid, 1064, 1065–1066
Follicular phase, 1062–1064, 1064t
Fontanels, 260, 262, 262f, 262i
Foot
arches of, 282, 284f, 286i, 402f,
404f–405f
arteries of, 779f–780f, 780t
bones of, 279, 282–284, 283f–284f,
285
human vs. ape, 286f, 286i,
intrinsic muscles of, 377, 384t, 385f
movements of, 306–307, 307f
muscles acting on, 374–375,
378t–379t, 380f–383f
plantar epithelium of, 164f
surface anatomy of, 404f–405f
veins of, 790f–791f, 790t–791t
Foramina, 247f, 247t, 248, 252t–253t
carotid canal, 250f, 252t, 255
condylar canal, 250f, 252t, 255
cribriform, 253t, 257, 257f, 595
greater palatine, 250f, 253t, 258
hypoglossal canal, 249f, 252t, 255
incisive, 250f, 253t, 257f
inferior orbital fissure, 253t, 258, 258f
infraorbital, 248f–249f, 253t, 258, 258f
interventricular, 521, 522f–523f
intervertebral, 264, 265f
jugular, 249f–250f, 252t, 255, 783f
lacerum, 250f, 252t, 255
lacrimal, 253t
magnum, 48f, 248, 250f, 252t,
287f, 287i
mandibular, 253t, 259f
mastoid, 250f, 252t, 254
mental, 248f–249f, 253t, 259f
nutrient, 220, 220f, 226f
obturator, 277, 279f–280f, 280t
olfactory, 250f
optic, 250f, 252t, 255, 256f, 258f
ovale
of fetal heart, 1099, 1100f, 1103
of skull, 250f, 252t, 255, 256f
parietal, 251, 251f, 252t
rotundum, 250f, 252t, 255, 256f
sacral, 268, 268f
spinosum, 250f, 252t, 255, 256f
stylomastoid, 250f, 252t, 254
superior orbital fissure, 252t,
255, 256f
supraorbital, 248f, 252t, 258f
transverse, 265, 266f
vertebral, 264, 264f
zygomaticofacial, 249f, 253t, 258
zygomaticotemporal, 253t
Forced expiratory volume, 856, 1111
Forearm (antebrachium), 36, 273
arterial supply to, 773f, 773t–774t
bones of, 273–274, 275f
extrinsic muscles acting on, 357,
361, 362t
movements of, 30, 30f, 302,
303f, 305f–306f, 306,
361t–362t, 363f
muscles in, 361, 362t–364t, 363f,
366, 367f–368f
surface anatomy of, 33f, 398f
venous drainage of, 785f,
784t–785t
Forebrain, 519, 520f, 529–535
Foresight, cerebral center for, 531
Foreskin. See Prepuce
Forgetting, importance of, 539
Form and function, complementarity
of, 2, 22, 409
Formed elements of blood, 175,
680, 681f
Fossae, 247f, 247t
coronoid, 274, 274f
cranial, 248, 253f
cubital, 398f
iliac, 277, 279f
infraspinous, 271, 273f
intercondylar, 281, 282f
lacrimal, 259
mandibular, 250f, 254, 311f
nasal, 256
olecranon, 274, 274f
ovalis, 721f, 1103
popliteal, 400f, 403f
radial, 274, 274f
subscapular, 271, 273f
supraclavicular, 393f–394f
supraspinous, 271, 273f
triangular, of ear, 598f
Fovea, 247f, 247t
capitis, 281, 313, 314f
centralis, 615, 615f, 624, 626
Fractures, 221, 234–237, 236f–237f,
237t, 239i, 1109
Franklin, Rosalind, 132i, 133f
Frank-Starling law of the heart, 739
Freckles, 198
Free energy, 996–997
Free nerve endings, 588, 589t
Free radicals, 60
destructive effect of, 60
detoxification of, 60, 119
as mutagens, 124i, 151i
in oxygen toxicity, 869
production of, 59, 60
and senescence, 1114
Frequency, sound, 597, 603, 604f
Freud, Sigmund, 580i
Friction ridges, 193f, 198
Friction rub, 718
Frons, 393f
Frontal association area, 538
Frontal lobe
functions of, 531, 542, 542f,
544, 545f
lesions of, 538, 538f, 538i–539i
location of, 517f–518f, 531, 532f
Frontal plane, 31, 31f
Frontal region, 393f
Frontal sections, 31, 31f
Fructose, 73, 74f, 75t, 989, 1037t
absorption of, 969, 969f
Functional groups, 72
Functional magnetic resonance imaging
(fMRI), 24i, 557
Functional residual capacity, 856,
856t, 857f
Furosemide, 902

G
GABA. See Gamma-aminobutyric acid
GABA-ergic synapse, 466–467
Gage, Fred, 143i
Gage, Phineas, 538f, 538i–539i
Gagging, neural control of, 526, 553t
Galactose, 73, 74f, 75t, 969, 969f, 989
Galea aponeurotica, 334, 336f
Galen, Claudius, 3, 4, 455, 748, 763,
1041i, 1042i
Gallbladder, 44f, 50f, 959, 961–962, 961f
Gallop (heart sound), 734
Gallstones, 707i, 962i
Galvani, Luigi, 424i, 455
Gamete intrafallopian transfer, 1115i
Gametes, 1018. See also Oocyte; Sperm
Gamma-aminobutyric acid
(GABA), 464, 465f, 466–467,
469, 470, 629i
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
receptors, 466, 1012i. See also
GABA-ergic synapse
Gamma globulins. See Antibodies
Gamma motor neurons, 504, 505f
Gamma rays, 22i, 59, 151i
Ganglia, 445, 492, 493f
autonomic, 566, 566f
celiac, 568f, 570, 570f, 571t, 572f
ciliary, 571, 572f
collateral, 569f, 570, 571t
intramural, 571
mesenteric, 568f, 570, 570f, 571t
otic, 572f, 573
prevertebral, 570
sphenopalatine, 571, 572f
spiral, 600f, 601f, 604
submandibular, 571, 572f
superior cervical, 616
sympathetic, 495f–496f, 499f, 567,
567f, 568f–570f
terminal, 571
Ganglion cells, of retina, 620f, 621,
624, 625f
Ganglioside, 453i
Gangrene, 87i, 183, 185, 861
diabetes and, 668, 670
Gap junctions, 178f, 179, 223, 636
in cardiac muscle, 432, 432t, 726
in smooth muscle, 432t, 434
Gases
alveolar exchange of, 860–863,
865f, 866
atmospheric, 859–860, 860t
intestinal, 976
laws governing, 851, 853t
solubility of, 861
systemic exchange of, 864, 865f
transport of, 863–864
Gastric glands, 952, 953f
Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), 955,
957f, 958
Gastric juice, 952
Gastric pits, 952, 953f
Gastric secretion, 526, 666t, 952,
954–955, 954f
Gastrin, 955t, 957, 957f–958f, 963,
1007, 1007t
Gastritis, 956i
Gastroenterology, 940
Gastroesophageal reflux, 948, 1112
Gastroesophageal sphincter, 948
Gastroferritin, 687, 687f
Gastroileal reflex, 967
Gates in plasma membrane, 69,
100, 101f
Gaze center, 528
G cells, 957, 958f
Gel, tissue, 158, 168
Gelatinous bone marrow, 223
Gene, 133, 150t
Gene locus, 147
Gene pool, 148, 150t
General adaptation syndrome, 663–664
General nerve fibers, 492t
General senses, 587, 588–591
Genetic code, 134, 135t
Genetics
history of, 6. See also Heredity
Mendelian, 145–151
molecular, 130–142
terminology, review of, 150t
Genital herpes, 1043i
Genitalia
autonomic innervation of, 568f,
569, 570, 571t, 572f
embryonic, 1019, 1020f,
1021, 1022f
female, 1050–1056, 1051f–1052f,
1056f
male, 1023–1029, 1024f–1027f
Genital warts, 1043i
Genome, 133, 150t, 822
Genotype, 147, 150t
Germ cells, 146, 1026f, 1061
Germ layers, embryonic, 1093,
1094f–1095f, 1099t
Gestation. See Pregnancy
Gestational diabetes, 902, 1079t
Gigantism, 667
Gilman, Alfred, 102
Gingiva, 944, 946i
Gingivitis, 946i
Glabella, 248f, 251
Glands, 179–182. See also specific
types
Glans
of clitoris, 1022f, 1056, 1056f
of penis, 1022f, 1025f, 1027f,
1029, 1030f
Glaucoma, 579i, 614i, 1110
Glenoid cavity, 273, 273f, 310, 312f
Glia. See Neuroglia
Glioblastoma, 515f
Glioma, 451i
Globulins, 657, 683, 683t–684t
Globus pallidus, 475i, 534, 535f
Glomerular capsule, 882, 884f–885f
Glomerular filtrate, 882
Glomerular filtration, 886–891, 887f
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), 889,
903, 1072, 1111
Glomerulonephritis, 907i, 907t
Glomerulus, 882, 884f–886f, 885–891,
888f, 915f
Glottis, 844f–845f, 845, 846, 847f, 855
Glucagon
in diabetes mellitus, 669
functions of, 651, 653t
heart, effect on, 740t
metabolic regulation by, 1007–1008,
1007t
pancreatic secretion of, 650–651,
653t
second messenger employed by,
660, 660f
somatostatin, inhibition by,
651, 664
Glucoamylase, 969
Glucocorticoids 649
breast development stimulated by,
1059, 1076
inflammation inhibited by, 649
lipolysis stimulated by, 1005
nitrogen balance and, 993
in pregnancy, 1071
sodium balance and, 923
in stress response, 663–664
WBC count, effect on, 701
Gluconeogenesis, 648, 649, 651, 880,
1003, 1003t–1004t, 1007t, 1008
Glucose, 73, 74f, 75t
absorption, 969, 969f
balance in pregnancy, 1071
blood concentration of, 648, 683t,
684, 1004t, 1007–1008
dietary, 989
homeostasis, 650–651, 1004t,
1007–1008
metabolism in stress, 663–664
in muscle physiology, 427–429
oxidation of, 82, 996–1002, 997f,
999f–1002f, 1003t
reabsorption, 893f, 894
transport of, 111f
in urine, 668, 895, 902
Glucose-sparing effect, 644,
648, 990
Glucose transport proteins, 111, 111f,
668, 894, 902
Glucostat hypothesis, 986
Glutamate (glutamic acid), 464,
465f, 469, 490i, 594, 623–624,
623f, 1006f
Gluteal fold, 395f
Gluteal region, 33f, 374f, 377f, 395f
Glycerol, 75, 76f, 1005, 1005f
Glycine, 414i, 458, 464, 465f,
469, 579i
Glycocalyx, 100, 101, 102, 102f, 103,
103t, 104f
Glycogen
in cardiac muscle, 727
depletion in stress, 663
dietary, 968, 989
endometrial, 1067
energy storage by, 73, 75t, 988
metabolism of, 1002, 1003f,
1003t–1004t
in senescent muscle, 1109
in skeletal muscle, 409, 413t, 428,
428f, 429, 430t, 433
structure and synthesis of, 73,
74f, 651
Glycogenesis, 1002, 1003f, 1003t–1004t,
1007t
Glycogen-lactic acid system, 428
Glycogenolysis, 648, 651, 1002, 1003f,
1003t–1004t, 1007t, 1008
Glycolipids, 75, 75t, 99f, 100, 103, 453i
Glycolysis, 996
ATP synthesis by, 86, 86f,
1002f, 1003t
coenzyme function in, 84, 84f
metabolic pathways linked to,
1003f, 1005f
in muscle fiber types, 430t
reactions of, 997–998,
997f, 1003t
Glycoproteins
in basement membrane, 160
blood types determined by, 695
in bone matrix, 221
functions of, 75t, 103t
in glycocalyx, 101, 101f, 103, 103t
as hormones, 654, 655t
in intercellular junctions, 178f, 179
in intercellular material, 168, 178f
in Marfan syndrome, 172i
structure and synthesis of, 75, 75t,
80, 118
on T cells, 819
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), 168,
168f, 221
Glycosuria, 668, 895
Goblet cells, 161, 163f, 182f, 965
respiratory, 848, 848f–849f
Goiter
endemic, 667
toxic, 666, 670t, 828
Golgi complex, 98f, 118–119, 118f, 123t
protein processing in, 138, 139, 140f
Golgi tendon organ, 508, 508f, 589t
Golgi tendon reflex, 508
Golgi vesicles, 98f, 118, 118f,
123t, 139
Gomphosis, 296, 296f, 302t, 944
Gonadal ridge, 1020f, 1034, 1061
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
(GnRH)
in brain-ovarian axis, 643f, 1066f
in brain-testicular axis, 643f, 1031f
function of, 640, 642t, 643f
hypothalamic secretion of,
641f, 642t
in ovarian cycle, 1065, 1067
in puberty, 1030, 1058
Gonadotropins, 640
Gonads. See Ovaries; Testes
Gonorrhea, 1042i, 1104
Goose bumps, 10i, 195, 202
Gorilla, 10. See also Apes
Gout, 319t
G protein, 102, 467, 467f
Gracile fasciculus, 486, 486t, 487f, 488f,
495f, 525f, 526, 590
Graft rejection, 211, 828
Grafts and transplants, 211
Graft-versus-host response, 829
Granulation tissue, 184f, 186, 235
Granule cells, 595f, 596
Granulocyte-macrophage colonyforming
unit, 686f, 688
Granulocytes, 699, 700f, 700t. See also
Basophils; Eosinophils;
Neutrophils
Granulosa cells, 651, 651f, 1062f,
1064, 1065f
Graves disease, 666, 670t
Gravity
equilibrium, role in, 607f
venous return, role in, 764
Gray commissure, 484f, 485
Gray communicating ramus, 567, 569f
Gray matter
of brain, 516, 522f, 533
of spinal cord, 485
Greater trochanter, 395f
Great toe. See Hallux
Greece, medicine in, 3. See also
Aristotle; Hippocrates
Ground substance, 158, 168
Growth
of bone, 220, 228–229, 234
of cartilage, 229, 229i
as characteristic of life, 16
in puberty, 1031
of tissues, modes of, 183
Growth factors, 145, 234, 235t, 450
Growth hormone (GH)
in breast development, 1059, 1076
effects of, 229i, 234, 235t, 642–644,
645t, 651
hypersecretion of, 667
lactation, role in, 1077
lipolysis, role in, 1005
metabolic regulation by,
1007–1008, 1007t
and nitrogen balance, 993
in old age, 1110
pituitary secretion of, 641f,
643f, 645t
protein synthesis stimulated
by, 1006
T lymphocytes, secreted by, 833
Growth hormone–inhibiting hormone
(GHIH). See Somatostatin
Growth hormone–releasing hormone
(GHRH), 641f, 642t
Guanine, 130, 131f
Guanosine triphosphate (GTP),
86, 999
Guard hairs, 204, 844f
Gubernaculum, 1021, 1023f
Guillain-Barré syndrome, 509t
Gums
dietary, 990
oral, 944, 946i
Gut-brain peptides, 464, 955
Gynecomastia, 87i
Gyri, 516, 517f, 522f, 531
angular, 544
cingulate, 534, 535f
postcentral, 518f, 532f, 540, 541f
precentral, 518f, 532f, 542, 542f

H
Habenula, 531
Habituation, 529
Hair, 200–204, 201f, 203f
analysis, 202i
axillary, 202, 204, 207, 1031, 1060
beard, 202, 204
guard, 204, 610, 843
pubic, 202, 204, 207, 1031, 1060
structure and function of, 201–204,
201f, 203f
Hair cells
of cochlea, 600–604, 601f
of vestibular apparatus, 606,
607f–608f
Hair follicle, 191f, 201–202, 201f
Hair receptors, 201f, 202, 588, 589t
Haldane effect, 867
Half-life (T1⁄2)
of hormones, 643, 661
of radioisotopes, 59
Hallux (great toe), 282, 283f–284f, 286f,
286i, 405f
Hamstring injuries, 383, 386i
Hand (manus), 273, 276f
arteries of, 773f, 773t–774t
bones of, 275–277, 276f
evolution of, 10, 10f, 300
extrinsic muscles acting on, 361,
363t–364t, 365–366, 365f
intrinsic muscles of, 366, 367f–368f,
369t, 370f, 371t
movements of, 361, 369t
prehensile, 10, 10f
surface anatomy of, 398f, 399f
tendons and bursae of, 300f
veins of, 784t–785t, 785f
Handedness, 544, 545
Hansen disease (leprosy), 589
Haploid cells, 146, 1032, 1033f,
1034, 1090
Haptens, 816–817, 827t, 828
Harlow, John, 538
Harvey, William, 4, 748, 763, 763f
Haversian canal. See Central canal
Hawking, Stephen, 490f, 490i
Head
arterial supply to, 771f–772f,
771t–772t
of a bone, 219, 220f, 247f, 247t
extrinsic muscles acting on, 342f,
343–345, 343t, 344f
intrinsic muscles of, 330, 334–341,
334f–336f, 337t–340t, 341f
median section of, 48f, 844f
movements of, 526, 555t
of a muscle, 328
surface anatomy of, 393f
venous drainage of, 783f, 783t–784t
Headache, 310i, 556t, 564i
Healing
of fractures, 234–235, 236f
of wounds, 184f, 185–186
Hearing, 545f, 553t, 597–606
anatomy of, 598–602, 598f–601f
brain centers for, 526, 530, 532, 540,
541f, 604, 605f, 606
loss in old age, 1110
PET scan of, 585
physiology of, 602–606, 602f–605f
range and threshold of,
597–598, 597f
and sound, properties of, 597–598
Heart, 45f, 49f
autonomic innervation of, 568f,
570, 572f, 575
blood flow through, 724
electrical and contractile activity of,
728–733, 729f–732f,
734–736, 735f
endocrine function of, 652, 653t
fetal, 1098–1099, 1100f
gross anatomy of, 717–722, 719f
neonatal, 1103
neural control of, 565, 565f
Heart attack. See Myocardial infarction
Heart block, 728, 732f, 1111
Heartburn, 948, 1072, 1112
Heart failure
causes of, 792i
in diabetes mellitus, 670
polycythemia as cause of, 692
in sickle-cell disease, 695
from stress, 664
Heart murmur, 723i
Heart rate, 728, 737, 738
exercise and, 740
Heart sounds, 734–736, 735f
Heat. See also Temperature;
Thermoregulation
capacity of water, 65
enzymes, effect on, 83
of inflammation, 814
production and loss, 17–18, 111,
204, 531, 1009–1011
protein denaturation caused by,
80, 83
sodium-potassium pump and, 111
temperature vs., 64–65
thyroid hormone and, 647–648,
659, 1011
Heat cramps, 1011
Heat exhaustion, 933i, 1011
Heat-shock proteins, 138
Heatstroke, 1011, 1108
Heavy metal poisoning, 199i, 202i, 907i
Helicobacter pylori, 956i
Helper factor, 821f, 822, 823f, 827t
Helper T (TH) cells, 818, 826t
in AIDS, 829–831
in cellular immunity, 818–819,
819t, 820f–821f
in humoral immunity, 822, 823f
Hemangioma, 198
Hematemesis, 1012i
Hematocrit, 680, 682f, 682t, 1031
Hematology, 680i
Hematoma, 198, 235, 236f, 707
Hematuria, 887, 900
Heme moiety, 80, 81f
Hementin, 709i
Hemidecussation, 626–627, 628f
Hemidesmosome, 179
Hemiplegia, 509
Hemocytoblasts, 685, 686f
Hemodialysis, 881, 907i–908i, 908f
Hemodynamics, 753
Hemoglobin (Hb)
carbon dioxide transport and, 864
carbon monoxide poisoning and,
861, 863, 864i
concentration of, 682t, 691
decomposition of, 691f, 692, 692t
mutation in, 142
oxygen debt and, 429
oxygen transport and, 863–864
packaging of, 690i–691i
quantity of, 689, 691
in renal tubules, 907i
skin color imparted by, 196
structure of, 80, 81f, 689–690,
690f, 694
synthesis of, 685, 688
varieties of, 690, 694
Hemolysis, 692, 695
hyperkalemia caused by,
925–926
Hemolytic disease of the newborn,
693t, 697–698, 698f
Hemophilia, 707
genetics of, 149, 149f
Hemopoiesis, 218, 685–688, 686f, 1072
Hemopoietic tissues, 223, 685
Hemorrhage
in childbirth, 1072
water balance and, 921
Hemorrhoids, 753i, 974,
1072, 1111
Hemostasis, 702–709
Henry’s law, 853t, 860, 860f
Heparan sulfate, 160
Heparin, 167, 707, 809
in hemodialysis, 908
in inflammation, 813, 813t
Hepatic coma, 1006, 1012i
Hepatic lobules, 960, 960f
Hepatic macrophages, 961, 1004t
Hepatic portal system, 788t–789t,
788f–789f
Hepatic sinusoids, 788f, 788t, 960, 960f
Hepatitis, 114, 151, 198, 707i, 1003,
1012i, 1043i
Hepatocytes, 960, 960f
Heredity, general principles of, 145–151
Hernia, 351i–352i
Herniated disc, 265, 1109
Heroin, 590
Herpes, genital, 1043i
Herpes simplex virus, 151, 449, 831
Herpes zoster, 493i
Heterografts, 211
Heterozygous genotype, 147, 147f,
149, 150t
Hiatal hernia, 978t
High blood pressure. See Hypertension
High-density lipoprotein (HDL), 78i,
742i, 991–992, 991t, 992f, 1004t
Hindbrain, 519, 520f, 525f
Hip. See also Coxal joint
dislocation, 313, 314f
fracture, 239
muscles acting on, 369,
372t–373t, 373f
replacement, 320i, 321f
surface anatomy of, 394f–396f
Hippocampus, 534, 535f, 539, 596f
Hippocrates, 3, 516, 1041i
Hirsutism, 204
Hirudin, 709i
Hirudo medicinalis, 709f, 709i
Histamine
in allergy, 828
basophils, secretion by, 700t, 809,
812, 813t
capillary permeability and, 762
in digestion, 955t, 957, 957f
effect on bronchioles, 854
in inflammation, 812, 813t
mast cells, secretion by, 167, 466t,
812, 813t
as neurotransmitter, 464, 465f, 466t
as pain stimulus, 590
as paracrine, 664
structure of, 465f
vasomotor effect, 757
Histiocytes. See Macrophages
Histology, 3, 158–186
Histones, 130, 131f, 140t, 141
History. See also Medical history essays
of anatomical terminology, 19–20
of atomic theory, 56
of cardiology, 716
of circulatory physiology, 748
of cytology, 5–6, 94
of embryology, 1090
of genetics, 6
of hematology, 680
of homeostasis concept, 17
of human anatomy and physiology,
3–6
of immunology, 816
of medical illustration, 3–4, 4f, 5f
of neurophysiology, 455, 463, 516, 564
of scientific method, 7
of sex research, 1037
HIV. See Human immunodeficiency
virus
Hives, 828, 832t
H-K ATPase, 952
Hodgkin disease, 832t
Holism, 13
Holocrine glands, 180, 181f, 207, 207t
Homeostasis, 16, 17–18, 22
Hominid fossils, 284
Homo, extinct species of, 11, 11t
Homografts, 211
Homologous chromosomes, 146, 146f,
150t, 1105
Homologous genitalia, 1021, 1068
Homozygous genotype, 147,
147f, 150t
Homunculus
motor, 542, 542f
sensory, 540, 541f
Hooke, Robert, 5, 6f, 94
Horizontal cells, of retina, 620f, 621
Horizontal plane, 31, 31f
Hormone receptors, 657, 657i, 659i,
659–660, 669, 1021i
up- and down-regulation of,
661–662, 663f
Hormone replacement therapy,
231, 1060
Hormones, 179, 636–637. See also
Endocrine system
abbreviations for, 639t
affecting bone, 231–234,
232f–234f, 235t
blood concentrations of, 661
chemical composition of, 654
deactivation and clearance of,
661, 1004t
interactions among, 662
of menstrual cycle, 651–652, 653t.
See also Menstrual cycle
of pregnancy, 652, 654t, 1070–1071,
1070f, 1071t
sensitivity to, 661–662
synthesis of, 654–657, 656f–657f
transport of, 657, 659f
tropic, 640
Horner syndrome, 579t
Hot flashes, 1060
Huang Ti, 748
Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG),
1070, 1070f, 1071t, 1093, 1097t
Human chorionic somatomammotropin
(HCS), 1071, 1071t, 1097t
Human chorionic thyrotropin,
1071, 1071t
Human Genome Project, 133
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
See also Acquired
immunodeficiency syndrome
(AIDS)
brain, invasion of, 524
congenital infection with, 1104
structure of, 829–830, 830f
vaginal transmission of, 1055
Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), 819
Human papilloma virus (HPV), 1043i
Humoral immunity, 816, 822–826
compared to cellular, 827t
Hunger, 531, 987, 987f
Huntington disease, 125i
Hyaline cartilage
articular, 226f, 228, 299, 299f, 299i
in endochondral ossification,
226–229, 226f–227f
histology of, 172, 173f, 173t
of ribs, 297, 298f, 269, 269f, 271t
in synchondroses, 297, 298f
Hyaluronic acid, 168f, 183, 809, 1090
Hyaluronidase, 809, 1090
Hydration sphere, 64, 64f
Hydrocephalus, 262i, 523, 1104
Hydrochloric acid, 230, 952, 954, 954f,
955t, 977i
Hydrocortisone. See Cortisol
Hydrogen, 57t. See also Hydrogen ion
isotopes of, 58, 58f
in magnetic resonance imaging, 23
Hydrogen bonds, 61t, 62, 63f, 83
in macromolecules, 80, 130
Hydrogen ion, 67, 230i. See also
Acid; pH
renal secretion of, 895, 928–929,
929f, 932
vasomotor effect of, 757
Hydrogen peroxide, 60, 119,
809, 869
Hydrolysis reactions, 72, 73f, 940
Hydronephrosis, 907t
Hydrophilic substances, 63, 72, 107
Hydrophobic substances, 64, 75
Hydrostatic pressure, 106, 108f
Hydroxide ion, 67
Hydroxyapatite, 221, 230, 232f, 234f
Hydroxyl group, 72, 72f
Hymen, 1020f, 1055, 1056f
Hyperalimentation, 933i
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy, 861, 862f,
869
Hypercalcemia, 231, 234f, 922t, 926
alkalosis, as cause of, 932t
effects on heart, 739, 740, 740t
kidney stones caused by, 904i
Hypercapnia, 868
cerebral autoregulation and, 766
effects on heart, 739, 740t
vasomotor effect, 758–759
Hyperchloremia, 922t, 925, 932t
acidosis, as cause of, 932t
I.V. fluid therapy, caused by, 933i
Hyperemesis gravidarum, 1079t
Hyperemia, 812, 814
Hyperextension, 303, 303f
Hyperglycemia, 668
Hyperglycemic hormones, 651
Hyperinsulinism, 670t
Hyperkalemia, 922t, 924–925,
924f, 932t
acidosis, relationship to, 932t
effects on heart, 732t, 739, 740, 740t
hemolysis, caused by, 925–926
I.V. fluid therapy, caused by, 933i
Hypernatremia, 922t, 923
I.V. fluid therapy, caused by, 933i
Hyperopia, 619f, 619t
Hyperparathyroidism, 668, 926
Hyperphagia, 986, 987f
Hyperphosphatemia, 922t
Hyperplasia, 183
Hyperpnea, 857t
Hyperpolarization
myocardial, 739
of neurons, 458–459, 458f
Hyperreflexia, 509
Hypersecretion of hormones, 666
Hypersensitivity, 828
Hypertension, 754, 792i–793i
aneurysm and, 754i
atherosclerosis and, 741i, 793i
baroreflexes and, 758
contraception and, 1081i
effects of, 754, 792i, 889
obesity and, 987i
race and, 793, 995
treatment of, 101i, 564i, 716, 759,
792i–793i, 902
Hyperthermia, 1011
Hyperthyroidism, 739, 793i, 926
Hypertonic solutions, 108
Hypertrophy, 183, 227, 227f
cardiac, 741, 792i
Hyperventilation, 766, 857t, 859, 868
Hypervitaminosis, 996
Hypervolemia, 932t
Hypocalcemia, 922t
acidosis, caused by, 932t
I.V. fluid therapy, caused by, 933i
effects of, 231, 739, 740, 740t, 926
in pregnancy and lactation, 926
negative feedback control of,
232–233, 234f
Hypocapnia, 766, 868
Hypochloremia, 922t, 925, 932t
Hypochlorite, 809
Hypochondriac region, 32, 35f
Hypodermis, 192, 193f, 196, 197t
Hypogastric region, 32, 35f
Hypoglycemia, 988
Hypoglycemic hormones, 651
Hypokalemia, 922t, 924f, 925
alkalosis, caused by, 932t
effects on heart, 739, 740, 740t
in stress, 664
Hyponatremia, 922t, 923, 925
Hypoparathyroidism, 667–668, 926
Hypophosphatemia, 922t
Hypophyseal portal system, 639, 641f
Hypophysis. See Pituitary gland
Hypoproteinemia, 682i, 755, 763
in premature infants, 1104
Hyposecretion of hormones, 666
Hypospadias, 1037i, 1042t
Hypotension, 754
Hypothalamic thermostat, 531,
814, 1010
Hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract, 639,
641f, 666
Hypothalamus
anatomy of, 530–531, 530f
autonomic nervous system, role
in, 578
in emotion, 539–540
functional review of, 531
hormones of, 639–640, 641f
in hunger, 986, 987f
location of, 517f–518f
nuclei of, 530f
in olfaction, 596, 596f
in ovarian cycle, 1061–1062
pain and, 590
pituitary, relationship to, 638–639,
641f, 642t, 644–645
in respiration, 859
in sleep, 537
in taste, 594
in thermoregulation, 17–18, 200,
508i, 530f, 1010–1011
in thirst, 917
Hypothenar eminence, 366,
398f, 399f
Hypothermia, 1011, 1108
Hypothesis, 7
Hypothetico-deductive method, 7
Hypothyroidism and hypercalcemia,
926
Hypotonic hydration, 920, 921t
I.V. fluid therapy and, 934i
Hypotonic solutions, 108
Hypoventilation, 857t, 868
Hypovolemia, 919, 921t, 932t
Hypoxemia
causes of, 685, 869
cardiac effect of, 739
clubbing caused by, 205
correction of, 685, 687, 687f
and RBC count, 685, 692
in sickle-cell disease, 695
vasomotor effect of, 758–759
Hypoxia, 693
blood flow and, 757
effects on heart, 732t, 740t
in pulmonary circuit, 767, 862, 863f
types of, 869
Hypoxic drive, 868
Hysterectomy, 1053i

I
Ibuprofen, 665f, 666i, 814
IgA–IgM. See under Immunoglobulins
Ileocecal junction, 964f, 965
Ileocecal valve, 967, 974, 975f
Ileum, 964–965, 964f
Iliac crest, 277, 279f, 376f, 394f–395f
Iliotibial band, 333f, 373, 376f–378f,
400f–401f
Imaging methods, 22–24, 23f–24f,
557f, 557i
Imipramine, 580i
Immediate memory, 474
Immune system, 38, 815–839
disorders of, 827–832, 832t
interactions with other systems, 834
senescence of, 1111
Immunity. See also Immune system
cellular, 816, 818–821
forms of, 816
general characteristics of, 815–816
humoral, 816, 822–826, 823f
neonatal, 1103
Immunocompetence, 817
Immunodeficiency diseases, 114, 701,
829–832, 831f
Immunoglobulins, 822. See also
Antibodies
IgA, 822, 825t, 843, 970, 1077,
1078t, 1103
IgD, 822, 825t
IgE, 822, 825t, 828
IgG, 822, 823, 824f, 825t, 826, 828,
1097t, 1103
IgM, 822, 823, 825t, 826, 828
Immunological surveillance, 809
Immunosuppressant drugs, 211,
437i, 701
Implantation, 1092f–1093f, 1093
Impotence, 87i, 670, 1032
Imuram, 437i
Inclusions, 121, 124t, 446
Incomplete dominance, 148, 150t
Incomplete tetanus, 425, 425f
Incontinence, 509, 670, 907t,
1072, 1112
Incubation period of STDs, 1041i
Inductive method, 7
Infant, 451. See also Neonate
dehydration in, 920
larynx of, 845
vertebral column of, 263, 263f
Infarction, 185, 708
cerebral, 766
post-traumatic, 509i
Infections, and anemia, 693t
atherosclerosis and, 741i
bacterial, 521i, 688, 754i
defenses against, 813, 814, 818f,
819, 823, 843
ear, 521
neonatal, 1104
in old age, 1111
opportunistic, 702
stress and, 664
urinary, 904, 905i, 907i
Infectious mononucleosis, 708t
Infective endocarditis, 741t
Infertility, 87i, 829, 1023, 1036,
1042t, 1115i
Inflammation, 666t, 810–814, 811f, 814f
Inflation reflex, 859
Influenza, 701, 815i
Infrared (IR) radiation, 610, 1009
Infrasound, 597
Inguinal canal, 351i, 1021, 1023f, 1024
Inguinal region, 32, 33f, 35f
Inguinal ring, 1024, 1027f
Inhibin, 652, 653t, 1023, 1031, 1031f,
1059, 1060, 1067
Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials
(IPSPs), 458, 469, 469f
Initial segment, 447f, 453
Injections, 366i, 369i, 494i
Injuries. See also Dislocation of joints;
Fractures
athletic, 386i
back, 349i–350i
brain, 538, 538i–539i
healing and repair of, 184f, 185,
235, 236f
joint, 319t, 320i, 365i–366i, 386i
knee, 316i–317i
muscular, 349i–350i, 383, 386i
nerve, 453, 494i
spinal cord, 508i–510i
Inner ear, 246, 599–602, 599f–602f
Innervation
by cranial nerves, 549t–555t
of skeletal muscles, 329–330. See also
Muscles, specific: tables of
by spinal nerves, 497t–502t, 503, 503f
Inositol triphosphate (IP3), 660, 661f
Inotropic agents, 740
Insensible perspiration, 206
Insensible water loss, 917
Insertion of a muscle, 328
Inspiration, 851, 852–853, 854f
Inspiratory capacity, 856, 856t, 857f
Inspiratory center, 858, 858f
Inspiratory neurons, 858
Inspiratory reserve volume, 855–856,
856t, 857f
Insula, 518f, 522f, 532, 535f, 540, 594
Insulin, 82f, 235t
action of, 650–651, 653t, 660
antagonized by epinephrine, 648
antagonized by somatostatin, 664
cells independent of, 650
in diabetes mellitus, 668–670
discovery of, 671i–672i
lactation, role in, 1077
mammary gland development, role
in, 1076
metabolic regulation by,
1007–1008, 1007t
protein synthesis, role in, 1006
resistance to, 669
secretion of, 650
sensitivity in pregnancy, 1071
structure and synthesis of, 139,
655–656, 657f
transport of, 113, 114
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), 643,
652, 653t
Insulin receptors, 662, 1110
Integrating center, 18
Integration, neural, 468–474
Integument. See Skin
Integumentary system, 191–215
autonomic effects on, 576t
excretory function of, 881
interaction with other systems, 212,
1108–1109
overview of, 40f
in pregnancy, 1072–1073
senescence of, 1108–1109, 1109f
Intensity of stimuli, coding of, 471,
471f, 586–587
Interatrial septum, 721
Intercalated cells of renal tubule, 896
Intercalated discs, 176, 177f, 432,
726, 726f
Intercellular clefts in endothelium, 752,
761, 761f
Intercellular junctions, 178–179, 178f
Intercourse, 1038, 1068–1069, 1069f
Interdigitating folds, 726, 726f
Interferons, 810, 814, 820, 828
Interleukins, 814, 817, 820, 820f–821f,
822, 827t, 832
Intermediate filaments, 120, 122f, 124t
Intermediate muscle fibers, 430
Internal tension of muscle, 423
Interneurons, 446, 446f, 504
Internodes, 447f, 453, 461
Interoceptors, 587
Interosseous membrane, 275, 275f,
296, 317f
Interphase, 142
Interpubic disc, 277, 297, 298f
Interscapular region, 33f, 395f
Intersegmental reflex arc, 508
Interstitial cells, 651f, 652, 1023, 1026f,
1030, 1031f, 1032
Interstitial fluid, 158
Interstitial growth, 229
Interstitial lamellae, 223
Interventricular septum,
721, 721f
Intervertebral discs, 262, 264–265,
264f–265f
in cadaver, 51f
herniation of, 265, 494i
histology of, 173f
in old age, 1109
as symphyses, 297, 298f
Intestinal crypts, 965, 966f
Intestinal juice, 965
Intestinal motility, 965, 967, 967f, 976
Intestines. See Large intestine; Small
intestine
Intracellular fluid, 97, 415, 916
Intrafusal fibers, 504, 505f
Intramembranous ossification,
225–226, 226f
Intramuscular injections, 369i
Intrauterine device (IUD), 1080f,
1081i, 1081t
Intravenous (I.V.) fluids, 925, 933i–934i
Intrinsic aging of skin, 1108
Intrinsic factor, 693, 952, 954, 955t, 973
in old age, 1111
Intrinsic muscles, 329
of eye, 433, 613, 618
of foot, 377, 384t, 385f
of hand, 366, 370f, 371t
of larynx, 845f, 846
of tongue, 338
Intrinsic salivary glands, 946
Introns, 136
Inversion of foot, 306, 307f
In vitro fertilization, 186i, 1115i, 1116f
Involuntary muscle, 408, 432t
Involuntary nervous control, 564, 566t
Involution
of corpus luteum, 1063f, 1067
of pineal gland, 646
of thymus, 646, 806, 807f
of uterus, 1075
Iodine, 57t, 656, 659, 667, 994t
Iodopsin, 621
Ionic bonds, 60f, 61–62, 61t, 69
Ionization, 59, 60f
Ionizing radiation, 59
Ions, 59, 60f
Ion trapping, 68
Ipsilateral reflex arcs, 508
IPSPs. See Inhibitory postsynaptic
potentials
Iris, 610f, 612, 612f, 614f
autonomic innervation of, 550t,
568f, 570, 572f, 577f
muscle of, 433, 613
Iron, 57t
absorption of, 687, 687f, 973
deficiency, 205, 693, 693t
metabolism of, 687–688, 687f, 692
in old age, 1112
RDA and dietary sources of, 687,
994, 994t, 1072
storage of, 1004t
Irritability, 16
Ischemia, 869
cerebral, 766
coronary, 725i
endometrial, 1067
myocardial, 741t, 792i
myometrial, 1074
Ischemic phase, 1067
Islets of Langerhans. See Pancreatic islets
Isoenzymes, 82i
Isografts, 211
Isomers, 61, 61f
Isometric contraction, 425–427, 426f
Isotonic contraction, 425–427, 426f
Isotonic solutions, 108
Isotopes, 58
Isovolumetric contraction, 734–735
Isovolumetric relaxation, 736
Itch, 486t, 487

J
Japanese
blood types in, 696t
prostate cancer rare in, 1029i
sweat glands in, 206
Jaundice, 198, 692, 962i
alcoholism as cause of, 1012i
neonatal, 1104
Jaw. See Temporomandibular joint
(TMJ) syndrome
Jejunum, 964, 964f
Jet lag, 646i
Jet pilots, 765
Johnson, Virginia, 1037
Joint capsule, 299, 299f
Joint cavity, 299, 299f
Joint movements, sense of, 588, 589t
Joint prostheses, 320i, 321f
Joints, specific
acromioclavicular, 269, 271
ankle, 317, 317f–318f, 319t
atlantoaxial, 265, 300, 302t
atlanto-occipital, 265, 309
carpometacarpal, 301f
coxal, 302t, 312–313, 318t
elbow, 300, 302t, 311–312, 313f, 318t
glenohumeral. See humeroscapular
hip. See coxal
humeroradial, 312
humeroscapular, 271, 300, 301f,
302t, 310, 318t
humeroulnar, 301f, 311–312
intercarpal, 301f, 302t
interphalangeal, 300, 302t, 398f, 399f
intertarsal, 302t, 317, 317f–318f, 319t
intervertebral, 264–265, 265f, 267, 302t
knee, 285, 285f, 300, 302t, 314–317,
315f, 319t
metacarpophalangeal, 301, 301f,
302t, 398f, 399f
patellofemoral, 314
radiocarpal, 302t
radioulnar, 300, 301f, 302t, 312, 313f
sacroiliac, 268, 277, 279f
shoulder. See humeroscapular
sternoclavicular, 269, 271, 301,
302t, 393f
talocrural. See ankle
temporomandibular (TMJ), 259
actions and biomechanics of,
301, 308f–309f, 309
anatomy of, 310, 311f, 318t
TMJ syndrome, 310i
tibiofemoral. See knee
tibiofibular, 283f, 302t
trapeziometacarpal, 300, 302t
Joints in general, 293–321. See also
Sutures; Symphyses
ball-and-socket, 281, 300, 301f, 302t
biomechanics of, 307–310,
308f–309f
biaxial, 300, 301f
bony (synostoses), 297
cartilaginous, 294–295, 295f, 297
classification of, 294–295, 295f
condyloid, 301, 301f, 302t
diseases and injuries of, 316i–317i,
319t, 320i, 386i
fibrous, 294–295, 295f, 296, 296f, 302t
gliding, 301, 301f, 302t
gomphoses, 296, 296f, 302t,
944–945, 945f
hinge, 300, 301f, 302t
monaxial, 300, 301f
movements of, 302–307, 304f–307f
multiaxial, 300, 301f
in old age, 1109
pivot, 300, 301f, 302t
saddle, 300, 301f, 302t
Joints in general—Cont.
synchondroses, 297, 298f, 302t
syndesmoses, 296, 296f, 302t
synovial, 294–295, 295f, 298–319,
301f, 302t
Joliot, Frédéric, 59i
Joliot-Curie, Irène, 59i
Judgment, 526, 531, 539
Junctional fatigue, 429
Junctional folds, 414, 415f, 416t
Juxtaglomerular apparatus, 884f, 885,
890, 890f
Juxtaglomerular cells, 890, 890f

K
Kallikrein, 706, 707f
Kangaroo rat, 897i
Kaposi sarcoma, 831, 831f
Karyotype, 146, 146f, 1107
Kearns-Sayre syndrome, 125i
Keloids, 185f, 185i
Keratin
in cytoskeleton, 121
in epidermis, 161, 192, 199, 809
in hair and nails, 201, 204
protein structure and, 80
Keratinized epithelium, 161, 164f, 164t
Keratinocytes, 192, 193f, 197t
in calcitriol synthesis, 231, 233f, 652
life history of, 192, 194–195
melanization of, 196
in skin grafting, 211
Keratohyalin granules, 194
Kernicterus, 698
Ketoacidosis, 670, 868
Keto acids, 1005–1006
Ketogenesis, 1004t, 1005
Ketone bodies, 669, 989. See also
Ketogenesis
Ketonuria, 668–670
Kidney, 14, 46f, 50f, 808f
blood supply to, 885, 886f
calcitriol synthesis by, 233f
calcium reabsorption by, 232, 233
compensation by for fluid intake,
920, 921f
as endocrine gland, 652, 654t
functions of, 117, 652, 654t, 880
gross anatomy of, 881–882, 883f
in hemopoiesis, 685, 687f, 688
in hormone clearance, 661
senescence of, 1108, 1111
stones, 668, 904i
tubules, 107, 111, 162f
X ray of, 879f
Kidney disease, 230i, 887, 907t, 907i–908i
erythropoiesis depressed in, 693t
hypoproteinemia caused by, 682i
Kidney failure, 907i–908i, 907t
anemia caused by, 693
azotemia caused by, 881, 907
causes of, 87i, 792i
diabetes and, 668, 670
edema caused by, 763
fluid retention in, 920
hyperkalemia in, 925
hypertension as cause of, 889
hypertension caused by, 793i
in sickle-cell disease, 695
from stress, 664
uremia caused by, 881, 907
Killing zone, 809
Kilocalories, 988
Kinases, 85, 102, 102f, 140t
Kinesin, 449
Kinesiology, 294
Kinetochore, 143
Kinocilium, 606
Klinefelter syndrome, 1106
Knee
adaptation to bipedalism, 286f, 286i
anatomy of
joint, 314–317, 315f–316f
skeletal, 281, 282f–283f
surface, 400f
injuries, 316i–317i
locking of, 286, 375, 375t
MRI image of, 293f
muscles acting on, 373–374, 375t
reflex, 505, 506f
replacement, 320i
Koreans, sweat glands in, 206
Krause end bulbs, 588, 589t
Krebs cycle. See Citric acid cycle
Kussmaul respiration, 670, 857t, 868
Kwashiorkor, 683f, 683i
Kyphosis, 239f, 239i, 263i, 264f

L
Labeled line code, 586
Labia
facial. See Lips
genital
anatomy of, 51f, 1051f,
1055, 1056f
development of, 669f, 1022f,
1050, 1060
during intercourse,
1068, 1069f
pigmentation of, 196
Labioscrotal folds, 1021, 1022f, 1050
Labor. See Childbirth
Labor contractions, 18, 19f, 666t, 1074
Labrum
acetabular, 313, 314f
glenoid, 310, 312f
Lacrimal apparatus, 610–611, 611f
Lacrimal (tear) gland
anatomy of, 611, 611f
innervation of, 551t–552t, 552f,
571, 572f
Lactalbumin, 1078t
Lactase, 969, 970i
Lactate, reabsorption in kidney, 894
Lactate dehydrogenase, 82i
Lactation. See also Milk
calcium balance in, 231, 232, 926,
1071, 1072, 1078
oxytocin in, 644, 645t, 1077
physiology of, 1076–1078
Lacteal, 965, 966f, 972f
Lactic acid
as bactericide, 809
generation and disposal of, 86, 86f,
998, 1004t
in muscle metabolism, 427, 428, 429
in myocardial ischemia, 725i
toxicity of, 86, 998
vasomotor effect of, 757, 766
Lactiferous ducts and sinuses, 1057,
1057f–1058f, 1077
Lactose, 73, 74f, 75t, 969, 989, 1078t
Lactose intolerance, 970i, 1109
Lacunae
of bone, 172, 174f, 221, 224f
of cartilage, 172, 173f, 227f
of penis, 1029, 1030f, 1040, 1041
Lambdoid suture, 249f–251f, 251, 260f
Lamellae, concentric, 172, 174f, 223, 224f
Lamellated (pacinian) corpuscles,
588, 589t
Lamina (vertebral), 264, 264f–265f
Lamina propria, 182, 182f, 941,
942f, 953f
Laminar flow, 756, 756f
Laminectomy, 265, 510
Laminin, 160
Landsteiner, Karl, 694
Langerhans cells. See Dendritic cells
Language, 544, 545f, 557f
Lanugo, 202, 1101t
Large intestine, 974–977, 975f
Laryngopharynx, 844f, 845
Laryngospasm, 231
Larynx
anatomy of, 844f, 845–846,
845f, 848f
in infancy, 845
location of, 45f, 48f, 341f
muscles of, 340, 340t, 342, 342f,
845f, 846, 847f
in puberty, 1031
in speech, 846, 847f
Lasix, 902
Latch-bridge mechanism, 435
Latent period, 423, 435
Lateral abdominal region, 35f
Lateral excursion, 304f, 305
Lateral horn, 484f, 485
Lateralization, cerebral, 543, 545, 545f
Lateral rotation, 305f, 306
Lateral sulcus, 532, 532f
Latex allergy, 832t
Law of complementary base pairing,
132, 139
Law of mass action, 70
Laws of nature, 9
Laxative overuse and hypokalemia, 925
Leader sequence of mRNA, 136
Lead poisoning, 199i, 202i, 699, 907i
Learning, cerebral center for, 532
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy
(LHON), 125i
Lecithin, 77f, 970, 972f, 1004t
Leeches, medical use of, 709f, 709i
Leeuwenhoek, Antony van, 4, 5f
Leg, 36, 281
arterial supply to, 779f–780f,
779t–780t
bones of, 281, 283f
extrinsic muscles acting on,
373–374, 375t, 376f–377f
movements of, 302–303, 304f–305f,
306–307
muscles in, 374–375, 378f,
378t–379t, 380f–383f
surface anatomy of, 33f, 401f–403f
venous drainage of, 790f–791f,
790t–791t
Length-tension relationship, 349i,
422–423, 422f, 431, 436
Lenses
corrective, 619f, 619t
of eye, 612, 612f–614f, 614i
refraction by, 617, 617f
Leprosy, neuropathy in, 589
Leptin, 986, 988i
Lesions, 209
Lethal hit, 819, 820f
Leukemia, 151t, 152i, 702, 702f
Leukocyte (WBC) count, 682t, 699,
700t–701t, 701–702
Leukocytes (WBCs). See also
specific types
abnormalities of, 699, 702
classification of, 680
in fibrous connective tissue, 167
functions of, 700t–701t, 809–810
in leukemia, 702, 702f
life span of, 688
lysosomes in, 119
morphology of, 174f, 175, 681f,
690f, 699, 700f–702f,
700t–701t
Leukocytosis, 701
Leukopenia, 699
Leukoplakia, 831
Leukopoiesis, 686f, 688, 820, 813
Leukotrienes, 664, 665f, 666i, 812, 813t
Levers, 307–310, 308f–309f
Levodopa (L-DOPA), 475i
Leydig cells. See Interstitial cells
Libido, 649, 1031, 1060, 1112
Life, defining, 14–15, 16. See also Death
Life expectancy, 1060i, 1114
Life span, 1114
Ligaments, 167, 218, 220, 299, 307
of ankle, 317, 317f, 319t
annular, 300, 312, 313f
broad, of uterus, 1050, 1052f
cardinal, of uterus, 1052f, 1054
cruciate, anterior and posterior,
307, 315f, 316, 316i–317i
of elbow, 312, 313f, 318t
of hip, 313, 314f, 318t
of humeroscapular joint, 310–311, 312f
inguinal, 43f, 347, 394f, 781f
of knee, 315f, 316, 319t
ligamentum arteriosum, 719f,
1100f, 1103
ligamentum teres (round ligament),
313, 314f, 959f, 1100f, 1103
ligamentum venosum, 1100f, 1103
median umbilical, 1100f, 1103
nuchal, 255
ovarian, 1050, 1051f–1052f
palmar carpal, 365f
patellar, 281, 317i, 376f, 378f,
400f, 401f
periodontal, 296, 944, 945f
round
of liver. See ligamentum teres
of uterus, 1052f, 1055
of shoulder, 310–311, 312f, 318t
suspensory
of breast, 1057, 1057f–1058f
of lens, 613, 614f, 618, 618f
of ovary, 1050, 1051f–1052f, 1055f
of temporomandibular joint, 310,
311f, 318t
transverse, of atlas, 265, 266f
uterine, 1052f, 1054–1055
Ligand-regulated gates, 100, 457t,
463, 465
Ligands, 80
Light
focusing of, 616–617, 617f, 619f
properties of, 610
Light adaptation, 624
Lignin, 990
Limb
lower, 280–284, 285t, 286f,
286i–287i
upper, 273–277, 274f–276f,
278t, 287i
Limb buds, 1101t
Limbic system, 534
anatomy of, 534, 535f
autonomic effects of, 578
functions of, 534, 539
pain and, 590
respiration affected by, 859
thalamus, relationship to, 530, 530f
Limiting pH, 928
Lincoln, Abraham, 172i
Linea alba, 346, 348f–349f, 394f, 1072
Linea nigra, 1073
Linea semilunaris, 394f
Lines
of bones, 247f, 247t
flexion, 198, 398f–399f
nuchal, 250f, 255, 286f
temporal, 249f, 251
Lingual glands, 944
Lingual papillae, 944
Lingual tonsils, 593f, 806
Linoleic acid, 76f, 78i, 990
Linolenic acid, 990
Lipase
gastric, 952, 954, 955t
lingual, 946, 970
pancreatic, 962, 963t, 970
Lipids, 75–78
body content of, 990
dietary, 792i, 990
digestion and absorption of, 970,
972f, 973
functions of, 78t, 989t, 990
metabolism of, 1004–1005
in plasma membrane, 99–100, 99f
Lipofuscin, 446
Lipogenesis, 1004, 1005f, 1007t
Lipolysis, 1004–1005, 1005f, 1007t, 1008
Lipoprotein lipase, 991
Lipoproteins, 78i, 683t, 742i, 991–992,
991t, 992f, 1004t
Lipostat hypothesis, 986
Lipoxygenase, 664, 665f, 666i
Lips, 393f, 943–944
muscles of, 334, 334f–336f,
337t–338t
Lithotripsy, 904i, 962i
Liver
alcohol metabolism by, 1012i
anatomy of, 959–961, 959f–961f
bilirubin metabolism by, 692
blood clotting, role in, 704, 706t,
707i, 1004t
in calcitriol synthesis, 233, 233f,
652, 654t
cholesterol disposal by, 742i
diseases of, 198, 707i
as endocrine gland, 643, 652, 654t
failure, 1043i
fetal and neonatal, 1098–1099,
1100f, 1104
functions of, 117, 179–180, 1003,
1004t, 1006
in hemopoiesis, 685, 687f, 688
hormone clearance by, 661
and hypoproteinemia, 682i
iron metabolism by, 687f
lactic acid metabolism by, 998
lipid metabolism by, 991, 992f
location of, 44f, 50f, 959
in old age, 1112
peroxisomes in, 119
Lobes
cerebral, 531–532, 532f
hepatic, 959, 959f
lobules and, 180, 180f, 960, 960f
Local hormones. See Paracrines
Local potentials, 456–458, 457t
Location, sensory coding of, 586
Lochia, 1076
Lockjaw, 414i
Locus, gene, 150t
Loewi, Otto, 463
Long, Crawford W., 628i–629i
Long bones, general anatomy of,
219–220, 220f
Longevity, heritability of, 1113
Longitudinal fissure, cerebral, 516,
517f, 522f
Longitudinal sections, 160, 160f
Long (vagovagal) reflexes, 942, 957, 957f
Long-term potentiation, 474
Loop of Henle. See Nephron loop
Loose connective tissue, 168–169,
170f, 170t
Lordosis, 263i, 264f
Loudness, 598, 603
Lou Gehrig disease, 490i
Love, 539
Low-carbohydrate diets, 989
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), 78i,
112, 113f, 741i–742i, 991–992,
991t, 992f
Lower limb. See Foot; Leg; Tarsal
region; Thigh
Lumbar curvature, 263, 263f, 287i
Lumbar puncture, 521i
Lumbar region, 32
muscles of, 350f–352f, 353t
of spinal cord, 482, 483f
surface anatomy of, 33f, 395f
Lumpectomy, 1058
Lungs
anatomy of, 847–849, 850f
circulation to. See Circulation,
pulmonary
diseases of, 868–872; 870f
fetal and neonatal, 1099, 1103
histology of, 848–849, 851f
location and sectional views of, 44f,
45f, 46f, 49f
physiology of, 851–857, 860–868
Luteal phase, 1064t, 1066–1067
Lutein cells, 1066
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
functions of, 642, 645t
in male, 1030, 1031f, 1032
as neurotransmitter, 574
pituitary, secretion by, 641f, 642, 643f
in pregnancy, 1071
in puberty, 1058–1059
in sexual cycle, 1063f, 1065–1067,
1066f
T lymphocytes, secretion by, 833
Luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors,
662, 1064
Luteotropic hormone, 1066
Lymph, 800–801
flow of, 802, 804
Lymphadenitis, 806
Lymphadenopathy, 806
Lymphatic capillaries, 801, 801f
Lymphatic cells, 804
Lymphatic drainage, and edema, 763
Lymphatic ducts, 800f
Lymphatic nodules, 804, 805, 805f, 965
Lymphatic system, 799–808
disorders of, 832t
fluid recovery by, 800, 916, 917f
functions of, 800
interactions with other systems, 834
overview of, 41f, 800, 800f
Lymphatic vessels, 800f,
801–802, 802f
Lymph nodes
anatomy of, 804f–805f, 805–806
atrophy of, 833i
locations of, 800f, 804–805
plasma cells in, 822
reticular tissue of, 170f
Lymphoblasts, 686f
Lymphocytes. See also B cells;
Na+ - K+; T cells
appearance of, 174f, 681f, 699,
701f–702f, 701t, 805f
development of, 686f, 688, 816
in fibrous connective tissues, 167
function of, 809
in intestinal mucosa, 965
types of, 804, 817, 818–819, 826t
Lymphokines, 817, 821f
Lymphoma, 151t
Lymphotoxin, 820, 827t
Lysosomes, 98f, 119, 119f, 124t. See
also Acrosome
formation of, 140f, 140t
phagocytosis and, 112, 112f
size of, 97t
Lysozyme, 611, 809, 843

M
Macleod, J. J. R., 671i–672i
Macromolecules, 72
Macrophage-activating factor, 821f
Macrophages, 167, 810
alveolar, 810, 849, 852f
antigen-presenting function, 804,
817, 818f
cortisol, effect of, 833i
in healing, 184f, 186, 235,
453, 454f
hepatic, 810
in inflammation, 812t, 813
in lymphatic tissue, 804, 805f
in nervous tissue, 451, 453, 454f
in nonspecific defense, 199
origin of, 688
phagocytosis by, 112
stimulated by TH cells, 819
types of, 810
Macula densa, 885f, 890, 890f, 891f
Macula lutea, 612f, 615, 615f
Macula sacculi, 606
Macula utriculi, 606
Magnesium, 57t
in bone, 221
in neuronal function, 474
RDA and dietary sources of, 994, 994t
reabsorption of, 893f, 894
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 23i,
24f, 293f, 557
Magnification vs. resolution, 96, 96f
Major histocompatibility complex
(MHC), 817
proteins, 817, 818f, 819, 819t, 820f,
822, 827t
Malaria, 693t, 695
Male, 1018. See also Reproductive
system, male
genetic determination of, 1019
reference man, 16
Malignancy, 151i
Malignant melanoma, 209, 209f
Malleolus, 281, 283f, 317, 317f, 318f,
378f, 401f–405f
Malnutrition in elderly, 1112
Malocclusion, 310i
Maltase, 969
Maltose, 73, 74f, 75t, 969, 989
Mammary glands. See also Lactation
development in pregnancy,
1070–1071, 1076–1077
endocrine effects on, 642, 652
as integumentary glands, 207, 207t
Mammillary bodies, 525f, 530–531,
530f, 533f, 535f
Mammograms, 1058, 1059f
Manganese, 57t, 994, 994t
Mannitol, I.V. administration
of, 933i
Manus. See Hand
MAO. See Monoamine oxidase
Marfan syndrome, 169, 172i
Margination, 812, 814f
Mass movements, 976
Mass reflex reaction, 509i
Mast cells
in connective tissue, 167, 812, 814f
in inflammation, 812, 812t–813t, 814f
as paracrine cells, 664
stimulated by IgE, 825t, 828
Mastectomy, 1058, 1059f
Masters, William, 1037
Mastication. See Chewing
Mastoid notch, 250f
Mastoid process, 341f
Matrix
bone, 172, 174f, 221–223, 224f
cartilage, 172, 173f
mitochondrial, 120, 120f, 998
tissue, 158, 167–168
Maximum oxygen uptake, 429
Maximum voluntary ventilation, 856
Mean arterial blood pressure, 754
Measles, effect on WBC count, 701
Meatuses
acoustic, 249f, 250f, 252t, 254, 254f
of bones, 247t
Mechanical advantage, 308, 308f
Mechanical digestion, 940
Mechanical junctions, 726
Mechanically regulated gates, 100
Mechanoreceptors, 587, 591
Meconium, 1078, 1101t
Medial excursion, 304f, 305
Medial geniculate body, 525f
Medial lemniscus, 488f, 528
Medial rotation, 305f, 306
Median forebrain bundle (MFB), 540
Median plane, 31, 31f
Mediastinum, 36, 36f
Medical history essays. See also History
anesthesia, 627i–629i
animal electricity, 424i
Banting, Frederick, 671i–672i
Beaumont, William, 977i–978i
Becquerel, Henri, 58i, 222i
Best, Charles, 671i–672i
Medical history essays—Cont.
Blagden, Charles, 18i
Byers, Eben, 222i
Collip, J. B., 671i–672i
Crick, Francis, 132i
Curie, Marie, 58i–59i
Curie, Pierre, 58i
digestive physiology, 977i–978i
DNA, 130i, 132i
Drew, Charles, 694i–695i
Franklin, Rosalind, 132i
Gage, Phineas, 538i–539i
Galvani, Luigi, 424i
insulin discovery, 671i–672i
Joliot-Curie, Irène, 59i
Long, Crawford, 627i–629i
Macleod, J. J. R., 671i–672i
medical word origins, 20i–21i
Miescher, Johann Friedrich, 130i
Morton, William, 628i–629i
radioactivity, 58i–59i
radium tonic fad, 222i
St. Martin, Alexis, 977i–978i
sphenomandibularis muscle,
342i–343i
thermoregulation, 18i
Volta, Alessandro, 424i
Watson, James, 132i
Wells, Horace, 628i–629i
Medical illustration, history of, 3–4,
4f, 5f
Medical imaging methods, 22i–24i, 557i
Medulla oblongata
anatomy of, 524, 525f, 526
cerebellum, relationship to, 526,
527f, 543f
chemoreceptors in, 867
functional overview of, 526
location of, 516, 517f–518f
respiratory control centers of,
858–859, 858f
in taste, 594
and visceral reflexes, 565
Medullary cavity, 219, 220f, 226f
Medullary ischemic reflex, 759
Megakaryoblasts, 686f, 688
Megakaryocytes, 686f, 688, 688f
Megavitamins, 996
Meiosis
aneuploidy and, 1091
haploidy and, 146
in oogenesis, 1061, 1062f, 1064
in spermatogenesis, 1034, 1034f
stages of, 1032–1034, 1033f
Meissner corpuscle. See Tactile
corpuscle
Melanin, 150f, 196, 527
Melanocytes, 192, 193f, 1072
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
(MSH), 642
Melanoma, 151t
Melanopsin, 621
Melatonin, 646i, 653t, 654, 656
Membrane attack complex,
810, 811f
Membrane-coating vesicles, 194
Membrane potentials, 111, 175. See
also Action potentials; Electrical
potentials; Resting membrane
potential
Membrane skeleton, 120
Membranes
embryonic, 1097–1098, 1098f
mucous, 182, 182f
serous, 36, 37t, 182
synovial, 183, 299, 299f
Membrane transport, 80. See also
Sodium-glucose transport
protein; Sodium-potassium pump
active transport, 110–111, 895
primary, 111
secondary, 111, 111f, 894
carrier-mediated transport, 109, 109f
cotransport, 110, 970
countertransport, 110, 894
diffusion
facilitated, 110, 110f, 893
simple, 106–107, 106f, 761, 761f
endocytosis, 112, 112f, 817, 818f
exocytosis, 114, 114f, 180, 181f,
465, 467f, 1090, 1091f
filtration, 106, 107–108, 108f,
761–762, 761f
osmosis, 107–108, 108f–109f
in capillary fluid exchange,
761–762, 761f
among fluid compartments,
916, 917f
in renal tubule, 761–762, 761f,
894, 897
overview of mechanisms, 115t
phagocytosis, 112, 112f, 818f
pinocytosis, 112, 893f, 970
proteins, role in, 100–101, 101f
receptor-mediated endocytosis,
112–113, 113f, 113i
transcytosis, 113, 114f, 761, 761f
vesicular transport, 112–114,
112f–114f
Membranous labyrinth, 599, 600f
Membranous organelles, 116
Memory
brain centers for, 526, 531–532, 534,
539, 545f
consolidation of, 538, 539
declarative, 474
emotional, 539
immediate, 474
immune, 815–816, 819, 821, 825f, 826
long-term, 474
of motor skills, 539
in old age, 1110
procedural, 474
short-term, 474
synaptic mechanisms of, 473–474
trace (engram), 473
types of, 473–474
working, 474
Memory cells, 819, 821, 823f, 825f, 826,
826t–827t
Menarche, 1060
Mendel, Gregor, 130
Mendeleev, Dmitri, 1121
Mendelian heredity, 130
Meninges, 36, 37t
cerebral, 248, 519–521, 520f
spinal, 482–484, 484f
Meningitis, 509t, 521i
Menisci, 299, 310, 311f
of knee, 315f, 316, 316f
Menopause, 649, 1032, 1112
evolution of, 1060i
osteoporosis after, 239i
Menses, 1067
Menstrual cycle, 1061. See also Sexual
cycle
hormonal and endometrial changes
in, 1063f
mood changes in, 646i
phases of, 1067–1068
regulation by sex steroids, 652
sense of smell in, 594
Menstrual fluid, 1067
Menstrual phase, 1063–1064, 1063f,
1064t, 1067
Menstrual synchrony, 595i
Menstruation, 1060, 1062, 1063f. See
also Menarche
spinal cord injury, effect of, 509
Mental cleft, 334
Mental region, 336f, 393f
Mentum (chin), 393f
Mercury poisoning, 199i, 202i, 699, 907i
Merocrine sweat glands, 180, 181f, 205,
206f, 207t
Mesangial cells, 890, 890f
Mesencephalic aqueduct. See Cerebral
aqueduct
Mesencephalon, 519, 520f, 526
Mesenchyme, 158, 225, 1094
Mesenteries, 38, 50f–51f, 170f, 941, 943f
Mesocolon, 38, 941, 943f
Mesoderm, 158, 1093–1094,
1094f–1096f, 1099t
Mesonephric duct, 1019, 1020f
Mesonephros, 1020f
Mesosalpinx, 1050, 1052f, 1054, 1055f
Mesothelium, 183
Mesovarium, 1050, 1052f
Messenger RNA (mRNA), 134, 136,
137f, 139f
Metabolic clearance rate, 661
Metabolic pathways, 84
Metabolic rate, 647, 1008–1009
in old age, 1112
in pregnancy, 1071, 1072
in puberty, 1031
Metabolic wastes, 880. See also
Nitrogenous wastes
Metabolic water, 916
Metabolism, 16
absorptive and postabsorptive,
1007–1008
divisions of, 16, 70
energy transfer in, 70–71
of organic molecules, 996–1006
as property of life, 16
Metaphase
meiotic, 1032, 1033f, 1034
mitotic, 143, 144f
Metaphysis, 226f–227f, 227, 228, 234
Metaplasia, 183, 1055, 1060
Metarterioles, 750
Metastasis, 151i, 152i, 451i, 870–871
Metencephalon, 519, 520f
Methionine, 79f
Methyl group, 72, 72f
Methylprednisolone, 509
MHC. See Major histocompatibility
complex
Micelles, 970, 972f
Microfilaments, 98f, 120, 122f, 124t
Microglia, 450t, 451, 451f, 517, 810
Microscopes
electron, 96–97
light, 4–6, 5f–6f, 97t
magnification and resolution of,
96–97, 96f, 97t
Microscopic anatomy, 158. See also
Histology
Microtubules, 98f, 105, 120, 121,
122f–123f, 124t
Microvilli, 97t, 98f, 102f, 103, 104f,
123t, 964
Micturition, 905–906
Midbrain
anatomy of, 526–528, 528f
in brainstem anatomy, 516,
517f–518f, 525f
embryonic, 519, 520f
functional overview of, 526–528
in hearing, 606
pain, role in, 591
spinal tracts and, 488f, 489
in vision, 616, 627
Midclavicular line, 32, 35f
Middle ear, 236, 598–599, 599f, 602
infections of, 599i
Miescher, Johann Friedrich, 130i
Mifespristone, 1081i
Migraine headache, 556t, 564i
Migrating motor complex, 967
Milk, 140t
physical characteristics of, 65, 65f,
66, 66t
secretion of, 114, 119, 1077
Milliequivalents, 67
Mind-body connection, 14, 833i
Mineralization, 218
Mineralocorticoids, 648
Minerals
in bone, 221–222
dietary, 989t, 994t
functions of, 56, 989t, 994
intestinal absorption of, 973
Minute respiratory volume, 856, 1111
Mitochondria, 98f
aerobic respiration in, 85, 86f,
998–1002, 999f
of cardiac muscle, 433, 727
cristae of, 120
electron micrographs of, 93f,
119f, 985f
matrix of, 120, 120f, 998–1000
of senescent muscle, 1109
size of, 97t
of skeletal muscle, 409, 410f, 430, 430t
of smooth muscle, 435
of sperm, 1035, 1090
structure of, 120, 120f, 124t
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), 124i
Mitochondrial electron-transport chain,
1000, 1000f
Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy,
lactic acidosis, and strokelike
episodes (MELAS), 125i
Mitochondrial Eve, 124i
Mitochondrial evolution, 124i–125i
Mitochondrial myopathy, 124i
Mitosis, 142f, 143, 144f, 1032, 1067
Mitotic spindle, 143, 145f
Mitral cells, 595f, 596
Mitral valve, 722, 722f
prolapse, 723i
Mittelschmerz, 1066i
Mixed glands, 180
Mixed nerves, 492
Mixtures, 63
Modality, sensory coding for, 586
Model animals, 10
Moiety, 75
Molarity 66, 67f
Mole
chemical mass, 66
epidermal, 198
Molecular formulae, 61
Molecular genetics, 130
Molecular motors, 82, 101, 101f, 143
Molecular weight, 61, 107
Molecules, 61
Molybdenum, 57t, 994t
Monkeys, 10f, 11, 12f, 204, 286i. See
also Apes
Monoamine oxidase (MAO), 468,
574, 580i
inhibitors, 475i, 580i
Monoamines
depression and, 580i
as hormones, 654, 655t
as neurotransmitters, 464,
465f, 466t
synthesis of, 656–657
Monoblasts, 686f
Monocytes
appearance of, 174f, 681f, 699, 701t,
701f–702f
atherosclerosis, role in, 741i
in connective tissues, 167
formation of, 686f
function of, 810
macrophages, transformation to, 688
Monokines, 817
Monomers, 72, 73f
Monosaccharides, 73, 74f, 75t
Monosynaptic reflex arc, 505
Mons pubis, 33f, 43f, 1055, 1056f, 1060
Mood, cerebral center for, 531
Mood disorders, 646i
Morning after pill, 1081i
Morning sickness, 1072
Morphine, 590
Morton, William, 628i–629i
Morula, 1091, 1092f, 1093, 1099t
Motivation, cerebral center for, 531, 539
Motor association area, 542
Motor control in brain, 526, 531, 534,
542, 542f–543f, 544
Motor end plate, 414, 415f, 416t, 505f
Motor homunculus, 542, 542f
Motor nerves, 492, 547
Motor neurons, 490i, 446, 446f, 505
upper and lower, 489, 489f, 542
Motor pathways, 489, 489f
Motor protein, 449
Motor skills, 542
Motor units
asynchronous function of, 425
muscle fiber types in, 430
recruitment of, 424f, 431
senescence of, 1109
size and strength of, 412–413, 431
in smooth muscle, 433
structure of, 412, 414f
Mouth. See Buccal cavity; Oral region
Mouthfeel, 594
Movement
of joints, 302–310, 303f–309f
learned, 542
as property of life, 16, 408
Mucociliary escalator, 846, 848f
Mucopolysaccharides. See
Proteoglycans
Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue
(MALT), 804
Mucosae. See Mucous membranes
Mucous cells of stomach, 952, 953f, 955t
Mucous glands, 180
Mucous membranes, 182, 182f, 809
Mucus, 180
antibodies in, 825t
as barrier to infection, 809
cervical, 1066i
of digestive tract, 952, 955t,
956, 1012i
Müllerian-inhibiting factor, 1019, 1050
Multinucleate cells, 116
Multipara, 1074
Multiple alleles, 148
Multiple-gene inheritance, 148, 150t
Multiple motor unit (MMU)
summation, 424, 431
Multiple sclerosis, 453i, 506
Multipolar neurons, 447f–448f, 448
Multipotent cells, 186i
Multiunit smooth muscle,
433, 433f
Mumps, effect on WBC count, 701
Muscarinic receptors, 574,
575f, 579i
Muscle atrophy, 183, 412, 453, 454f,
455, 490i, 1109–1110
Muscle cells, size of, 408, 432t
Muscle fibers, 176, 408f. See also
Skeletal muscle tissue
Muscles, specific
abdominal oblique, internal and
external, 332f–333f, 346,
347f–351f, 347t, 360f, 394f,
397f, 493, 853
abductor digiti minimi
of foot, 377, 378f, 384t, 385f, 405f
of hand, 370f, 371t
abductor hallucis, 377, 384t, 385f,
402f, 405f
abductor pollicis brevis,
370f, 371t
abductor pollicis longus, 364t, 366,
368f, 369t
adductor brevis, 372t, 373, 373f,
376f, 383f
adductor hallucis, 377, 384t, 385f
adductor longus, 332f, 372t, 373,
373f, 376f–377f, 383f
adductor magnus, 333f, 373, 373f,
373t, 376f–377f, 383f
adductor pollicis, 366, 370f,
371t, 399f
anal sphincters, 351, 354t, 355f
anconeus, 361, 361t, 362t,
367f–368f
arytenoid, 845f
auricularis, 10i
biceps brachii, 332f, 357, 359f–360f,
361t–362t
as antagonist of triceps brachii,
328–329, 328f
in cross section of arm, 367f
in elbow biomechanics, 308, 308f
fast glycolytic fibers of, 430, 430t
as forearm rotator, 363f
as fusiform muscle, 328, 329f
shoulder joint and, 311, 312f
in surface anatomy, 395f,
397f–398f
biceps femoris, 333f, 374, 375t,
377f–378f
in cross section of thigh, 383f
in surface anatomy, 400f–401f
brachialis, 357, 359f, 361t–362t
in cross section of arm, 367f
as synergist of biceps brachii,
328, 328f
brachioradialis, 332f, 357, 359f,
361t–362t, 368f
in cross section of forearm, 367f
in surface anatomy, 395f, 398f
buccinator, 334, 335, 336f, 338t, 341f
bulbocavernosus, 1039f, 1041
bulbospongiosus (bulbocavernosus),
351, 354t, 355f
ciliary, 571, 618, 618f
coccygeus, 351, 354t, 355f
coracobrachialis, 356, 358t, 359f,
361t, 367f
corrugator supercilii, 334, 335f,
336f, 337t
cremaster, 1027, 1027f
cricoarytenoid, 847f
dartos, 1027, 1027f
deltoid, 332f–333f, 350f, 356, 358t,
359f–360f, 361t
in cross section of arm, 367f
as multipennate muscle, 328, 329f
as site of drug injections, 369i
in surface anatomy, 394f–395f,
398f
depressor anguli oris (triangularis),
334, 334f–336f, 338t
depressor labii inferioris, 334,
334f–336f, 338t
diaphragm, 36, 44f, 47f, 49f–50f,
345–346, 345f, 346t,
852–853
breathing, role in, 345–346,
852–853, 854f, 858, 858f
hiatal hernia of, 352
digastric, 339t, 340, 341f–342f
in jaw biomechanics, 308f–309f,
309
erector spinae, 333f, 347, 350f–352f
in back injuries, 349i–350i
in deep breathing, 852
slow oxidative fibers in, 430t
in surface anatomy, 395f
extensor carpi radialis brevis and
longus, 364t, 367f–368f, 369t
in surface anatomy, 398f
extensor carpi ulnaris, 364t,
367f–368f, 369t, 398f
extensor digiti minimi, 364t,
367f–368f
extensor digitorum, 333f, 364t, 366,
367f–368f, 369t, 398f
extensor digitorum brevis, 377,
378f, 380f, 384t, 403f–404f
extensor digitorum longus, 332f,
374, 378f, 378t, 380f, 383f
extensor hallucis brevis, 380f
extensor hallucis longus, 374, 375,
378t, 380f, 383f
extensor indicis, 364t, 368f, 369t
extensor pollicis brevis and longus,
364t, 366, 368f, 369t
fibularis brevis, 375, 378f, 379t,
380f–383f
fibularis longus, 332f–333f, 375,
378f, 379t, 380f–383f
in surface anatomy, 401f, 403f
fibularis tertius, 375, 378t, 380f
flexor carpi radialis, 332f, 361t,
363t, 368f, 369t
in cross section of forearm, 367f
in surface anatomy, 398f
flexor carpi ulnaris, 333f, 363t,
368f, 369t
in cross section of forearm, 367f
pisiform bone and, 275
in surface anatomy, 395f, 398f
flexor digiti minimi brevis
of foot, 377, 384t, 385f
of hand, 370f, 371t
flexor digitorum brevis, 377, 384t, 385f
flexor digitorum longus, 375, 379t,
381f–383f
flexor digitorum profundus, 300f,
364t, 367f–368f, 369t
flexor digitorum superficialis, 300f,
363t, 367f–368f, 369t
flexor hallucis brevis, 377,
384t, 385f
flexor hallucis longus, 367f, 379t,
381f–383f
flexor pollicis brevis, 370f, 371t
flexor pollicis longus, 300f, 364t,
368f, 369t
frontalis, 332f, 334, 334f–336f, 337t
gastrocnemius
anatomy of, 333f, 375, 378f,
379t, 381f
in cross section of leg, 383f
fast glycolytic fibers in, 430,
430t, 431
as fusiform muscle, 328
motor units of, 412
in surface anatomy, 401f–403f
gemellus inferior and superior,
372t, 374f
genioglossus, 337, 339t, 341f
geniohyoid, 337, 340, 340t, 341f
gluteus maximus, 333f, 350f, 355f,
369, 372t, 377f
adaptation to bipedalism, 286i
in lifting, 349i–350i
strength of, 431
in surface anatomy, 395f
gluteus medius, 333f, 350f, 369,
369i, 372t, 377f, 395f
gluteus minimus, 369, 372t, 374f
gracilis, 332f–333f, 373, 373f, 373t,
376f–377f
in cross section of thigh, 383f
in surface anatomy, 400f
hamstrings
anatomy of, 374, 375t, 377f
injury to, 386i
in lifting, 349i
in stretch reflex, 506, 506f
in surface anatomy, 395f, 403f
hyoglossus, 337, 339t, 341f–342f
hypothenar group, 365f, 366, 370f
iliacus, 279, 369, 372t, 373f, 376f
iliocostalis, 347, 351f–352f, 353t
iliopsoas, 369, 372t, 373f, 374,
376f–377f
inferior longitudinal, of tongue, 341f
infrahyoid group, 337, 340t, 342f,
846, 948
infraspinatus, 333f, 350f,
359f–361f, 361t
in rotator cuff, 311, 356, 358t
in surface anatomy, 395f
intercostal, external and internal,
327, 345f, 346, 346t, 348, 352f
breathing, role in, 852–853,
858, 858f
in relation to breast, 1057f
interosseous
of foot, 377, 384t, 385f
of hand, 328, 329f, 366,
370f, 371t
ischiocavernosus, 350, 354t, 355f,
1029, 1039f, 1041
Muscles, specific—Cont.
laryngeal, 846, 847f
lateral rotators, 369, 372t
latissimus dorsi, 333f, 348f, 350f, 352f,
356, 358t, 359f–360f, 361t
in surface anatomy, 395f, 397f
levator anguli oris, 334,
335f–336f, 337t
levator ani, 351, 354t, 355f, 977, 1041
levator labii superioris, 334,
334f–336f, 337t
levator palpebrae superioris, 334,
335f, 337t
levator scapulae, 333f, 336f, 342f,
350f, 356, 356f, 357t
longissimus group, 344f, 347,
351f–352f, 353t
lumbrical
of foot, 377, 384t, 385f
of hand, 300f, 366, 370f, 371t
masseter, 332f, 334f, 336f, 337,
339t, 341f
mentalis, 334, 335f–336f, 338t
midpalmar group, 366, 370f
multifidus, 349, 351f, 353t
mylohyoid, 337, 340, 340t,
341f–342f
nasalis, 334, 334f–336f, 337t
oblique, of eye, 611, 612f
obturator externus and internus,
372t, 373f–374f
occipitalis, 333f, 334, 337t, 336f
occipitofrontalis, 334, 337t
omohyoid, 336f, 337, 340t, 342f
opponens digiti minimi, 369t,
370f, 371t
opponens pollicis, 369t, 370f, 371t
orbicularis oculi, 332f, 334, 334f,
336f, 337t, 611f
as circular muscle, 328, 329f
in facial expression, 335f
orbicularis oris, 332f, 334, 334f,
336f, 337t, 341f
as circular muscle, 328, 329f
in facial expression, 335f
palatoglossus, 337, 339t, 341f
palmar interosseous, 366
palmaris longus, 14, 363t,
367f–368f, 369t, 398f
papillary, 718f, 721f, 722, 729
pectinate, 721, 721f
pectineus, 373, 373f, 373t,
376f–377f
pectoralis major, 271, 329f, 332f,
348f–349f, 356, 358t,
359f–360f, 361t
as convergent muscle, 328, 329f
in cross section of arm, 367f
in relation to breast,
1057f–1058f
in surface anatomy, 394f,
397f–398f
pectoralis minor, 332f, 348f, 356,
356f, 357t, 852
in relation to breast, 1057f
perineus, deep and superficial
transverse, 351, 354t, 355f
peroneus. See under fibularis
pharyngeal constrictors, 336f, 339t,
340, 341f, 948
piriformis, 355f, 372t, 373f–374f
plantaris, 14, 375, 379t, 381f
platysma, 332f, 334f, 335,
335f–336f, 338t
popliteus, 316, 375, 375t, 381f–382f
procerus, 334, 334f–336f, 337t
pronator quadratus, 361, 361t–362t,
363f, 368f
pronator teres, 361, 361t–362t, 363f,
367f–368f
psoas major, 369, 372t, 373f, 376f
pterygoids, 337, 339t, 341f
pupillary constrictor, 571
quadratus femoris, 372t, 373, 375t
quadratus lumborum, 349, 351f,
353t, 430t
quadratus plantae, 377, 384t, 385f
quadriceps femoris, 373–374, 375t,
376f–377f
in cross section of thigh, 383f
in knee joint, 314, 315f
muscle fiber types in, 430, 430t
strength of, 431
in stretch reflex, 506, 506f
in surface anatomy, 400f
rectus, of eye, 611, 612f
rectus abdominis, 332f, 346,
347f–349f, 347t
in deep breathing, 853
as parallel muscle, 328, 329f
in surface anatomy, 394f, 397f
rectus femoris, 332f, 373–374, 375t,
376f–377f
as bipennate muscle, 328, 329f
in cross section of thigh, 383f
in surface anatomy, 400f
rhomboideus major and minor,
333f, 350f, 356, 356f,
357t, 360f
risorius, 334, 335f–336f, 338t
sartorius, 332f, 374, 375t, 376f–377f
in cross section of thigh, 383f
as parallel muscle, 328, 329f
strength of, 431
scalenes, 342f, 343, 343t, 852
semimembranosus, 333f, 374,
375t, 377f
in cross section of thigh, 383f
in knee joint, 314
in surface anatomy, 400f, 402f
as unipennate muscle, 328
semispinalis group, 343t, 344–345,
344f, 349, 350f–351f, 353t
semitendinosus, 333f, 374, 375t,
377f, 383f, 400f
serratus anterior, 332f–333f, 348f,
350f, 356, 356f, 357t, 360f
in surface anatomy, 394f, 397f
serratus posterior inferior and
superior, 333f, 347,
350f–351f, 353t
soleus, 332f–333f, 375, 378f, 379t,
380f–381f
in cross section of leg, 383f
slow oxidative fibers in, 429,
430t, 431
in surface anatomy,
401f–403f, 405f
sphenomandibularis, 342i–343i
spinalis group, 347, 351f–352f, 353t
splenius group, 333f, 342f, 343t,
344–345, 350f–351f
stapedius, 599, 602, 605f
sternocleidomastoid, 332f–334f,
336f, 342f, 343, 343t,
344f, 350f
in deep breathing, 852
in surface anatomy, 394f
sternohyoid, 336f, 337, 340t, 342f
sternothyroid, 336f, 337, 340t,
342, 342f
styloglossus, 337, 339t, 341f
stylohyoid, 337, 340, 340t,
341f–342f
subclavius, 348f
subscapularis, 356, 358t, 359f,
361f, 361t
in rotator cuff, 311, 356, 358t
supinator, 361, 361t–362t, 363f,
367f–368f
suprahyoid group, 337, 339t–340t,
342f
supraspinatus, 333f, 350f, 359f,
361f, 361t
in rotator cuff, 311, 356,
358t, 386i
tables of, 337t–340t, 343t, 346t–347t,
353t–354t, 357t–358t,
362t–364t, 371t–373t, 375t,
378t–379t, 384t
temporalis, 251, 336f, 338, 339t, 341f
in jaw biomechanics,
309–310, 309f
tensor fasciae latae, 332f, 369, 372t,
373, 376f–377f
in surface anatomy, 400f
tensor tympani, 599f, 602, 605f
teres major, 333f, 350f, 356, 358t,
359f–360f, 361t, 367f
in surface anatomy, 395f
teres minor, 333f, 350f, 356, 359f,
361f, 361t
in rotator cuff, 311, 356, 358t
thenar group, 365f, 366, 370f
thyrohyoid, 336f, 337, 340, 340t, 342f
tibialis anterior, 332f, 375, 378f,
378t, 380f
in cross section of leg, 383f
in surface anatomy, 401f,
403f, 405f
tibialis posterior, 375, 379t,
382f–383f, 386i
trabecular, 1029, 1038f, 1039, 1041
trachealis, 846, 848f
transverse perineus, deep and
superficial, 351,
354t, 355f
transversus abdominis, 332f, 346,
347f–348f, 347t, 493, 853
trapezius, 332f–333f, 342f, 343t,
344, 344f, 350f, 352f, 356,
356f, 357t
in surface anatomy, 393f–395f,
398f
triceps brachii, 333f, 357,
359f–360f, 361t–362t
as antagonist of biceps brachii,
328f, 329
in cross section of arm, 367f
in surface anatomy, 395f,
397f–398f
triceps surae, 375
urethral sphincters, 351, 354t, 355f
vastus intermedius, 373, 375t,
376f, 383f
vastus lateralis, 332f, 373, 375t,
376f–377f
in cross section of thigh, 383f
as site of drug injections, 369i
in surface anatomy, 400f–401f
vastus medialis, 332f, 373, 375t,
376f–377f
in cross section of thigh, 383f
in surface anatomy, 400f
zygomaticus major and minor, 328,
332f, 334, 334f–336f, 337t
Muscles in general
attachments of, 326
circular, 328, 329f
circulation to, 766
connective tissues of, 326–327,
327f, 408–409
convergent, 328, 329f
excitability of, 231
extrinsic, 329
fatigue of. See Fatigue
functions of, 326
fusiform, 328, 329f
injuries to, 349i–350i, 383, 386i
innervation of, 329, 432t, 433–434,
433f–434f
intrinsic, 329
metabolism of, 427–431, 428f, 430t
naming of, 330, 331t
parallel, 328, 329f
pennate, 328, 329f
perfusion of, in old age, 1110
soreness of, 436t
strength of, 431
tension in, 423–426, 424f–426f
Muscle spindle, 504, 505f, 589t
Muscle tone, 423, 435, 542
Muscle twitch, 423–425, 423f–425f,
429–430
Muscular arteries, 749f, 750
Muscular dystrophy (MD), 82i, 437i
Muscularis externa, 941, 942f, 966f
Muscularis mucosae, 182, 182f, 941,
942f, 953f
Muscular system, 325–390
interaction with other systems, 387
overview of, 40f, 332f–333f
senescence of, 1109–1110
Muscular tissue, 159t, 175–177, 177f,
407–441
Muslim medicine, 4
Mustard gas poisoning, 693t
Mutagens, 151i, 1105
Mutations, 16, 142, 229i, 988i
in HIV, 831
Myasthenia gravis, 437f, 437i, 828
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 871t
Mycoplasma hominis, 1042i
Myelencephalon, 519, 520f, 524
Myelin, 447, 450, 451f. See also Nerve
fibers, myelinated
diseases of, 453i
sheath, 451–453, 451f–452f
Myelinated nerve fibers, 451–453,
451f–452f
Myeloblasts, 686f
Myelocytes, 686f
Myeloid tissue. See Red bone marrow
Myenteric plexus, 563f, 941, 942f, 948
Myoblasts, 409
Myocardial infarction (MI), 724, 725i,
732t, 1111
free radicals and, 60
referred pain in, 590, 591f
Myocardium, 718f, 720, 720f–721f
Myocytes, 432–433
cardiac, 176, 726–727, 726f
Myoepithelial cells, 206, 615,
1077, 1078f
Myofibrils, 409, 410f, 412f, 413t, 431
Myofilaments, 409, 412f, 413t
Myoglobin, 413t, 688
in cardiac muscle, 433, 727
in renal tubules, 907i
in senescent muscle, 1109
in skeletal muscle, 409, 427, 428f,
429–430, 430t
Myogram, 423, 423f, 424
Myokinase, 427, 428f
Myology, 326
Myometrium, 1052f, 1053, 1054, 1074
Myopia, 619f, 619t
Myosin, 101, 120, 409, 411f, 413t, 417
Myosin ATPase, 417, 419, 424, 435
Myosin light-chain kinase, 432t, 435
Myositis, 436t
Myotatic reflex, 504
Myotonia, 1040, 1068
Myxedema, 667, 670t

N
Na+-Ca2+ antiport, 973
NAD. See Nicotinamide adenine
dinucleotide
an-Nafis, Ibn, 716
Nails, 204–205, 205f, 205t
Na+-K+ ATPase. See Sodiumpotassium
pump
Nares, 255, 842, 843f–844f
Nasal cavity, 48f, 246, 251f, 257f,
842, 847i
Nasal choanae, 250f, 255, 256f–257f
Nasal conchae, 843, 844f
Nasal epithelium, 183
Nasal fossae, 843
Nasal meatuses, 843, 844f
Nasal region, 393f
Nasal septum, 259, 843
Nasolacrimal duct, 611, 611f
Nasopharynx, 844f, 845
Natal cleft, 395f
Natural killer (NK) cells, 809, 810, 819,
826t, 833i
Natural selection, 9
Neanderthals, 11, 516
Near point of vision, 618
Near response, 617, 617f
Neck
external anatomy of, 393f
muscles of, 342f, 343–345, 343t, 344f
surface anatomy of, 393
triangles of, 343, 344f
Necrosis, 183. See also Gangrene;
Infarction
endometrial, 1067
in spinal cord injury, 509
Negative feedback inhibition, 645–646
Negative feedback loops, 17, 17f–18f.
See also Homeostasis
in acid-base balance, 868, 928
in blood pressure regulation,
758–759, 890–891, 892f
in calcium homeostasis, 232–233, 234f
in cell volume, 111
in electrolyte balance, 923f
in erythropoiesis, 685, 687f
in gastric secretion and motility,
957, 958f
in glomerular filtration,
889–891, 891f
in hypoxemia, 685, 687f
in pulmonary ventilation, 862, 863f
in renal function, 891f
in respiration, 863f
in thermoregulation, 17–18,
17f–18f, 1010–1011
in water balance, 918–919, 919f
Negative selection of immune cells, 817
Negative water balance, 919, 921t
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 1042i
Neocortex, 533, 534f
Neonate, 1070. See also Infant
adaptations to independence, 1103
clinical assessment of, 262i, 1103i
congenital disorders of, 1104–1107
hemolytic disease of, 693t,
697–698, 698f
HIV infection of, 1104
immunity in, 822, 825t, 1077, 1103
premature, 1103–1104
skull of, 260, 260f
spinal curvature of, 263, 263f
transitional period of, 1101
Neoplasia, 183. See also Cancer
Neoplasms, 151i
Nephron loop, 883, 884f
as countercurrent multiplier,
898, 899f
evolution of, 897i
water and electrolyte reabsorption
by, 895–896, 900f
Nephrons, 882–885, 884f
destruction of, 889, 1111
Nephroptosis, 882, 907t
Nephrosclerosis, 889
Nephrotic syndrome, 907t
Nerve cells. See Neurons
Nerve cords, 498t
Nerve divisions, 498t
Nerve fascicles, 481f, 491, 491f
Nerve fibers, 175, 481f, 491f
axonal transport in, 449
classification of, 492, 492t
infection via, 449
myelinated, 447f, 452–453, 452f,
461–462, 462f
for pain, 587, 588, 589–591,
590f–591f
in reflex arcs, 504, 505f–508f
regeneration of, 449,
453–455, 454f
signal conduction in, 460–462,
461f–462f
unmyelinated, 453,
460–461, 461f
Nerve growth factor, 185,
455i, 475i
Nerve roots, 498t
Nerves, specific
abducens (cranial nerve VI), 526,
548f, 552f, 552t, 605f, 606,
608, 611, 612f
accessory (cranial nerve XI), 339t,
343t, 357t, 526, 548f, 555f,
555t, 608
ansa cervicalis, 340, 340t, 497f, 497t
axillary, 358t, 498f, 498t
cardiac, 570, 738
cervical, 343t
coccygeal, 502t
cochlear, 599f–600f, 601, 604
common peroneal, 375t
cutaneous, 496f
deep peroneal, 378t, 384t
dorsal, of penis, 1030f, 1039
dorsal scapular, 357t, 498f
facial (cranial nerve VII), 337t–340t,
526, 548f, 552f, 552t, 571,
579, 594, 947, 948
femoral, 44f, 372t–373t, 375t,
500f, 500t
fibular, 500f, 502f, 502t
genitofemoral, 500f, 500t
glossopharyngeal (cranial nerve IX),
553f, 553t
baroreflex, involvement in, 553t,
565, 565f
medulla, relationship to, 526,
548f, 579
parasympathetic fibers of, 571
respiration, role in, 553t, 867
reticular formation, relationship
to, 579
salivation and swallowing, role
in, 339t, 553t, 947, 948
taste, role in, 553t, 594
gluteal, 372t, 501t, 502f
great auricular, 497f, 497t
hypoglossal (cranial nerve XII),
339t–340t, 497f, 526, 548f,
555t, 555f, 948
iliohypogastric, 347t, 500f, 500t
ilioinguinal, 347t, 500f, 500t
intercostal, 346t–347t, 353t, 493,
496f, 858
internal obturator, to, 501t
internal pudendal, 1039
lateral femoral cutaneous, 500f, 500t
lateral plantar, 384t
lesser occipital, 497f, 497t
lingual, 594
long thoracic, 357t, 498f
lumbar, 353t
medial antebrachial cutaneous, 498f
medial brachial cutaneous, 498f
medial plantar, 384t
median, 362t–364t, 365f, 371t,
498f, 499t
meningeal nerve, 493, 495f
musculocutaneous, 358t, 362t,
498f, 499t
obturator, 372t–373t, 500f, 500t
oculomotor (cranial nerve III), 337t,
527, 527f, 548f, 550f, 550t,
571, 579, 608, 611, 612f, 616
olfactory (cranial nerve I), 548f–549f,
549t, 595f, 596
optic (cranial nerve II), 489,
548f–549f, 549t, 612, 612f
ovarian, 1050
pectoral, 357t–358t, 498f
pelvic, 572f, 573, 905, 906f
pelvic splanchnic, 573
perforating cutaneous, 501t
phrenic, 346t, 497f, 497t, 499f, 852,
853, 858
piriformis, to, 501t
plantar, 500f
posterior cutaneous, 501t, 502f
pudendal, 354t, 500f, 502f, 502t, 906f
quadratus femoris, to, 501t
radial, 362t, 364t, 494i, 498f, 498t
renal, 886
sacral, 354t, 372t
saphenous, 500f, 500t
sciatic, 494i, 500f, 502f
splanchnic, 567f, 569, 569f, 570,
571t, 572f
subclavian, 498f–499f
subscapular, 358t, 498f
superficial peroneal, 379t
supraclavicular, 497f, 497t
suprascapular, 358t, 498f
sympathetic, 569–570
testicular, 1024
thoracic, 353t
thoracodorsal, 358t, 498f
tibial, 373t, 375t, 379t, 500f,
501t, 502f
transverse cervical, 497f, 497t
trigeminal (cranial nerve V),
551f, 551t
muscles innervated by,
339t–340t
olfaction, role in, 596
pons, relationship to, 526, 548f
in somesthetic senses, 589, 590
swallowing, role in, 948
in tympanic reflex, 605f, 606
trochlear (cranial nerve IV), 527,
548f, 550f, 550t, 608,
611, 612f
tympanic, 571, 573
ulnar, 363t–364t, 365f, 371t,
498f, 499t
vagus (cranial nerve X), 554f, 554t
acetylcholine from, discovery
of, 463
baroreflex, role in, 565, 565f
in cadaver, 499f, 567f
cardiac effects of, 728,
738, 740
digestive system, effects on,
339t, 942, 957–958,
957f, 963
medulla, relationship to, 526,
548f, 579
in parasympathetic nervous
system, 573
respiration, role in, 859, 867
in somesthetic senses, 589
vestibular, 599f–600f, 608
vestibulocochlear (cranial nerve
VIII), 526, 548f, 553f, 553t,
604, 605f, 608
Nerve signal, 416
vs. action potential, 460
cessation of, 467–468
conduction of, 460–461, 461f–462f
speed of, 453, 461
synaptic transmission of,
465–467, 467f
Nerves in general, 444, 490
anatomy of, 481f, 490–492, 490f
classification of, 492
disorders of. See Neuropathy
injuries to, 453, 494i
vs. nerve fibers, 490
senescence of, 1108
in tissue sections, 750f
Nerve trunks, 498t
Nervous system, 443–633. See also
Central nervous system; Nerves;
Neurons; Peripheral nervous
system; Sense organs
divisions of, 444–445, 444f
interactions with other systems, 581
overview of, 40f, 444–445, 444f
senescence of, 1110
Nervous tissue, 159t, 175, 176f
Net filtration pressure, 761f, 762
Net protein utilization, 993
Net reabsorption pressure, 761f, 762
Neural coding, 470–471, 471f
Neural crest, 519, 519f, 648
Neural fold, 517, 519f
Neuralgia, 509t, 556i
Neural groove, 517
Neural integration, 444, 468–474,
469f–473f
Neural plate, 517, 519f
Neural tube, 517, 519f
Neurilemma, 452, 452f, 453
Neuroectoderm, 517
Neuroendocrine cells, 637
Neuroendocrine reflexes, 644
Neurofibrillary tangles, 475f, 475i, 1110
Neurofibrils, 446, 447f
Neuroglia, 175, 449–451, 450t, 451f,
517, 524
Neurohypophysis, 638–639, 641f
Neuroimmunology, 833i
Neuromodulators, 464, 468, 591, 666t
Neuromuscular junction, 407f,
413–414, 414f–415f, 416t, 422,
437i, 574
Neuromuscular toxins, 414i
Neuronal circuits, 472–473, 473f,
507, 507f
Neuronal convergence, 569, 620–621, 624
Neuronal divergence, 569, 571
Neuronal pools, 472, 472f
Neurons, 175
anaxonic, 448f, 449
bipolar, 448, 448f
classes of, 446, 446f, 448
excitability of, 175, 231, 445,
924f, 925
multipolar, 448, 448f
number of, 450
unipolar, 448, 448f, 449
Neuropathy, 125i, 365i–366i, 493i, 509t,
556i, 589, 670
Neuropeptides, 464, 465, 465f,
466t, 468
Neuropeptide Y, 574, 833i, 955, 986
Neuropharmacology, 579i
Neurosyphilis, 506, 1043i
Neurotensin, 574
Neurotransmitter receptors,
adrenergic, 574–575, 575f,
576t–577t
cholinergic, 414, 574, 575f
in neuromuscular junction, 414
synaptic location of, 463, 464f, 467f
Neurotransmitters
absorption by astrocytes, 450, 468
of autonomic nervous system, 574,
574t, 575f
classification of, 464–465,
465f, 466t
deficiencies in, 475, 580i
discovery of, 463
enzymatic degradation of, 414, 414i,
422, 468, 574, 580i
muscle, action on, 414, 417, 418f, 434
secretion of, 445, 465, 467f
synaptic action of, 465–467, 467f
synaptic reuptake of, 468, 580i
Neurovascular bundle, 750f
Neutrons, 57
Neutrophilia, 813
Neutrophils
appearance of, 174f, 681f, 699, 700f,
700t, 702f
in connective tissues, 167
formation of, 686f
function of, 809
inflammation, role in, 812t, 813
phagocytosis by, 112
stimulated by TH cells, 819
Newborn. See Neonate
Niacin. See Nicotinic acid
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
(NAD), 84, 996–1000, 997f,
1002, 1002f
Nicotine, 524, 792i
Nicotinic acid (niacin), 84
as NAD precursor, 996
RDA and dietary sources of, 995t
synthesis of, 995
Nicotinic receptors, 574, 575f
Nifedipine in treating hypertension,
793i
Night vision, 620, 624, 625f, 1110
Nipple, 394f
Nissl bodies, 446, 447f, 454f
Nitrates in urine, 894
Nitric oxide, 468, 664
atherosclerosis and, 742i
in penile erection, 1040, 1040i
vasomotor effect, 757, 1040
Nitrogen, 57f, 57t
atmospheric, 860, 860t
balance, 993
in decompression sickness, 872i
narcosis, 872i
Nitrogenous bases, 85, 130, 131f
Nitrogenous wastes, 684, 880–881,
881f, 894
plasma concentrations of, 683t
Nitroglycerin, 716
Nitrous oxide, as anesthetic,
628i, 629i
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)
receptors, 474
Nobel Prizes, 59, 102, 132i, 137, 222i,
672i, 694, 978i
Nociceptors, 587, 588, 589–590, 589t
Nocturnal emission, 1031
Nodal rhythm, 728, 732f
Nodes of Ranvier, 447f, 453, 461
Nomina Anatomica, 20
Nondisjunction, 1105, 1105f
Nongonococcal urethritis, 1042i
Nonhistones, 130
Nonkeratinized epithelium, 161,
164f, 164t
Nonshivering thermogenesis, 1011
Nonspecific resistance, 808–815
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
(NSAIDs), 665f, 666i
for asthma, 829i
peptic ulcer and, 956i
Norepinephrine, 466t. See also
Adrenergic neurons; Adrenergic
receptors; Adrenergic synapses
alcohol, antagonized by, 1012i
heart, effect on, 738–740, 740t
as a hormone, 571, 648,
653t, 654
hypersecretion of, 666
kidney, effect on, 901t
lipolysis stimulated by, 1005
receptors, 574–575, 575f
smooth muscle, effect on, 434
structure of, 464, 465f
in sympathetic nervous system,
566, 566f, 566t, 574
synaptic action of, 467, 467f, 469
vasomotor effect of, 759
Normal saline, 933i
Norplant, 1080f, 1081i, 1081t
Nose, 842–843, 843f–844f
external anatomy of, 393f
Nosebleed, 843
Notochord, 1095f
Novocain, 629i
Nuchal lines, 287f, 287i, 351
Nuchal region, 33f, 393f
Nuclear bag and nuclear chain fibers,
504, 505f
Nuclear envelope, 116, 116f, 118, 144f
Nuclear medicine, 23i
Nuclear pores, 97t, 98f, 116, 116f
Nucleases, 973
Nucleic acids, 86, 130–133, 131f–133f,
134t. See also Deoxyribonucleic
acid; Ribonucleic acid
digestion and absorption of, 973
in protein synthesis, 134–137, 135f,
137f–139f
Nuclei of brain, 516
basal, 475i, 527, 533f, 534, 535f, 542
caudate, 522f, 534, 535f
cerebellar, 526
cochlear, 604
inferior olivary, 526
lateral geniculate, 525f, 530f, 627, 628f
lentiform, 534, 535f
medial geniculate, 605f
paraventricular, 530f, 640, 641f
preoptic, 530f
pretectal, 627, 628f
red, 527, 543f
solitary, 594
subthalamic, 535
superior olivary, 604, 605f, 606
suprachiasmatic, 530f, 531, 537
supraoptic, 530f, 640, 641f
ventromedial, 530f
vestibular, 608
Nucleolus, 98f, 116, 116f, 131f, 144f
Nucleoplasm, 116, 116f
Nucleosidases, 973
Nucleosomes, 130
Nucleotides, 85–86, 130, 131f
Nucleus
of atom, 57, 57f–58f
of cell, 98f, 116, 116f, 123t
pulposus, 264–265, 264f
Nutrients, 940, 988, 989t, 994t–995t. See
also Nutrition
absorption of, 968–974
essential, 988
Nutrition, 986–996
needs in pregnancy, 1072
prenatal modes of, 1095–1097

O
Oat-cell carcinoma, 870
Obesity, 669, 987i–988i
atherosclerosis and, 742i, 987i
effects of, 263i, 987i
hypertension and, 792i, 987i
varicose veins and, 753i
Obligatory water loss, 917
Obligatory water reabsorption, 894
Oblique sections, 160, 160f
Obstructive disorders, respiratory, 856
Occipital condyles, 250f, 255, 265
Occipital lobe, 517f–518f, 532,
532f, 540
Occipital region, 393f
Octet rule, 58
Odontoid process, 265, 266f
Odors, 596
Oils, 76
Olecranon, 275, 275f, 395f, 397f–398f
Olfaction. See Smell
Olfactory bulbs, 535f,
595f–596f, 596
Olfactory cells, 595, 595f
Olfactory cortex, 596, 596f
Olfactory mucosa, 594, 595f, 843
Olfactory tract, 535f, 595f–596f, 596
Oligodendrocytes
myelination by, 451–452
in spinal cord injury, 509
structure and function, 450, 450t, 451f
Oligopeptides, 79
Oliguria, 901
Olive, 525f, 526
Omentum, greater and lesser, 38, 39f,
44f, 941, 951f, 953f
Oncogenes, 151i, 152i
Oncology, 151i
Oncotic pressure, 761f, 762–763
Ondine’s curse, 859i
Oocyte, 1061, 1062f, 1063, 1064,
1065f–1066f
Oocyte donation, 1115i
Oogenesis, 1061, 1062f
Oogonium, 1061, 1062f
Opioids, 590
Opium, 590
Opportunistic infection, 702
Opposable thumb, 10, 10f, 300
Opposition of thumb, 306, 306f
Opsin, 621, 622f
Opsonization, 810, 811f, 823
Optic chiasm, 530, 530f, 626, 628f
Optic disc, 612f, 615, 615f
Optic nerve 548f–549f, 549t
course of, 626–627, 628f
duplicity theory and,
624–625, 625f
origin of fibers, 620f, 621
signal generation in,
623–624, 623f
Optic radiation, 627, 628f
Optic tracts, 626, 628f
Optic vesicles, 519, 520f
Oral cavity, 48f, 941f, 943
Oral region, 393f. See also Buccal
region
muscles of, 334–335, 334f–336f,
337t–338t, 341f
Orbit, 251f
Orbital region, 393f, 610, 610f
Orexin, 986
Organelles, 13, 97, 116–121, 123t–124t
Organic chemistry, 71
Organism, 13, 13f
Organ of Corti, 600, 601f
Organogenesis, 1098
Organs, 13, 158
Organ systems, 13
survey of, 38f–42f
Orgasm, 644
brainstem centers for, 531
female, 1068, 1090
male, 1038f–1039f, 1040–1041
Orgasmic platform, 1068, 1069f
Origin of a muscle, 328
Ornithine cycle, 1004t, 1006, 1006f
Oropharynx, 844f, 845
Orthodontics, 230
Orthopedics, 237, 316i–317i, 320i
Orthopnea, 857t
Orthostatic hypotension, 792t, 1110
Osmolarity, 108
anemia, effect of, 693
of blood, 681–682, 691i
in fluid balance, 917–919
and osmolality, 108
and tonicity, 108–109, 109f
of urine, 900, 902t
Osmoles, 108
Osmoreceptors, 531, 644, 917, 919
Osmosis, 107, 108f, 115t
among fluid compartments,
916, 917f
in equilibrium with filtration,
107–108, 108f, 761–762, 761f
Osmotic diuresis, 669–670, 902
Osmotic pressure, 107, 108f
Osseous tissue. See Bones
Ossicles, middle-ear, 246t, 259, 598,
599f–600f, 602, 606i
Ossification, 225, 234
ectopic, 230, 382, 383
endochondral, 226–228, 226f
intramembranous,
225–226, 226f
Osteitis deformans, 238t
Osteoarthritis (OA), 299, 319t, 320i,
494i, 1109
Osteoblasts, 221, 222f
bone deposition by, 230, 232–233,
232f, 234f, 648
in ossification, 227–228, 227f
and osteoporosis, 239i, 648
Osteochondroma, 238t
Osteoclasts, 221, 222f
bone resorption by, 230, 232, 232f,
234f, 235, 648
lactation and, 1078
in ossification, 226, 228
in osteoporosis, 239i
in pregnancy, 1071
Osteoclast-stimulating factor, 232, 233
Osteocytes, 172, 221, 222f
nourishment of, 223
in ossification, 226, 227f, 229
Osteogenesis. See Ossification
Osteogenesis imperfecta, 222, 238t
Osteogenic cells, 221, 222f, 227, 234, 235
Osteoid tissue, 225, 226f
Osteology, 218
Osteoma, 238t
Osteomalacia, 230i, 232, 238t, 263i
Osteomyelitis, 238t
Osteon, 172, 174f, 223, 224f, 230
Osteopenia, 1109
Osteoporosis, 87i, 232, 238t, 239f,
239i, 263i
Osteosarcoma, 222, 238t
Otitis media, 599i
Otolithic membrane, 606, 607f
Otosclerosis, 606i
Oval window, 599, 602f
Ovarian cycle, 1061
Ovaries. See also Gonads; Oogenesis
anatomy of, 1050, 1051f
embryonic, 1020f
endocrine function of, 651–652,
651f, 653t, 1059–1060,
1064–1068
follicular epithelium of, 165f
location of, 46f, 1050, 1051f–1052f
in pregnancy, 1093
as primary sex organs, 1018
Overflow incontinence, 907t
Overmedication of elderly, 1111
Ovulation, 642, 1050, 1062,
1062f–1063f, 1064t,
1065–1066, 1066i
Ovum, 1018, 1061
Oxidation, 70–71, 71t
Oxidation-reduction reactions, 70–71
Oxidizing agents, 71
Oxygen, 57t
consumption by muscle,
427–428, 428f
consumption in pregnancy, 1072
isotopes of, 58
loading of, 860, 861, 861f
respiration, effect on, 868
transport of, 863
unloading, 861f, 864, 866
Oxygen debt, 428f, 429, 998
Oxygen toxicity, 869
Oxyhemoglobin (HbO2), 863, 864, 865f
Oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve,
863, 863f, 866f
Oxytocin (OT)
functional overview of,
644, 645t
labor contractions induced by, 18,
19f, 644, 646, 1074
lactation, role in, 644, 1077
paraventricular nucle as source of,
530f, 640
pituitary secretion of, 642, 644, 645t
postpartum effect on uterus, 1076
structure of, 655f
Oxytocin receptors, 660, 662, 1074
Ozone, 199, 610

P
Pacemaker
cardiac, 433, 727
respiratory, 858
smooth muscle, 434
Pacemaker potential, 728, 729f
Pacinian corpuscles. See Lamellated
corpuscles
Paget disease, 238t
Pain, 509t, 589–591, 666t
in childbirth, 1074
CNS modulation of, 489, 529,
590–591, 592f
cranial nerves involved in,
551t, 553t
hypothalamus and, 539
in inflammation, 812
projection pathways, 486t, 487,
590, 590f
prostaglandins and, 666t, 812
receptors for, 588, 589t, 590
somatic reflexes stimulated
by, 506
threshold of, 597f
Palate, 48f, 249f–250f, 844f, 944
in coughing and sneezing, 855
evolution of, 258i
Palatine tonsils, 806, 806f
Palatoglossal arch, 943f, 944
Palatopharyngeal arch, 943f, 944
Paleocortex, 534
Pallidotomy, 475i
Pallor, 198
Palmar region, 33f, 398f
Palmitic acid, 76f, 78i
Palpation, 2, 392
Palpebral sulci, 393f
Pampiniform plexus, 1027, 1027f–1028f
Pancreas
anatomy of, 650, 650f, 808f,
961f, 962
digestive functions of, 962–964,
963f, 963t
endocrine functions of, 635f–636f,
650, 650f
Pancreatic islets, 635f, 650, 650f, 653t
Pancreatic juice, 962
Pancreatitis, 978t, 1012i
Paneth cells, 965
Panoramic vision, 626
Pantothenic acid
bacterial synthesis of, 995
RDA and dietary sources of, 995t
Papillae
dermal, 195–196
lingual, 592–593, 593f
Papillary layer of dermis, 194f, 196
Pap smear, 161, 1053i, 1054f
Paracrines, 636, 651, 664
Paradoxical sleep, 537
Parafollicular cells, 648
Parallel after-discharge circuit, 472,
473f, 506
Paralysis, 412, 564
in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,
490i
in Bell palsy, 556i
crutch, 494i
flaccid and spastic, 414i–415i,
508i–509i, 566t
in polio, 490i
in sickle-cell disease, 695
sleep, 537
spinal cord injury and, 484i,
508i–510i
stroke and, 766
toxins causing, 414i–415i
Paramesonephric duct, 1019,
1020f, 1050
Paranasal sinuses, 246
Paraplegia, 509i
Parasites, 708i
Parasitic infections, 801f, 809, 813
in AIDS, 830
defenses against, 819
Parasympathetic nervous
system, 444f
anatomy of, 571–573
bronchioles, effects on, 855
control of pupil by, 615, 616
digestion, effects on, 947, 963, 976
efferent pathways of, 568f, 572f
general properties of, 565, 573t
heart, effects on, 738, 740t
sexual function, effects on,
1038f–1039f, 1040
Parasympathetic tone, 565
Parasympatholytic drugs, 579i
Parasympathomimetic drugs, 579i
Parathyroid glands, 231, 636f, 648,
648f, 653t
Parathyroid hormone (PTH), 239i, 973
calcium balance, role in, 232–233,
232f, 234f, 235t, 648, 653t, 926
kidney, action on, 896, 901t
lactation, role in, 1077, 1078
phosphate balance, role in, 648, 926
in pregnancy, 1071, 1071t
Paraurethral glands, 1056, 1056f, 1068
Parenchyma of a gland, 180, 180f
Parenteral fluid therapy, 933i
Paresis, 509i
Paresthesia, 509t
Parietal cells, 952, 953f–954f, 955t
Parietal lobe, 517f, 518f, 531–532, 532f
Parieto-occipital sulcus, 532
Parkinson disease, 475i, 542
Parotid gland, 334f
Partial pressures of gases, 859–861,
860t, 861f–862f, 866f, 868
Parturition. See Childbirth
Pasteur, Louis, 94
Patau syndrome, 1106
Patellar region, 33f. See also Knee
Pathogens, defined, 808
Pattern baldness, 204
Pavlov, Ivan, 504, 978i
Peak flow, respiratory, 856
Pectin, 990
Pectoral girdle, 271, 273–274, 278t
Pectoral region, 33f, 394f
Pedal region, 33f, 279
Pedicels, 887, 888f
Peduncles
cerebellar, 525f, 526
cerebral, 525f, 527, 533f
Peer review, 8
Pelvic brim, 277, 281f
Pelvic cavity, 36f, 37, 37t, 51f
Pelvic curvature, 263, 263f
Pelvic diaphragm, 351, 355f
Pelvic floor, muscles of, 350–351, 355f
Pelvic girdle. See Pelvis
Pelvic inflammatory disease, 1042i
Pelvic inlet, 277, 279f–280f, 280t
Pelvic outlet, 277, 280t, 1071
Pelvic region, 33f, 394f–396f
Pelvis, 47f, 277–279, 279f–280f,
280t, 285t
human vs. ape, 286f, 286i
Pemphigus vulgaris, 179i, 828
Penetrance, 149, 150t
Penicillin allergy, 693t, 817, 828
Penis
anatomy of, 33f, 44f–45f, 51f, 905f,
1025f, 1029, 1030f,
1038–1039
coital function of, 1038f–1039f,
1040–1041
embryonic, 1020f, 1021, 1022f
pigmentation of, 196
Pennate muscles, 431
Pepsin, 83, 954, 954f, 955t, 958f, 970,
971f, 978i
Pepsinogen, 952, 954, 954f, 955t,
957, 958f
Peptic ulcer, 956f, 956i, 1012i
Peptide bonds, 79, 80f
Peptide hormones, 654–656, 655t
Peptides, 79, 80f
Pepto-Bismol, 956i
Percussion, 2
Perforating canals, 223, 224f
Perforating fibers, 220, 220f, 224f, 327
Perforins, 809–810, 819, 827t
Perfusion, 753
cerebral, 758
regulation of, 757–760, 759f
Pericardial cavity, 37, 37f, 37t, 49f,
718, 850f
Pericardial effusion, 741t
Pericardial fluid, 37
Pericarditis, 718
Pericardium, 37, 37f, 37t, 44f, 718, 720f
Perichondrium, 172
Perilymph, 599, 600, 600f, 602
Perimysium, 326, 432t
Perineal raphe, 355f, 1024
Perineum, 33f
female, 1056f
male, 1023, 1024f
muscles of, 350–351, 355f
Perineurium, 491–492, 491f
Periodic table of the elements, 1121f
Periodontal disease, 946i, 1112
Periosteum, 172, 220, 220f, 221, 224f,
226f, 227
inflammation of, 386i
Peripheral nervous system (PNS), 444.
See also Autonomic nervous
system; Cranial nerves; Spinal
nerves
glial cells of, 451. See also
Schwann cells
subdivisions of, 444–445, 444f
Peripheral neuropathy, 509t
Peripheral proteins, 99f–102f, 100
Peripheral resistance in circulation, 755
Peristalsis
dietary fiber as aid to, 990
in digestive tract, 948, 949f,
955, 976
stretch, stimulated by, 435
uterine, 1068, 1069f
Peritoneal cavity, 38, 38f–39f, 50f
Peritoneal fluid, 38
Peritoneum
in abdominal cavity, 37t, 38,
38f–39f, 50f
relationship to digestive system, 38,
38f–39f, 941–942, 943f
Peritubular capillaries, 884f–885f, 885
and tubular reabsorption, 894–895
Perivascular feet, 450, 451f
Permeability of plasma membrane,
107, 456
of capillaries, 752, 761–763, 761f,
812, 813t
of venules, 752, 812
Permissive effects of
hormones, 662
Pernicious anemia, 954, 1111
Peroxisomes, 119, 119f, 120,
124t, 140t
Personality, and brain lesions,
538i–539i
Perspiration, insensible, 206. See also
Sweat
Pes. See Foot
PET scan. See Positron emission
tomography
Peyer patches, 804, 965
pH, 67, 68f, 429
of blood, 739
cerebral autoregulation, role
in, 766
of cerebrospinal fluid, 739
drug action, effects on, 68i
enzymes, effects on, 83
gastric, 952, 957
osseous tissue and, 230i
oxygen unloading affected by,
866, 866f
partitioning, 68
renal control of, 928–929
respiration, effects on, 867–868
respiratory control of, 928
of urine, 900, 902t, 933
of vagina, 1037t, 1055
Phagocytes, types of, 809–810
Phagocytosis, 112, 112f, 115t, 814f
Phagolysosome, 112, 112f
Phagosome, 112, 112f
Phallus, 1022f, 1050
Pharyngeal tonsil, 806, 844f
Pharynx, 48f, 844f, 845, 948
muscles of, 339t, 340, 341f
Phasic receptors, 587
Phenotype, 147, 150f, 150t
Phenylalanine, 150f
Phenylephrine, 579i
Phenylketonuria (PKU), 149, 202i,
900, 1103i
Pheochromocytoma, 666, 670t
Pheomelanin, 202, 203f
Pheromones, 206–207, 595i
Philtrum, 393f, 843f
Phosphagen system, 427, 428f, 429
Phosphatases, 82i, 973
Phosphate
buffer system, 927
excretion of, 234f, 648
functional group, 72, 72f, 85, 85f
functions of, 230, 926
homeostasis, 926
imbalances, 926
reabsorption by kidney, 893f, 894, 896
requirement in pregnancy, 1072
Phosphodiesterase, 660, 1040i
Phosphokinase, 85
Phospholipase, 660
Phospholipids
function of, 78t, 990
in plasma membrane 99f, 100
structure of, 77, 77f
synthesis of, 1004t
Phosphorus, 57t, 231, 994, 994t, 1078t
Phosphorylation, 85
Photoaging of skin, 1108
Photochemical reaction, 621, 622f, 623
Photopsin, 620–621
Photopupillary reflex, 616
Photoreceptors, 587. See also Cones; Rods
Phototherapy, 646i, 698
Phylloquinone. See Vitamin K
Physical therapy, 510i
Physiology, 2, 3
comparative, 897i
variation in, 16
Pia mater, 483, 484f, 519, 520f, 521i
Pigments
of hair, 202, 203f
of skin, 196–198, 197f
visual, 620–621, 622f, 623, 624
Pilocarpine, 579i
Piloerector muscles
autonomic innervation of, 568f,
569, 570, 577
in hair follicle anatomy, 201f, 202
as multiunit smooth muscle, 433
thermoregulation, role in, 1011
as vestigial organs, 10i
Pineal gland, 525f, 527f, 531, 636f,
646, 653t
Pinna of ear, 393f, 598, 599f
Pinocytosis, 112, 114f, 115t
intestinal, 970
renal, 893f
Pinocytotic vesicles, 112, 114f
Pitcher’s arm, 386i
Pitch of sound, 597, 603, 604f
Pituitary axes, 640, 642, 643f, 1066f
Pituitary gland
anatomy of, 638–639, 641f
anterior lobe of, 639, 640,
640f–641f, 642, 642t
control of ovarian cycle by,
1061–1068, 1066f
disorders of, 667
embryonic, 638–639, 640f
hormones of, 640–642, 641f
hypothalamic control of, 531
location of, 517f, 636f, 638
pars intermedia of, 640f, 642
posterior lobe of, 639, 640f–641f
in pregnancy, 638, 1071, 1071t
secretion, control of, 641f,
644–646, 645f
Placebo, 8
Placenta
anatomy of, 1097, 1097f–1098f
development of, 1054, 1095, 1096f
discharge of, 1075, 1076f
endocrine function of, 652, 654t,
1070–1071, 1097t
HIV transmission through, 831
nutritional role of, 1070, 1072,
1095, 1095f
permeability of, 697, 816,
825t, 1097
Placental nutrition, 1095, 1095f
Placental sinus, 1095, 1096f
Placenta previa, 1079t
Planes
of body, 31, 31f
of tissue sections, 159–160,
159f–160f
Planning, cerebral center for, 531
Plantar flexion, 306, 307f, 317, 375
Plantar region, 33f, 385f, 405f
Plaque
atherosclerotic, 741i, 742f, 1111
dental, 946i
Plasma, blood, 175, 680, 683–684,
684t, 916
Plasma cells, 167, 684, 804, 822, 824f, 826t
Plasma membrane, 97, 97t, 123t
cycling of, 114
permeability of, 107, 456
structure of, 98–100, 99f, 124t
Plasmapheresis, 437i
Plasma proteins, 682, 682i, 683–684,
683t, 762–763, 1004t
Plasma volume expanders, 933i
Plasmin, 706, 707f, 709i
Plasminogen, 706, 707f
Plasticity
of smooth muscle, 436
synaptic, 473–474
Platelet count, 682t
Platelet-derived growth factor, 706,
741i, 813t, 814
Platelet factors in coagulation, 703, 704,
705f, 706t
Platelet plug, 703–704, 703f
Platelet repulsion, 706
Platelets
atherosclerosis, role in, 741i–742i
hemostasis, role in, 703–704, 703f,
705f, 706t
inflammation, role in, 812t, 814
life span of, 688
production of, 686f, 688, 688f
structure and appearance of, 174f,
175, 681f, 702f, 703
thromboxane, as source of, 664
Pleasure, 531, 539
Pleiotropy, 148, 148f, 150t
in sickle-cell disease, 695
Pleurae, 36, 37f, 37t, 44f, 849, 850f
Pleural cavity, 36f–37f, 37, 37t, 46f, 49f,
849, 850f, 853
Pleural effusion and water balance, 921
Pleural fluid, 37, 849
Plexuses
nerve
abdominal aortic, 570, 570f,
572f, 573
brachial, 45f, 494, 498f–499f,
498t–499t
cardiac, 568f, 572f, 573
cervical, 494, 497f, 497t
coccygeal, 494, 501t–502t, 502f
esophageal, 572f, 573
hypogastric, 1039
inferior hypogastric, 572f, 573
lumbar, 494, 500f, 500t
myenteric, 563f, 941, 942f, 948
pelvic, 1039
pulmonary, 568f, 572f, 573
renal, 570f
sacral, 494, 501t–502t, 502f, 1039
solar, 570
vascular
choroid, 521, 522f–523f, 524
pampiniform, 1027,
1027f–1028f
Plural suffixes, 21t
Pluripotent cells, 186i
Pneumocystis infection, 831
Pneumonia, 239i, 862f, 871t, 1111
Pneumotaxic center, 858, 858f
Pneumothorax, 853
Podocytes, 882, 885f, 887, 888f, 890f
Poisoning. See also Toxins; Venoms
acetone, 199i, 907i
anemia caused by, 693t
arsenic, 199i, 202i, 699
carbon monoxide, 861, 863, 864i
carbon tetrachloride, 199i, 907i
cutaneous absorption and, 199i
cyanide, 869
hair, effect on, 202i
heavy metals, 199i, 202i, 699, 907i
hypoxia and, 869
WBC count affected by, 699
Poison ivy, 199i, 817, 828, 832t
Polar bodies in oogenesis, 1061,
1062f, 1092f
Polarity of water, 62–63, 63f–64f
Polarized cells, 415, 455
Poliomyelitis, 114, 449, 490i, 701
Pollex. See Thumb
Pollution, reproductive effects of, 1037i
Polycythemia
causes of, 687, 692, 869
effects of, 692, 755, 793i
Polydactyly, 149
Polydipsia, 668
Polygenic inheritance, 148, 148f, 150t
Polymerization, 72
Polymers, 72
Polypeptides, 79
Polyphagia, 668
Polyribosome, 136, 138f
Polysaccharide, 73, 74f, 75t
Polyspermy, prevention of, 1090–1091
Polysynaptic reflex arc, 506, 507f
Polythelia, 207
Polyunsaturated fatty acids and fats,
75–76
Polyuria, 668, 669, 901
Pons
anatomy of, 525f, 526
brainstem, as part of, 516, 525f
cerebellum, relationship to, 543f
in equilibrium, 608
fiber tracts in, 533f
in hearing, 604
location of, 517f–518f, 527f
micturition center of, 906, 906f
respiratory centers of, 858–859, 858f
Popliteal region, 33f, 316, 400f
Portal systems, 748, 748f
Positive feedback loops, 17
in action potentials, 458
in childbirth, 18, 19f, 1074
in endocrine system, 646
in fever, 18, 19f
in gastric secretion, 954f, 957, 958f
in hemostasis, 704, 705f, 706, 707f
in hypertension, 792i
in hyperthermia and hypothermia,
1011
in sexual cycle, 1064
Positive selection of immune cells, 817
Positive water balance, 920, 921t
Positron emission tomography (PET),
22i, 24f, 24i, 557f, 557i
Positrons, 22i
Postabsorptive state, 1007–1008
Postcentral gyrus, 518f, 532f
in somesthetic senses, 540, 541f
in taste, 594
Posterior superior spines of ilium, 277,
279f, 396f
Posterior pituitary. See Pituitary gland
Postganglionic neuron, 566, 566f
neurotransmitters and receptors of,
574, 574t, 575f
parasympathetic, 571, 572f
sympathetic, 567, 568f–569f,
569–570, 571
Postovulatory phase, 1062,
1066–1067
Postsynaptic neuron, 463, 465, 466f,
469–470, 470f–472f, 472
Postsynaptic potentials, 466, 468–469, 469f
Posttetanic potentiation, 474
Posttraumatic infarction, spinal, 509i
Posture, 347, 486t, 526, 542
Potassium, 57f, 57t
absorption by astrocytes, 450
in bone, 221
in cardiac function, 728,
730f, 739
functions of, 923
in hearing, 602, 603, 603f
homeostasis, 923–924
imbalances, 924–925, 924f
intestinal absorption of, 973
in muscle physiology, 415–417, 429
in neuronal function, 455–460,
456f, 465–466, 469
as pain stimulus, 590
pH imbalances and, 931f
RDA and dietary sources of, 994t
reabsorption of, 893f, 894, 895
transport of, 110, 110f, 111
vasomotor effect of, 757
Potassium channels and gates
in action potentials, 458–460,
458f–459f
myocardial, 728, 730f, 738
in neurons, 455, 457
in resting membrane potential,
456, 456f
in rod cells, 623, 623f
in skeletal muscle, 416, 417, 418f
in synapses, 465, 467f
Potassium gates, 458–460, 459f, 469, 603f
Potential, electrical, 415, 455
Potential space, 849
Power stroke
of cilium, 103, 105f
of myosin, 417, 420f
Precapillary sphincters, 750, 751f, 766
Precentral gyrus, 518f, 532f
in motor control, 542, 542f
Precipitation of Ag-Ab
complexes, 824
Predigested protein, 993
Prednisone, 437i
Pre-eclampsia, 1079t
Preembryonic stage, 1091–1094
Prefrontal cortex and memory, 538,
539, 542
Preganglionic neuron, 566, 566f
neurotransmitters of 574, 574t, 575f
parasympathetic, 571, 572f
sympathetic, 567, 568f–569f, 569
Pregnancy, 1070–1073
diabetes and, 902, 1079t
ectopic, 1079t, 1094i, 1104
hormones of, 644, 651, 652, 1070
hypocalcemia in, 926
mother’s body, effects on, 231, 232,
263i, 494i, 1072–1073
Rh factor in, 697–698, 698f
tests for, 1070
varicose veins and, 753i
weight gain in, 1073, 1073t
Prehensile hand, 10, 10f. See also
Opposable thumb
Preload, 739
Premature infants, 1103–1104
Premature ventricular contraction
(PVC), 728, 732f, 732i, 732t
Premenstrual phase, 1063f, 1064t,
1066–1067
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), 646i
Prenatal development. See Conceptus;
Embryo; Fetus
Prenatal nutrition, 1095,
1096f, 1097
Preovulatory phase, 1064, 1064t
Preprohormone, 655
Prepuce
clitoral, 51f, 1022f, 1051f, 1055,
1056f, 1068
penile, 1022f, 1025f, 1027f,
1029, 1030f
Presbyopia, 619t, 1110
Pressure, sense of, 486t, 487, 588, 589t
Pressure and flow, principles of,
733, 734f
Pressure gradients
in blood flow, 753–754, 757, 764
in breathing, 849, 851–853, 854f
in cardiac function, 722, 723f,
733, 735f
in gas exchange, 861, 862f
Pressure points, 781, 781f
Presynaptic inhibition, 470, 471f
Presynaptic neuron, 463, 466f, 469f,
471f–472f, 472
Pretectal region, 616
Primary active transport, 111, 111f
Primary auditory cortex, 605f, 606
Primary cilium, 103
Primary germ layers, 158, 1093,
1094f–1095f, 1098
Primary immune response, 821, 825f, 826
Primary marrow space, 226, 226f
Primary motor area, 542, 542f
Primary oocyte. See Oocyte
Primary ossification center, 226, 226f
Primary protein structure, 80, 81f
Primary sensory areas, 540, 541f
Primary sex organs, 1018. See also
Ovaries; Testes
Primary somesthetic cortex,
540, 541f
Primary spermatocytes, 1034,
1034f–1035f
Primary tissue classes, 158
Primary vesicles of brain, 519, 520f
Primary visual cortex, 627, 628f
Primates, 10–11, 12f, 200f
brains of, 11, 11t, 538
Prime movers, 328
Primipara, 1074
Primitive streak, 1094, 1095f
Primordial germ cells, 1034
Principal cells of renal tubule, 896
Procaine, 629i
Procarboxypeptidase, 962, 963t
Processes of bones, 247f, 247t
coracoid, 273, 273f, 274
mastoid, 249f–250f, 254, 254f
styloid, 249f–250f, 254, 254f
temporal, 249f, 258
zygomatic, 249f, 254, 254f
Procoagulants, 704, 705f, 706t
Proerythroblasts, 685, 686f
Progeria, 1113, 1113f
Progesterone
in mammary gland development, 1077
ovarian, 651, 653t
placental, 652, 654t, 1097t
in pregnancy, 1070f, 1071, 1071t, 1074
in puberty, 1059–1060
receptors, action on, 659
in sexual cycle, 1063f, 1066–1067
sodium balance and, 923
structure and synthesis of, 656f
Progesterone receptors, 659, 662, 1067
Programmed cell death. See Apoptosis
Prohormone, 655
Projection pathways, 586
auditory, 604, 605f, 606
gustatory, 594
olfactory, 595f–596f, 596
pain, 590, 590f
somesthetic, 486–488, 486t,
487f–488f, 589
vestibular, 608
visual, 626–627, 628f
Prolactin (PRL)
antagonism by estrogen, 662
in lactation, 1077, 1077f
in mammary gland development,
1076
pituitary secretion of, 641f, 642,
643f, 645t
in pregnancy, 1071
in puberty, 1059
secretion by monocytes, 832
Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH),
641f, 642t, 1077
Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH),
641f, 642t
Proliferative phase, 1063f, 1064t, 1067
Pronation, 306, 306f
Prone position, 30, 30f
Pronuclei, 1090, 1092f
Proof in science, 7
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), 642
Propanolol, 579i, 793i
Prophase
meiotic, 1032, 1033f, 1034
mitotic, 143, 144f
Proprioception, 486t, 487
Proprioceptors, 307, 504, 544, 587
in cardiac function, 738, 740
Prosencephalon, 519, 520f
Prosopagnosia, 538
Prostacyclin, 664, 665f, 703, 706
vasomotor effect, 757
Prostaglandins
and dietary fats, 990
and fever, 814
functional overview of, 665, 666t
in inflammation, 812, 813t
labor contractions induced by, 1074
as pain stimulus, 590
and peptic ulcer, 956i
in semen, 1037t
structure of, 78, 78f, 665, 665f
vasomotor effect of, 757
Prostate gland
anatomy of, 1028–1029
contribution to semen, 1037
diseases of, 1029i
embryonic, 1020f
hypertrophy of, 901, 902,
904i, 905i
location of, 51f, 905f, 1025f
in orgasm, 1039f, 1041
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), 1029i
Prosthetic groups, 80
Prosthetic joints, 320, 321f
Proteases, 970
Protein buffer system, 927
Proteins, 79–82. See also Enzymes
body content of, 992
catabolism of, 1005
complete and incomplete, 993
conjugated, 80
deficiency, 682i
digestion and absorption, 970, 971f
as fuel, 1005
functions of, 80, 82, 140t, 992
levels of structure of, 80, 81f
in plasma membrane, 99f, 100–101
predigested, 993i
RDA and sources of, 992–993
reabsorption in kidney, 894
requirement and functions of, 989t,
992–993
requirement in pregnancy, 1072
secretion of, 139
synthesis of, 117, 134–139,
137f–139f, 1006
turnover of, 1005
Protein-sparing effect, 644, 990
Proteinuria, 887
Proteoglycans
in bone, 221
role in glomerular filtration, 887
structure and function of, 75, 75t,
168, 168f
Prothrombin, 704, 705f, 706t, 1072
Proton pumps, 1001
Protons, 56, 57
Proto-oncogenes, 151
Protoplasm, 94
Protraction of a joint, 303, 304f
Protuberances of bones, 247t
external occipital, 250f
mental 248f, 259, 259f
Provitamins, 995
Proximal convoluted tubule
(PCT), 883, 884f–885f, 891–895
Prozac, 580i
Pseudopods, 112, 112f, 704, 818f
Pseudoscience. See Fads and
pseudoscience
Pseudounipolar neurons, 448–449
Psoriasis, 208t
Psychopharmacology, 580i
Psychosomatic effects, 8
Pterygoid plates, 250f, 256, 256f
Pubarche, 1060
Puberty, 206, 234, 649, 1030,
1058–1059
Pubic arch, 280f, 280t, 1029
Pubic hair, 202, 204, 207, 1060
Pubic region, 32, 33f, 35f
Pubic symphysis, 51f, 297, 298f,
302t, 355f
in pregnancy, 1071
Pudendum. See Vulva
Puerperium, 1075
Pulled groin, 386i
Pulled hamstrings, 386i
Pulmonary barotrauma, 872i
Pulmonary circuit, 716, 766–767, 768f
Pulmonary compliance, 854
Pulmonary edema, 736, 737f, 861
Pulmonary fibrosis, 854
Pulmonary surfactant, 849, 852f,
1103–1104
Pulmonary valve, 722, 722f, 724f
Pulmonary ventilation, 851–857
Pulse, 738
Pulse pressure, 754, 755f
Pumps, membrane, 101, 110–111, 110f.
See also Active transport
Punishment, sense of, 539
Punnett square, 147, 147f
Pupil, 610f, 613, 613f. See also Iris
constriction and dilation of,
615–616, 618
Pupillary constrictor, 615, 616, 618
Pupillary dilator, 615, 616, 1110
Purines, 130, 131f
Purkinje cells, 526
Purkinje fibers, 727, 727f, 729
Pus, 813–814
Putamen, 534, 535f
P wave, 730, 731f–732f, 732t, 734
Pyelitis, 905i
Pyelonephritis, 905i
Pyramidal cells, 468, 533
Pyramidal tracts, 489
Pyramids of medulla oblongata, 489,
524, 533f
Pyrexia. See Fever
Pyridoxine. See Vitamin B6
Pyrimidines, 130, 131f
Pyrogens, 814
Pyruvic acid, 85, 86f, 429, 996–997,
997f, 998, 1005
Pyuria, 900

Q
QRS complex, 730, 731f–732f, 732t, 734
Quadrants, abdominal, 32, 34f
Quadriplegia, 509i
Quaternary protein structure, 80, 81f
Quickening, 1101t
Quiescent period, 736

R
Rabies, 449, 509t
Racial and ethnic variation
in blood types, 696t
in cancer, 1029i, 1042t
in cystic fibrosis, 105i
in hypertension, 793, 995
in lactose intolerance, 970i
in sickle-cell disease, 693–694
in Tay-Sachs disease, 453i
Radiation. See also Radioactivity
anemia and, 693t
cancer and, 58i–59i, 151i, 208
infrared
energy of, 610
heat gain and loss by,
1009–1010
ionizing, 59
as mutagen, 151i
sickness, 699
therapy, 59i, 451i
ultraviolet (UV)
cataracts and, 614i
as ionizing radiation, 59, 60, 610
photoaging of skin by, 1108
skin cancer and, 151i, 208
skin pigmentation and, 196
suntans, sunscreen, and, 196,
210i
in vitamin D synthesis, 199,
231, 233f
Radical (R) group, 79, 80f
Radioactivity, 58–59, 58i–59i, 222i
Radiography, 22i, 23f
Radioisotopes, 58
Radium, 59i, 222i
Radon, 59
Ramón y Cajal, Santiago, 455
Range of motion, 307, 320i
Raphe, perineal, 1022f, 1024, 1024f
Rapid eye movement (REM)
sleep, 537
Rapture of the deep, 871
Raynaud disease, 579t
RBC. See Erythrocyte
RBC count. See Erythrocyte count
Reabsorption
by blood capillaries, 761–762, 761f,
894–895
of bone, 230
of tissue fluid, 761–762, 761f, 800,
801, 801f
by kidney tubules, 891–899, 893f
Reactants, 69
Reaction cascade, 704–705, 705f
Reaction rates, 70
Reactive hyperemia, 757
Receptive field
in retina, 624, 625f
in skin, 586, 587f
Receptive relaxation response, 436, 955
Receptor-mediated endocytosis, 112,
113, 113f, 115t, 822, 973
Receptor potential, 586
Receptors
molecular, 100, 113. See also
Hormone receptors;
Neurotransmitter receptors
sensory, 18, 444, 586–588. See also
Baroreceptors;
Chemoreceptors; Sense
organs
Recessive alleles, 147, 150t, 151
Reciprocal inhibition, 506, 506f
Recognition of antigens, 819,
820f, 822
Recommended daily allowance (RDA),
988. See also specific nutrients
Recovery stroke
of cilium, 103, 105f
of myosin, 417, 420f
Recruitment, 424, 431, 471
of motor units, 424, 431
of neurons, 471
Rectum, 47f, 51f, 941f, 974, 975f
Rectus sheath, 43f, 346, 348f–349f
Red blood cells. See Erythrocytes
Red bone marrow, 223, 225f
Red muscles, 430
Redness of inflammation, 812
Red pulp of spleen, 807, 808f
Reducing agents, 71
Reduction
of bone fractures, 235–236, 238f
chemical reaction, 71, 71t
Reductionism, 13
Reference man and woman, 16
Referred pain, 590, 591f
Reflex arcs, 504, 505, 506f, 508
Reflexes, 482, 503
accommodation, 627
autonomic, 509i. See also Reflexes,
visceral
crossed extensor, 507, 507f
conditioned, 504
defecation, 976, 977f
duodenocolic, 976
flexor, 506, 507f
gastrocolic, 976
gastroileal, 967
Golgi tendon, 508
knee-jerk, 505, 506f
micturition, 905–906, 906f
myotatic, 505–506
photopupillary, 616, 621, 627
somatic, 503–508
spinal, 504, 505
stretch, 504–506, 506f
tendon, 505, 506f
tympanic, 602, 605f
visceral, 504, 564–565
visual, 627
withdrawal, 506, 507f
Refraction, 616–617, 617f, 619f
Refractive index, 616, 617f
Refractory period
myocardial, 729, 730f
neuronal, 460, 460f, 461
sexual, 1041, 1069
Regeneration, 185, 186
of muscle, 409, 432t, 433
of nerve fibers, 453–455, 454f
Regeneration tube, 453, 454f
Regions, anatomical, 32, 33f–35f, 36
Regulatory proteins of muscle, 410,
413t, 432t
Relaxation of muscle, 421f, 422, 424
Relaxin, 1071, 1071t, 1097t
Releasing hormones, 640, 641f,
642t, 644
Religious belief, effects on immune
system, 833i
Remodeling of bone, 235
REM sleep. See Rapid eye movement
sleep
Renal autoregulation, 889–890
Renal calculus, 904
Renal capsule, 882, 882f–883f
Renal clearance, measurement of, 902
Renal corpuscle, 882, 885f
Renal cortex, 882, 883f–884f
Renal diabetes, 902
Renal failure. See Kidney failure
Renal fascia, 881, 882f
Renal function tests, 902–903
Renal insufficiency, 907i, 934i
Renal medulla, 882, 883f–884f
Renal pyramids, 882
Renal tubules, 883, 915f
Renin, 652, 793i, 880, 890, 892f
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone
mechanism, 890–891, 892f,
922–923, 923f
Rennin. See Chymosin
Repolarization
myocardial, 731f, 734
neuronal, 458, 458f
Reposition of thumb, 306, 306f
Representational hemisphere, 544
Reproduction, 16, 1018
Reproductive cycle, female,
530f, 1061
Reproductive system
autonomic effects on, 577t,
1038f–1039f, 1039–1041
embryonic, 1019–1021, 1020f,
1022f–1023f
female, 42f, 1049–1087,
1051f–1052f
interaction with other
systems, 1082
male, 42f, 1017–1047, 1023–1030,
1024f–1027f, 1030f
overview of, 42f, 1018
senescence of, 1112
Reproductive technology, 1115i–1116i
Reserve cartilage, 227
Residual volume, pulmonary, 856,
856t, 857f
Resistance arteries, 749f, 750
Resistance exercise, 431
Resistance to flow, 755–757, 854–855
Resistance to levers, 307–310,
308f–309f
Resolution
of eye, 97t, 624–625, 625f
of microscopes, 96, 97, 97t
sexual, 1068–1069
Resorption bay, 221
Resorption of bone, 230
Respiration. See Aerobic respiration;
Breathing; Respiratory system
Respiratory arrest, 857t
Respiratory burst, 809, 813
Respiratory capacities, 856, 856t, 857f
Respiratory centers of brain, 857–859,
858f, 859i
Respiratory distress syndrome, 855,
869, 871t, 1103–1104
Respiratory failure, 414i, 490i, 508i
Respiratory infections in old age, 1111
Respiratory membrane, 849, 852f,
861–862
Respiratory mucosa, 843
Respiratory system, 841–877. See also
Lungs
anatomy of, 841–849, 842f–852f
autonomic innervation of, 568f,
572f, 576t
cilia in, 103, 105f, 843, 846, 848,
848f–849f
disorders of, 855, 856, 868–871,
871t, 872i
excretory function of, 881
interaction with other systems, 873
of neonate, 1103
overview of, 41f, 842f
in pregnancy, 1072
senescence of, 1111
Respiratory tract, upper and lower, 842,
844f, 848f
Respiratory volumes, 855–856, 856t, 857f
Responsiveness. See Excitability
Restenosis, 743i, 962i
Resting membrane potential (RMP)
myocardial, 729
Na-K pump in, 111
in neurons, 455–456, 456f,
458f, 460f
pH imbalances affecting, 930
potassium imbalances affecting,
924f, 925
production of, 415–416,
455–456, 456f
in skeletal muscle, 415–416, 429
Restrictive disorders, respiratory, 856
Rete testis, 1024, 1026f
Reticular activating system, 529
Reticular cells, 804, 818f
Reticular epithelial cells, 806, 817
Reticular fibers, 168, 805f
Reticular formation, 528–529, 529f
pain, role in, 590
in olfaction, 596f
relationship to cerebellum, 543f
relationship to reticulospinal tract, 489
sleep, role in, 537
Reticular layer of dermis, 194f, 196
Reticular tissue, 169, 170f
Reticulocyte, 685, 686f
Reticulospinal tract, 486t, 489
in motor pathways, 543f
pain, role in, 489, 591, 592f
relationship to reticular formation,
489, 528
Retina, 612, 613f, 614
cilia in, 103
detached, 615
histology of, 618–621, 620f
sensory transduction in,
621–624, 623f
Retinacula, 328
Retinal (retinene), 621
Retinoblastoma, 151i
Retinol. See Vitamin A
Retraction of a joint, 303, 304f
Retrograde amnesia, 539
Retrograde axonal transport, 449
Retroperitoneal organs, 38, 38f, 46f
Retrovir, 832
Retroviruses, 830
Reuptake of neurotransmitters, 468, 580i
Reverberating circuit, 472, 473f
Reversible reactions, 70
Reward, sense of, 539
Reye syndrome, 815i
Rh blood group, 697–698, 825t
Rheumatic fever, 723i, 829
Rheumatism, 319t, 695
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 319t, 320i
Rheumatoid factor, 320i
Rheumatology, 320i
Rhodopsin, 620–621, 622f, 623, 624
RhoGAM, 698
Rhombencephalon, 519, 520f
Rhythm method, 1079i, 1081t
Riboflavin. See Vitamin B2
Ribonuclease, 962, 963t, 973
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
compared to, 130,
133, 134t
messenger (mRNA), 134, 136,
137f, 139f
ribosomal (rRNA), 134, 136
structure and function of,
86–87, 133
transfer (tRNA), 134, 136, 137f–139f
Ribose, 85, 85f
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 134, 136
Ribosomes
endoplasmic reticulum,
relationship to, 117f, 118
mitochondrial, 124i
size and structure of, 97t, 116,
118, 123t
translation, role in, 136, 137f
RICE treatment, 386i
Rickets, 222, 230i, 232, 238t
Rider’s bones, 386i
Rigor mortis, 422i
Ringer’s lactate solution, 933i
Ringworm, 208t
Risk factors
for anemia, 692–693, 693t
for aneurysm, 754i
for asthma, 828i–829i
for atherosclerosis, 742i, 792i–793i
for birth defects, 1104
for cancer, 151i, 208, 869–870,
1029i, 1053i, 1058
for cataracts, 614i
for diabetes mellitus, 669
for hypertension, 792i, 793i
for kidney failure, 907i
for kidney stones, 904i
for kyphosis and scoliosis, 263i
for osteoporosis, 239i
for peptic ulcer, 956i
for polycythemia, 692
for urinary tract infections, 905i
for varicose veins, 753i
RNA. See Ribonucleic acid
RNA polymerase, 136, 140t
Rodbell, Martin, 102
Rods, 619–621, 620f, 622f–623f,
623–624
Roentgen, William, 22i
Rome, medicine in, 3. See also Galen
Root
of penis, 1025f, 1029
of tooth, 945–946, 945f
Rosacea, 208t, 1108
Rostral direction, 516
Rotation of a joint, 305f, 306
Rotator cuff, 311, 312f, 356, 358t, 361f
injury to, 386i
Roughage, dietary, 75
Round window, 599f, 600
RU486, 1081i
Rubella, 1104
Rubrospinal tract, 489, 527
Ruffini corpuscles, 588, 589t
Ruffled border of osteoclast, 221,
222f, 230
Rugae
gastric, 952
vaginal, 1055, 1068
Runner’s high, 591
Running, 308, 374

S
Saccule, 600f, 606, 607f
Sacral canal, 268
Sacral region
of spinal cord, 482, 483f
surface anatomy of, 33f, 395f
Sacroiliac joint, 268, 1071
Sacrum, 262, 262f, 263, 267–268, 268f
Sagittal plane, 31, 31f
Sagittal sections, 31, 31f
Sagittal suture, 251, 251f
St. Martin, Alexis, 977i–978i
Saline, 108, 933i
Saliva, 946–948
antibodies in, 825t, 946
HIV in, 831
Salivary amylase, 83, 946, 948, 969
Salivary glands, 943f, 946–947, 947f
autonomic control of, 526, 568f, 570,
571, 572f, 573, 577
Salivation, 947–948
cranial nerves and, 552t, 553t
dehydration and, 917–918
in old age, 1112
Salivatory nuclei, 947
Salt
dietary, 922, 923
hypertension and, 792i
taste of, 594
Saltatory conduction, 461
Sample size, 8
Sanger, Frederick, 672i
Sarcolemma, 409, 410f, 413t, 416,
422i, 433
Sarcoma, 151t
Sarcomere, 411, 411f, 412f, 413t, 422f,
423, 436
in old age, 1109
Sarcoplasm, 409, 410f, 413t
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
calcium release and reuptake
by, 417, 419f, 421f, 422,
424, 430
in cardiac muscle, 432t, 433, 726, 729
in skeletal muscle, 409, 410f,
413t, 432t
in smooth muscle, 432t, 434
Satellite cells
of muscle, 409, 433
of nervous tissue, 450t, 451
Satiety, 530f
Satiety center, 986, 987f
Saturated fatty acids and fats, 76,
792i, 991
Saturation
of hormone receptors, 659
of membrane carriers, 109, 109f
Savanna, adaptation to, 11
Scalp, 48f, 202
Scanning electron microscope
(SEM), 97
Scapular region, 33f, 395f
Scarification, 185i
Scar tissue, 184f, 450, 509i
Scent glands. See Pheromones
Schizophrenia, 540, 556t, 580i
Schleiden, Matthias, 6
Schwann, Theodor, 6, 94
Schwann cells, 450t, 451, 491, 491f. See
also Myelin; Neurilemma
embryonic origin of, 519
in lamellated (pacinian) corpuscles,
588
on myelinated nerve fibers, 447f,
451–453, 452f
at neuromuscular junction, 414, 415f
on unmyelinated nerve fibers, 453
Sciatica, 494i
Sciatic notches, 277, 279f, 280, 280t
SCID, 829–830
Scientific method, 7–8
Sclera, 610f, 612
Sclerosis, 450
Scoliosis, 263i, 264f
Scrotum
anatomy of, 1024,
1024f–1027f, 1027
embryonic, 1021, 1022f
location of, 33f, 44f–45f, 51f
pigmentation of, 196
Scuba diving, 869, 872i
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), 646i
Sebaceous glands, 191f, 201f, 206f, 207
in old age, 1108
Seborrheic dermatitis, 208t
Sebum, 199, 207, 1031
Secondary active transport, 111, 111f,
115t, 894
Secondary immune response,
825f, 826
Secondary oocyte. See Oocyte
Secondary protein structure, 80, 81f
Secondary sex characteristics, 207,
1018, 1031, 1057
Secondary sex organs, 1018
Secondary spermatocyte, 1034,
1034f–1035f
Secondary tympanic membrane, 599f,
600, 602, 602f
Second-messenger systems, 100. See
also Cyclic adenosine
monophosphate
in hormone action, 660,
660f–661f
in neurotransmitter action, 465,
467, 467f
in taste, 594
Second-order neurons, 486–487, 488f,
589, 590f
Secretin
as gut-brain peptide, 955
liver and pancreas regulated by,
963–964
metabolism regulated by, 1007, 1007t
stomach regulated by, 957f, 958
Secretion
by exocytosis, 114, 114f
gland types and, 180, 181f, 182
after protein synthesis, 139, 140f
Secretory phase, 1063f, 1064t, 1067
Secretory vesicles, 98f, 114, 114f, 119,
139, 140f
Sections, histological, 158, 159f
Segmentation contractions, 967, 967f
Selection pressure, 9–10
Selectively permeable membranes,
106, 108f
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
(SSRIs), 580i
Selenium, 57t, 60, 994t
Self-antigens, 816, 817, 829
Self-tolerance, 817
Sella turcica, 249f–250f, 255,
256f–257f
Selye, Hans, 663
Semen
HIV in, 831
sources of, 1028–1029, 1037
uptake by uterus, 1068
volume and composition of, 1035,
1037, 1037i, 1037t
Semicircular canals, 607
Semicircular ducts, 599f–600f, 606,
607, 608f
Semiconservative replication, 141, 141f
Semilunar valves, 715f, 722, 722f–723f,
736
Seminal vesicles
anatomy of, 1028
contribution to semen, 1028, 1037
embryonic, 1020f
location of, 51f, 1025f
in orgasm, 1039f, 1041
Seminiferous tubules, 1017f, 1023, 1026f
Senescence, 1107–1114
evolution of, 1114
theories of, 1113–1114
Senile atrophy, 183. See also
Senescence
Senile plaques, 475i
Sensation, 526, 586
Sense organs, 585–629
senescence of, 1110
Sensory adaptation, 587, 624
Sensory association areas, 540, 541f
Sensory deprivation, 586
Sensory homunculus, 540, 541f
Sensory nerves, 492. See also Nerves,
specific
Sensory neurons, 446, 446f
Sensory projection, 586. See also
Projection pathways
Sensory transduction, 586
Septal cartilage, 843
Septal defects, cardiac, 741t
Septicemia, 708t
Septum
of gland, 180, 180f
interatrial and interventricular,
721, 721f
nasal, 249f, 256–257, 259, 843
pellucidum, 522f
of scrotum, 1024
Series-elastic components, 409,
422, 423
Serosae. See Serous membranes
Serotonin
depression, role in, 580i
enteroendocrine function, 955t
in hemostasis, 704
as neurotransmitter, 464,
465f, 466t
as pain stimulus, 590
from pineal gland, 646, 646i, 653t
Serous fluid, 182
Serous glands, 180
Serous membranes, 36, 37f, 39f, 182,
941, 942f, 966f
Sertoli cells. See Sustentacular cells
Serum, blood, 683
Set point, 17
Severe combined immunodeficiency
disease (SCID), 829, 830f
Sex chromosomes, 146, 146f, 150t, 1019.
See also X chromosome;
Y chromosome
Sex determination, 1019
Sex differentiation, 1019, 1020f, 1021,
1021i, 1022f
Sex drive. See Libido
Sexes, differences in blood, 691
Sex hormones
adrenal, 649, 653t, 668, 669f
cholesterol, synthesis from, 656f
gonadal. See Ovaries; Testes
and nitrogen balance, 993
placental. See Placenta
Sex-influenced traits, 204
Sex linkage, 149, 149f, 150t, 707
Sex organs, primary and secondary,
1018
Sex steroids. See Sex hormones
Sexual behavior, 530f
Sexual cycle, 1061–1068
Sexual dimorphism of brain, 544,
545–546
Sexual emotions, 644
Sexual function and stress, 664
Sexuality, 539
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs),
1041i–1043i
Sexual reproduction, 1018, 1032
Sexual response
female, 1068–1069, 1069f
male, 1037–1041
Shaken child syndrome, 521
Shingles, 493i
Shinsplints, 386i
Shivering, 814
Shivering thermogenesis, 1011
Shock
anaphylactic, 765
cardiogenic, 765
circulatory, 763, 765, 828
compensated and decompensated,
765
dehydration and, 920
hypovolemic, 765, 890, 921f
low venous return, 765
neurogenic, 508i, 565, 765
obstructed venous return, 765
septic, 765
spinal, 508i
urine output, effect on, 901
venous pooling, 765
Short (myenteric) reflexes, 942, 948,
957, 957f
Short-term energy for muscle,
427–428, 428f
Short-term memory, 474
Shoulder. See also Joints, specific:
humeroscapular
dislocation of, 311, 494i
movements of, 356, 361t
surface anatomy of, 394f–395f, 398f
Shunts
circulatory, 748, 748f, 1099
for hydrocephalus, 524
Sickle-cell disease, 142, 148, 693–694,
693t, 694f
Sievert, 59
Sigmoid colon, 974
Sigmoidoscope, 974
Signal peptide, 136, 139
Silicon, 57t
Simple diffusion, 106, 106f, 115t
Single-unit smooth muscle, 433–434
Sinoatrial (SA) node, 727, 727f, 728, 738
Sinuses
aortic, 758, 770t
in bones, 246, 247f
carotid, 758, 758f, 771f
cavernous, 783f, 784t
coronary, 725, 725f
dural, 521, 783f, 784t
ethmoid, 246, 251f–252f, 256f
frontal, 48f, 246, 249f, 251, 252f,
257f, 844f
inferior sagittal, 783f, 784t
maxillary, 246, 251f–252f
sphenoid, 246, 249f, 252f,
257f, 844f
straight, 783f
superior sagittal, 520f, 521,
783f, 784t
transverse, 521, 783f, 784t
venous, 250f, 255
Sinusoids, 752
Sinus rhythm, 728, 732f
SITS muscles, 356, 386i
Situs inversus, 14i
Skeletal muscle pump, 764, 764f
Skeletal muscle tissue, 408–431
anaerobic fermentation in, 427–428,
428f, 430t, 998
histology of, 176, 177f
properties of, 432t
Skeletal system, 217–324. See also
Bones, specific; Bones in
general; Ligaments
bipedalism, adaptations for,
286f–287f, 286i–287i
fetal, 173f, 228f
interaction with other systems, 288
overview of, 40f, 245f
senescence of, 1109
Skene glands. See Paraurethral glands
Skin, 192–200
artificial, 211i
autonomic innervation of, 568f, 570
as barrier to infection, 809
color, 148, 196–198, 197f
diseases of, 208–211, 208t
endocrine role of, 652, 654t
functions of, 199–200
grafts, 211i
injury and healing, 184f, 185, 1108
innervation of, 504
structure of, 192–196, 193f
thick and thin, 192
Skull
bones of, 246–262, 248f–251f, 254f,
256f–260f, 261t
cavities of, 246, 248, 251f
foramina of, 248, 252t–253t
formation of, 225, 226, 226f
human vs. ape, 287f, 287i
in infancy and childhood, 260,
260f, 262i
sutures of, 246, 249f–251f, 296,
296f–297f
Skullcap. See Calvaria
Sleep, 537–538, 537f
brainstem centers for, 526, 529, 531
Sleep apnea, 871t
Sleep deprivation, 538
Sleep disturbances, 646i
Sleep paralysis, 537
Sliding filament theory, 417, 420f
Slow axonal transport, 449
Slow oxidative (SO) muscle fibers,
429–430, 430f, 430t, 431
Slow-twitch muscle fibers. See Slow
oxidative muscle fibers
Slow-wave sleep, 537
Small-cell carcinoma, 870
Small intestine, 964–968, 964f
contractions of, 965, 967, 967f
endocrine function of, 652, 654t
Smegma, 1029
Smell, 594–596
brainstem and, 530
cerebral cortex and, 532, 540, 541f,
596, 596f
loss of (anosmia), 257i
in old age, 1110
olfactory nerve and, 257, 257i, 549t
role in flavor, 594
Smoking
birth defects and, 1104
cardiovascular effects of, 739, 742i
cataracts and, 614i
contraception and, 1081i
LDL level and, 992
lung disease and, 869–871, 870f
osteoporosis and, 239i
peptic ulcer and, 956i
Smooth muscle
contraction of, 434–435, 435f
histology of, 176, 177f
innervation of, 433, 433f
multiunit, 433
properties of, 432t, 433
single-unit, 433–434
tone, 435
uterine, 1053
Snake venom, 437, 693t, 709
Sneezing, 526, 855
Sodium
amount in body, 57t
and anesthesia, 629i
atomic structure of, 57f
in cardiac function, 728–729, 730f
excretion of, 929
and fluid balance, 919
functions of, 922
homeostasis, 922
imbalances, 923
intestinal absorption of, 973
ionization of, 59–60, 60f
in muscle physiology,
415–417
in neuronal function, 455–461,
456f–457f, 462f, 465–466,
468, 470
RDA and dietary sources of,
994, 994t
reabsorption of, 892–894,
893f, 895
transport of, 110, 110f, 111
in vision, 623–624, 623f
Sodium bicarbonate, 962, 963t
Sodium channels, 231
effect of hyperkalemia on, 925
effect of hypocalcemia on, 231
myocardial, 730f
Sodium chloride, 60f, 61t, 61–62, 63,
64, 206. See also Salt
Sodium gates, 458–460, 459f
Sodium-glucose transport protein
(SGLT), 894, 111, 111f, 969
Sodium-potassium pump (Na-K
ATPase), 110, 110f–111f, 111,
140t, 456, 659
Solubility product, 230
Solutions, 65, 65f, 66t
Solvent drag, 762, 893f, 894–895,
969, 969f
Solvents, 65
poisoning by, 199i, 693t, 907i
water as, 63–64
Soma of a neuron, 175, 446, 447f, 449
Somatic cells, 146
Somatic motor neurons, 412, 414f
Somatic motor pathways, 565, 566f
Somatic nerve fibers, 492t
Somatic nervous system, 445, 564
Somatic recombination, 822
Somatic reflexes, 503–508
Somatomedin. See Insulin-like
growth factor
Somatostatin
digestive functions of, 955t
hypothalamic secretion of, 641f, 642t
as neurotransmitter, 574
pancreatic secretion, effect on,
651, 664
as paracrine, 651, 664
second messenger employed
by, 660
secretion by monocytes, 832
Somatotopy, 540, 541f
Somatotropin. See Growth hormone
Somesthetic association area, 540, 541f
Somesthetic cortex, primary, 488f, 540,
590, 590f
Somesthetic projection pathways, 589
Somesthetic senses, 530, 530f, 532,
540, 587
Sonography, 22i, 23f
Sound, 597–598
Sour taste, 594
Spatial summation, 470, 470f, 624–625
Special nerve fibers, 492t
Special senses, 540, 588
Specificity
enzyme-substrate, 83
hormone-receptor, 659
Spectrin, 689
Speech
brain centers for, 526, 532, 544, 545f
breathing and, 853, 855
cranial nerves involved in, 554t, 555t
hearing and understanding, 532,
544, 602, 603, 606
larynx, action in, 846, 847f
PET imaging of, 557i
sound frequencies of, 597f
stroke and, 766
Sperm. See also Spermatogenesis
acrosomal reaction of, 114
longevity and viability of, 1028, 1090
male defined by, 1018
maturation of, 1028
migration, 1090
mitochondria, 124i
rate of production, 1035
in semen, 1037, 1037t, 1041
in seminiferous tubules,
1017f, 1026f
structure of, 105, 1035, 1036f
washing, 1115i
Spermatic cord, 1023f, 1024,
1026f–1027f
Spermatic ducts, 1028, 1039
Spermatids, 1026f, 1034–1035,
1034f–1036f
Spermatocytes, 1034, 1034f–1035f
Spermatogenesis, 662, 1031,
1032–1035, 1034f–1036f
Spermatogonia, 1034, 1034f–1035f
Sperm count, 1037i, 1112
Spermicides, 1079i, 1080f, 1081t
Spermine, 1037t
Spermiogenesis, 1035, 1035f
Spherical aberration, 618
Sphincters, 176, 326
anal, 974, 975f, 1068, 1069f
esophageal, 948
hepatopancreatic, 961, 961f
ileocecal, 967, 974, 975f
precapillary, 751, 751f
pyloric, 50f, 950, 951f, 955
urethral, 1039f, 1041, 1068, 1069f
Sphygmomanometer, 733, 754
Spina bifida, 484i, 1072
Spinal column. See Vertebral column
Spinal cord, 482–490
autonomic reflexes in, 579
gross anatomy of, 482, 483f–484f,
485, 495f
histology of, 176f
location of, 48f–50f, 483f
meninges of, 482–483, 484f
trauma, 508i–510i
vertebrae, relationship to, 495f
Spinal curvatures, 263, 263f, 285
abnormal, 263i
human vs. ape, 287f, 287i
Spinal gating of pain, 591, 592f
Spinal meningitis, 509t
Spinal motor neurons, 579
Spinal nerves, 490–494
anatomy of, 484f, 490–494, 491f,
493f–500f, 502f
injuries of, 494i
spinal cord, relationship to,
484f, 485
tables of, 497t–502t
Spinal reflexes, 504
Spinal tap, 521i
Spinal tuberculosis, 263i
Spindle fibers, 144f
Spines, of bones, 247f, 247t
Spinocerebellar tract, 486t, 487, 526,
543f, 544, 589
Spinoreticular tract and pain, 590,
590f, 592f
Spinothalamic tract
anatomy of, 487, 487f–488f
functions of, 486t
and pain, 589, 590, 590f, 592f
Spirometry, 855–856
Spleen
anatomy of, 45f–46f, 807
atrophy of, 833i
erythrocyte destruction in, 691–692
function of, 807–808
hemopoiesis in, 685
location of, 14i, 808f
platelet storage in, 688
Splenomegaly, 832t
Sponge, contraceptive, 1080f, 1081i
Spongy bone. See under Bone tissue
Sprains, 317, 319t
Spreading factor (hyaluronidase),
809, 1090
Sputum, 869
Squamous cell carcinoma
of lung, 870
of skin, 209, 209f
Squamous suture, 248f–249f,
251, 260f
SRY gene, 1019
Stage of exhaustion, 664
Stage of resistance, 663
Stains, histological, 159
Starch, 73, 75t, 989
digestion of, 968–969, 969f
Starling, Ernest, 964
Start codons, 135, 136, 139f
Startle response, 606
Starvation and fasting, 682i–683i, 986,
987f, 1007–1008
Statistical tests, 8
Stearic acid, 76f
Stellate cells, 533
Stem cells
controversy over, 186i
gastric, 952
hemopoietic, 685, 817, 1111
in nervous system, 143i, 446
osteogenic, 221, 222f
in treating spinal cord injury, 510i
Stents, 743i, 962i
Stereocilia, 601, 602, 603, 603f, 606
Stereoscopic vision, 626, 628f
Sterility. See Infertility
Sterilization, surgical, 1081i
Sternal region, 33f, 393f–394f
Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
(SAIDs), 666i
Steroid hormones, 78t, 649, 654, 655t
mode of action, 659
synthesis of, 654–655
Steroids
anabolic-androgenic, 87i, 234
medical use of, 320i, 386i, 493i,
509i, 829i
structure of, 78, 78f
synthesis of, 117
Stigma, of ovary, 1065, 1066f
Stimuli, 16, 586–587
Stimulus coding, 471f, 586–587
Stimulus frequency and muscle
tension, 424–425, 425f
Stomach
anatomy of, 950, 951f, 952, 953f
atrophy in old age, 1112
endocrine function of, 652, 654t,
956–958, 957f
location of, 44f–45f, 50f, 941f
physiology of, 952, 954–958
Stop codons, 135, 136
Strabismus, 437f
Strain
on bones, 221
joint, 319t
Stratum basale (of skin), 192, 193f
Stratum basalis (of uterus), 1054, 1067
Stratum corneum, 192, 193f, 195, 196,
197f, 197t
Stratum functionalis, 1054
Stratum granulosum, 193f, 194
Stratum lucidum, 193f, 195
Stratum spinosum, 192, 193f, 194
Strength, muscular, 422–423, 424–425,
424f–425f, 431
loss in old age, 1109
Streptococcus pneumoniae, 871t
Streptokinase, 709i
Stress, 662
on bones, 221, 224f, 228, 233, 234
emotional, 645
immune function, effect on, 833i
incontinence, 907t
and LDL level, 992
proteins, 138
response, 663–664, 1110
Stress-relaxation response, 436
Stretch
muscle response to, 434
sense of, 588, 589t
Stretch marks, 1072
Stretch receptors, cardiac, 644
Striae (stretch marks), 1072
Striated muscle, 176, 177f, 177t, 408,
408f, 432, 432t. See also Cardiac
muscle; Skeletal muscle
Striations, 176, 177f, 408, 408f, 410f,
411, 412f, 413t
Stroke, 766
causes, 87i, 692, 766, 792i
in sickle-cell disease, 695
in spinal cord injury, 509i
Stroke volume, 736, 737, 739, 1111
Stroma of a gland, 180, 180f
Strontium-90, 59
Structural formulae, 61, 61f
Structural hierarchy of body, 12–13, 13f
Structural isomers, 61f
Structural polysaccharides, 73
Strychnine, 579i
Styloid process, 249f–250f, 254, 254f, 341f
Subarachnoid space, 483, 484f, 520f,
521, 523f
Subatomic particles, 57–58, 57f–58f
Subcostal line, 32, 35f
Subcutaneous injections, 196
Subcutaneous tissue, 196, 196f
Subdural space, 520f, 521
Sublingual gland, 941f
Submandibular gland, 941f
Submucosa, 941, 942f
Submucosal plexus, 941, 942f
Substance P
capillary permeability and, 762
as gut-brain peptide, 955
immune cells, effect on, 833i
as neurotransmitter, 464, 465f, 466t
pain and, 591, 592f
structure of, 465f
sympathetic nerve fibers, secreted
by, 574
Substantia nigra, 475i, 527
Substrates for enzymes, 82
Sucrase, 969
Sucrose
dietary, 75t, 989
digestion of, 75t, 969
I.V. administration of, 933i
structure of, 73, 74f
Sudoriferous glands, 205. See also
Sweat glands
Sugars, 73, 74f
craving for, 989, 990i
intestinal absorption of, 969, 969f
Sulci
of bones, 247t
of brain, 516, 517f–518f, 522f, 531,
532, 532f
of face, 393f, 610f
of heart, 718f, 721
Sulfates
in bone, 221
in urine, 894
Sulfur, 57t, 994t. See also Disulfide
bonds
Summation, 469–470, 470f
Sunburn, 204
Sunscreens, 210i
Superciliary ridge, 393f
Supercoiling of chromatin, 130, 131f
Superficial fascia, 196
Superficial perineal space, 350
Superoxide anion, 60, 809
Superoxide dismutase, 60
Superstition, 6
Supination, 306, 306f
Supine position, 30, 30f
Supporting cells, 600, 601f. See also
Sustentacular cells
Suppressor T (TS) cells, 818–819
Supraorbital margin, 251
Suprarenal gland. See
Adrenal gland
Suprasternal notch, 269, 269f, 393f, 394f
Surface anatomy, 33f, 391–406,
393f–406f
Surface area, 95, 95f, 107, 964
Surface tension, 64, 855
Surfactants, 855
Surgery, history of, 627i–629i
Surrogate mothers, 1115i
Suspensions, 65, 65f, 66t
Sustentacular cells, 652, 1026f, 1030,
1031f, 1032
Sutures, 246
classification of, 296, 296f–297f,
302t
coronal, 248f–249f, 251, 251f, 260f
lambdoid, 249f–251f, 251, 260f
metopic, 260
sagittal, 251, 251f, 260f
squamous, 248f–249f, 251, 260f
synostoses, transformation
to, 297
Swallowing, 845, 948–949, 949f
muscles of, 339t, 340, 341f
nerves controlling, 526,
553t–555t, 948
Sweat
apocrine, 206, 595i
merocrine, 205–206
Sweat glands, 205–207, 206f, 207t
autonomic innervation of, 568f,
569, 570, 577
Sweating
brainstem centers for, 526
cooling effectiveness of, 65, 200
in fever, 814
hypokalemia and, 925
in negative feedback, 17, 18i
spinal cord trauma, effect of, 509i
sweat glands and, 205–206
water loss by, 916, 918f, 919–920,
920f
Sweets, 594, 990i
Sympathetic chain, 567, 567f–569f. See
also Ganglia, sympathetic
Sympathetic nervous system, 444f, 565
anatomy of, 567–571, 568f–569f,
571t, 573t
bronchioles, effect on, 854–855
digestion, effect on, 947–948, 963
heart, effect on, 738, 740t
immune system, effect on, 833i
kidneys, effect on, 886, 890, 890f
postabsorptive metabolism, effect
on, 1008
physiology of, 574–578
pupil, effect on, 575, 576t, 577,
577f, 615
sexual function, effect on,
1038f–1039f, 1039, 1041
thermoregulation, effect on, 1011
vasomotion, effect on, 575,
577–578, 578f, 758, 758f
Sympathetic tone, 565, 577, 578f
Sympathoadrenal system, 571
Sympatholytic drugs, 579i
Sympathomimetic drugs, 579i
Symphyses, 297, 302t
mental, 259
pubic, 277, 279, 279f
Symports, 110, 115t, 893, 893f
Synapses. See also Neural integration;
Neurotransmitters; Synaptic
transmission
electrical, 463
neuromuscular, 407f, 413,
414f–415f
structure of, 407f, 448, 463,
463f–464f
Synaptic cleft, 414, 415f, 416t,
463, 464f
Synaptic delay, 467, 468, 473
Synaptic knob, 414, 415f, 416t, 447f,
448, 463, 463f, 474
Synaptic plasticity, 473
Synaptic potentiation, 473
Synaptic transmission,
465–468, 467f
cessation of, 467–468
in old age, 1110
Synaptic vesicles, 414, 415f, 416t, 417,
448, 464f
Synarthroses, 294, 295f
Synchondroses, 297, 302t
Syncope, 765, 766
Syncytiotrophoblast, 1093, 1093f, 1095
Syndesmoses, 296, 296f, 302t
Synergistic effects of hormones, 662
Synergistic muscles, 328–329
Synostoses, 297, 302t
Synovial fluid, 183, 298, 299, 299f,
299i, 320i
Synovial joints. See also Diarthroses;
Joints
anatomy of, 298–299, 299f
classification of, 295, 295f, 302t
general anatomy of, 299, 299f
types of, 299–302, 301f, 302t
Synovial membrane, 183, 299,
299f, 320i
Synovitis, 319t
Synthesis reactions, 69f, 70, 71t, 72,
73f, 75f
Syphilis, 1042i–1043i
cardiovascular effects of, 754i
neonatal, 1104
Systemic circuit, 716
Systemic edema, 736, 737f
Systemic gas exchange, 864, 865f,
866–867
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE),
828, 832t
Systole, 728
atrial, 734, 736
ventricular, 730, 736
Systolic blood pressure, 754

T
Tachycardia, 738, 739
Tachypnea, 857t
Tactile (Meissner) corpuscles,
588, 589t
Tactile (Merkel) cells, 192, 193f, 588
Tactile (Merkel) discs, 588, 589t
Tagamet, 956i
Tamoxifen, 1058
Target cells, 637
Tarsal glands, 610
Tarsal plate, 610f
Tarsal region, 36
bones of, 281–282, 283f–284f
fractures of, 236f–237f, 237t
joint anatomy of, 317, 317f–318f
movements of, 306–307, 307f
sprains, 317, 319t
surface anatomy of, 33f, 401f–405f
Taste, 592–594
brain centers for, 526, 530, 532,
540, 541f
cranial nerves involved in,
552t–553t
in old age, 1110
Taste buds, 592–593, 593f, 594
Taste cells, 593, 593f
Tay–Sachs disease, 453i
T cell recall response, 821
T cells (lymphocytes), 804
activation of, 819, 820f
in AIDS, 829
in cancer, 799f, 819
cytotoxic (TC), 818–819, 819t,
820f–821f, 826t
development of, 647, 817
effects of cortisol on, 833i
helper (TH), 812t, 818–819, 818f,
819t, 820f–821f, 822,
823f, 826t
in hypersensitivity, 828
in inflammation, 813
maturation in thymus, 806–807
memory, 819, 820f, 821, 826t
secretions of, 819–820, 820f,
826t–827t, 833i
suppressor (TS), 818–821, 826t
types of, 818–819, 826t
Tears, 611. See also Lacrimal apparatus;
Lacrimal gland
antibodies in, 825t
HIV in, 831
Tectorial membrane, 601f, 603
Tectospinal tracts, 486t, 489
Tectum, 489, 528
Teeth, 944–946, 945f, 946i
Tegmentum, 527
Telencephalon, 519, 520f, 529
Telogen phase, 203
Telomerase, 1113
Telomeres, 1113
Telophase
meiotic, 1032, 1033f, 1034
mitotic, 143, 144f
Temperature. See also Heat;
Thermoregulation
body, 83, 1009, 1066i
diffusion, effect on, 107
heat vs., 64–65
oxygen unloading and, 866, 866f
reaction rate, effect on, 70
receptors for, 588, 589t
sense of, 486t, 487, 553t
Temporal lobe
functions of, 532
hearing and, 540, 541f, 605, 606f
lesions of, 538
location of, 517f–518f, 532, 532f
memory and, 539
sexual dimorphism of, 544
Temporal region, 393f
Temporal summation, 425, 431,
469–470, 470f
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
syndrome, 310i
Tendinitis, 319t
Tendon reflex, 508
Tendons, specific
abductor pollicis longus, 370f
Achilles. See calcaneal
biceps femoris, 403f
calcaneal, 281, 317, 317f, 333f, 375,
378f, 381f, 401f, 403f–404f, 506
central
of diaphragm, 345, 345f
of perineum, 351, 355f
extensor carpi radialis longus and
brevis, 368f
extensor digiti minimi, 370f, 399f
extensor digitorum, 368f, 370f,
398f–399f
extensor digitorum longus, 378f,
404f–405f
extensor hallucis longus, 402f, 405f
extensor pollicis brevis,
370f, 399f
extensor pollicis longus,
370f, 399f
fibularis brevis, 401f
fibularis longus, 401f
flexor carpi radialis, 365f, 366,
370f, 399f
flexor carpi ulnaris, 365f, 370f
flexor digitorum longus, 385f
flexor digitorum profundus,
365f, 370f
flexor digitorum superficialis,
365f, 370f
flexor hallucis longus, 385f
flexor pollicis longus, 365f, 370f
gastrocnemius, 381f
hamstring, 317i
palmaris longus, 365f, 366, 370f, 399f
plantaris, 381f
quadriceps femoris, 281, 376f–377f,
400f
semimembranosus, 402f
semitendinosus, 402f–403f
triceps brachii, 506
Tendon sheaths, 299, 300f, 370f
Tendons in general
attachments of, 220
as components of muscular system,
327, 327f
as components of skeletal system,
218, 299
histology of, 167, 167f, 171f
Tennis elbow, 386i
Tennis leg, 386i
Tension, muscle, 423, 426f, 431, 435
Tenting effect, 1068, 1069f
Tentorium cerebelli, 521
Teratogens, 1104
Terminal arborization, 447f, 448
Terminal cisternae, 409, 410f, 413t, 417
Terminal ganglia, 571
Terminal hair, 202
Terminal web, 98f, 103
Terminologia Anatomica, 19
Tertiary protein structure, 80, 81f
Tertiary syphilis, 1043i
Testes. See also Gonads;
Spermatogenesis
anatomy of, 1023–1024,
1025f–1027f
descent of, 1021, 1023, 1023f, 1042t
embryonic, 1019, 1020f
endocrine function of, 651–652,
651f, 653t, 1019, 1023,
1030–1031, 1031f
location of, 33f, 45f, 51f
oxygen supply to, 1024
as primary sex organs, 1018
temperature of, 1023, 1027, 1028f
Testicles, etymology of, 21i
Testicular feminization, 659i, 1021i
Testis-determining factor, 1019
Testosterone
adrenal secretion of, 649, 653t
aging and, 1112
anabolic steroids and, 87i
baldness and, 204
bone, effect on, 234, 235t
effects of, 1030–1031, 1031f
sex determination, role in, 1050
structure and synthesis of, 134,
135f, 656f
Testosterone receptors, 1021i, 1030
Tetanic stimulation, 474
Tetanus
bacterial, 414i, 425, 449
in muscle contraction, 425, 425f, 435
Tetany, hypocalcemic, 231, 667, 926
Tetrads, 1033f, 1034
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 987
Tetraiodothyronine (T4). See Thyroid
hormone
Texture
of food, 594
sense of, 586, 587
Thalamus
anatomy and functions of, 530, 530f
ascending spinal tracts, relationship
to, 486, 488f, 589
cerebellum, relationship to, 543f
location of, 517f–518f, 522f, 525f, 535f
midbrain, relationship to, 527
pain signals relayed through, 590
in Parkinson disease, 475i
Thalassemia, 693t, 708t
Thalidomide, 1104, 1104f
Theca folliculi, 1064, 1065, 1065f
Thelarche, 1059
Thenar eminence, 366, 398f–399f
Theory in science, 7, 8
Thermogenesis, 814, 1009, 1011
Thermoreceptors, 200, 587, 1010
Thermoregulation, 1009–1011
behavioral, 1011
feedback loops in, 17–18, 18f, 18i
hypothalamus, role in, 17–18, 200,
508i, 530f, 1010–1011
neonatal, 1103, 1104
in old age, 1108
skin, role of, 200
Theta waves, 536–537, 536f–537f
Thiamine. See Vitamin B1
Thick filaments, 409, 411f–412f,
413t, 420f
Thick skin, 192, 193f
Thigh, 36, 280
arterial supply to, 779f–780f,
779t–780t
bones of, 281, 282f
extrinsic muscles acting on, 369,
372t–373t, 373f
movements of, 302–303,
304f–305f, 305–306
muscles in, 369, 372t–373t,
373–374, 373f
surface anatomy of, 33f, 400f
venous drainage of, 790f–791f,
790t–791t
Thin filaments, 409–410, 411f–412f,
413t, 420f, 432t
Thin skin, 192, 194f
Third-order neurons, 486–487, 488f,
589, 590f
Thirst, 531, 891, 917–918, 918f
Thoracic cage, 268–270, 269f, 272t
Thoracic cavity, 36, 36f, 37t, 49f
Thoracic curvature, 263, 263f
Thoracic pump, 764
Thoracic region, 32
arterial supply to, 774t–775t, 775f
lymphatic drainage of, 800f, 802, 803f
muscles of, 345–346, 345f, 346t,
347, 348f, 349, 350f–352f,
353t
of spinal cord, 482, 483f
surface anatomy of, 33f, 394f–395f
venous drainage of, 786f, 786t
Thoracolumbar division, 567
Thorax. See Thoracic region
Thoroughfare channel, 751
Thought, 545f
Threshold
of action potential, 458, 458f,
460, 460f
of muscle contraction, 423, 424f
of pacemaker potential, 728
sensory, 586, 597f, 598, 624
Thrombin, 704, 705f
Thrombocytes, 688
Thrombocytopenia, 708t
Thromboembolism, 708
Thromboplastin, 990
Thrombopoiesis, 688, 688f
Thrombopoietin, 685, 688
Thrombosis, 707, 708, 1111
hemodialysis and, 908
Thromboxanes, 664, 665f, 704, 708i
Thrombus, 707
Thrush, 831
Thucydides, 816
Thumb
bones of, 275, 276f, 301f
muscles of, 361, 364t, 366, 368f,
369t, 370f, 371t
opposable, 10, 10f
opposition and reposition of, 306, 306f
surface anatomy of, 398f–399f
trapeziometacarpal joint of,
300, 301f
Thymectomy, 437i
Thymic hormones, 807, 817
Thymine, 130, 131f
Thymopoietin, 647, 653t
Thymosins, 647, 653t
Thymulin, 807
Thymus
anatomy of, 646–647, 647f,
806–807, 807f
atrophy of, 833i
function of, 647, 653t, 806–807
lymphopoiesis in, 685, 817
Thyretin, 657
Thyroglobulin, 656, 658f
Thyroid cartilage, 45f
Thyroid gland. See also Calcitonin;
Thyroid hormone
anatomy of, 647, 647f
C cells of, 232, 648
disorders of, 666–668, 670t
location of, 45f
negative feedback inhibition by,
645, 645f
in pregnancy, 1071
secretions of, 647–648, 653t
tumors of, 231
Thyroid hormone, 235t
calorigenic effect of, 647, 659
effects of, 647–648, 653t
heart, effects on, 739, 740t
hyposecretion of, 667
lipolysis and, 1005
metabolic rate and, 1009
mode of action, 659, 659f
as monoamine, 654
in negative feedback inhibition,
645, 645f
in old age, 1110
protein synthesis and, 1006
secretion of, 647
structure and synthesis of,
656–657, 658f
transport of, 657, 659f
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
in negative feedback inhibition,
645–646, 645f
pituitary secretion of, 641f, 642,
643f, 644, 645t
in pregnancy, 1071, 1071t
secretion by T lymphocytes, 833
thyroid gland, action on, 657
Thyrotropin. See Thyroid-stimulating
hormone
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH),
641f, 642t, 643f, 645, 645f
Thyroxine. See Thyroid hormone
Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG),
657, 659f
Tibial periosteum, 386i
Tibial tuberosity, 400f
Tic douloureux, 556i
Tickle, 588, 589t
Tidal volume, 855, 856t, 857f
Tight junctions, 178, 178f
in brain-barrier system, 524
gastric, 956, 1012
intestinal, 969
renal, 892, 893f
testicular, 1012
Time, sense of, 526
Tin, 57t
Tinea, 208t
Tinnitus, 310i
Tip link, 603, 603f
Tissue, 13, 158. See also Histology;
specific tissue types
developmental changes in,
183, 185
repair of, 184f, 185–186
sections, interpreting, 158–160,
159f–160f
Tissue engineering, 211
Tissue fluid, 158, 916
Tissue gel, 158
Tissue plasminogen activator
(TPA), 709i
Tissue thromboplastin, 704, 705,
705f, 706t
Titin, 410, 413t
T lymphocytes. See T cells
TMJ syndrome, 310i
Toenails. See Nails
Toe-off, 286i
Toes. See Bones, specific: phalanges;
Hallux
Tongue, 48f, 939f, 944
movements, neural control of,
526, 555t
muscles of, 337, 339t, 341f
Tonic receptors, 587
Tonicity, 108–109, 109f
Tonometer, 614
Tonsillectomy, 806
Tonsils, 593f, 806, 806f, 844f, 943f
Tonus. See Muscle tone
Total body water (TBW), 916
Total heart block, 728, 732f
Total hip replacement, 320i
Total lung capacity, 856, 856t, 857f
Total parenteral nutrition, 933i
Touch
cranial nerves involved in,
551t, 553t
receptors for, 588, 589t
sense of, 486t, 487
Toxic goiter, 666–667, 670t
Toxins, 199i, 449, 693t, 765, 1072. See
also Haptens; Poisoning;
Venoms
immune and nonspecific reactions
to, 812, 817, 828, 832t
Toxoplasma infection, 831, 1104
T progenitor cells, 686f, 688
Trabeculae
of bone, 220f, 223, 224f, 226, 227
carneae, 721
of cartilage, 228
of glands, 180, 180f
of penis, 1029
Trace elements, 56, 57t
Trachea
anatomy of, 844f–845f, 846, 848f
epithelium of, 105f, 163f, 849f
location of, 46f, 48f
mucociliary escalator of, 846, 848f
Tracheostomy, 846i–847i
Traction, 237, 314f
Tracts
of brain, 516, 532–533, 533f
of spinal cord, 485–489, 487f
Transamination, 1004t, 1005–1006
Transcellular fluids, 916
Transcortin, 657
Transcription, genetic, 136, 139f
Transcytosis, 113, 114f, 761
Transdermal absorption, 199, 199i
Transducers, 586
Transferrin, 687, 687f, 692, 973
Transfer RNA (tRNA), 134, 136,
137f–139f
Transfusion reaction, 696, 697f, 823,
828, 907i
Transient ischemic attack (TIA), 766
Transitional period, postpartum, 1101
Translation, genetic, 136, 137f–139f
Transmembrane proteins, 99f–101f, 100
Transmission electron microscope,
96, 97
Transpiration, cutaneous, 917, 918f
Transplants, 103t
Transport maximum (Tm), 109, 109f,
668–669, 895
Transport proteins
of blood plasma, 683, 684t
for hormones, 657, 661
Transport vesicles, 139, 140f
Transverse plane, 31, 31f
Transverse sections, 31, 31f, 160, 160f
Transverse (T) tubules
in cardiac muscle, 432t, 433, 726
in skeletal muscle, 409, 410f, 413t,
417, 419f
Trauma and hyperkalemia, 925
Treatment group, 8
Treponema pallidum, 1042i
Treppe, 424, 425f
Triangles
of neck, 343, 344f
of perineum, 350, 355f, 1024f
Trichosiderin, 202
Tricuspid valve, 721f–722f, 722
Trigeminal neuralgia, 556i
Trigger zone, 447f, 453, 458
Triglycerides. See also Fatty acids
in absorptive and postabsorptive
states, 1007–1008
in adipose tissue, 169
in blood lipoproteins, 78i, 991–992,
991t, 992f
in colostrum and breast milk, 1078t
depletion in stress, 664
digestion and absorption of,
970–971, 972f
functions of, 78t
metabolism of, 666t
storage, 1004
structure of, 75–76, 76f
transport in blood, 991, 991t, 992f
Triiodothyronine (T3). See Thyroid
hormone
Trimesters, 1070
Triple rhythm, 734
Triplo-X syndrome, 1105f, 1106
Trisomies, 1106, 1107f
Tristearin, 75
Tritium, 58, 58f
Trochanters, 247f, 247t, 281, 282f
Trochlea
of eye, 611, 612f
of humerus, 274, 274f
Trochlear surface, 281, 283f, 318f
Trophoblast, 1093, 1093f, 1096f
Trophoblastic nutrition, 1095, 1095f
Tropic (trophic) hormones, 640
Tropomyosin and troponin
in excitation-contraction coupling,
417, 419f
myocardial, 432t
in relaxation of muscle, 421f, 422
in thin myofilaments, 410, 411f,
413t
Troponin. See Tropomyosin and
troponin
Trunks
arterial
brachiocephalic, 770f–771f,
770t–771t
celiac, 776f–778f, 776t
pulmonary, 767, 768f
spinal nerve, 498f, 498t
vagal, 573
Trypsin, 962, 963t, 970, 971f
Trypsinogen, 962, 963t
Tryptophan, 995
Tubal ligation, 1081i, 1081t
Tubal pregnancy, 1094i
Tubercles of bones, 247f, 247t
Tuberculosis, 854, 871t
in AIDS, 831
skin test, 828
spinal, 263i
Tuberosities of bones, 247f, 247t
Tubular reabsorption, 887f, 891–895,
895f, 901
Tubular secretion, 887f, 891, 895, 901
Tubulin, 121
Tubuloglomerular feedback, 890, 891f
Tufted cells, 595f, 596
Tumor angiogenesis, 757
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), 151i, 820,
827t, 832
Tumors. See also Cancer
benign, 151i
classification of, 151i
hormone–secreting, 666
radiographic images of, 515f, 1059f
Tumor suppressor (TS) genes,
151i, 152i
Tunica
adventitia, 749, 749f, 941
albuginea
of ovary, 1050, 1051f
of penis, 1029, 1030f, 1040
of testis, 1023, 1026f
externa, 749, 749f, 801
fibrosa, 612
interna, 182, 613, 750
intima, 749f, 750, 801
media, 749f, 750, 752, 801
vaginalis, 1023, 1023f, 1026f–1027f
vasculosa, 612
Tunics of eye, 612–613
Turner syndrome,
1105f–1106f, 1106
T wave, 730, 731f–732f, 732t
Twins, 1074, 1092f, 1092i, 1101t
Twitch, 423–425, 423f, 425f
Two-point discrimination, 586, 587f
Tympanic cavity, 598, 599f
Tympanic membrane, 598, 599f–600f,
1110
Tympanic reflex, 602
Typhoid fever, effect on WBC
count, 701
Tyrosine, 79f, 656, 658f
Tyrosine kinase, 660

U
Ulcer, 664, 956f, 956i
Ulcerative colitis, 978t
Ultrasound, 22i
Ultrastructure, 96
Ultraviolet (UV). See under Radiation
Umami, 594
Umbilical cord, 75, 165f, 1070,
1096f–1098f, 1097, 1100f
Umbilical hernia, 352i
Umbilical region, 32, 33f, 35f
Umbilicus, 348f–349f, 394f
Undescended testes, 1023, 1037i, 1042t
Unencapsulated nerve endings,
588, 589t
Unicellular glands, 180
Uniports, 110, 115t
Unipotent cells, 186i
Unit membrane, 98
Unity of form and function, 22
Universal donor and recipient, 696
Unmyelinated nerve fibers, 453,
460–461, 461f
Unsaturated fatty acids and fats, 75–76,
76f, 991
Upper limb. See Arm; Forearm;
Hand; Wrist
Up-regulation, 661, 663f
Uracil, 130, 131f
Urea
blood, concentration in, 683t, 881
as nitrogenous waste, 881, 881f
reabsorption of, 893f, 894
role in water reabsorption, 898
secretion of, 895
structure and synthesis of, 881f,
1006, 1006f
and tonicity, 108–109
urine, concentration in, 902t
Ureaplasma urealyticum, 1042i
Uremia, 881, 907i
Ureters, 46f, 883f, 903–904
Urethra
embryonic, 1021, 1022f
female, 47f, 51f, 355f, 904, 905,
905i, 1056f
male, 51f, 355f, 904, 905i,
1025f, 1028
Urethral sphincters, 904–906,
905f–906f, 1041
Uric acid, 881
reabsorption of, 893f, 894
secretion of, 895
structure of, 881f
Urinalysis, 899
Urinary bladder. See also Incontinence
anatomy of, 904, 905f–906f
autonomic control of, 526, 574,
576t, 905, 906f
location of, 44f, 46f, 51f,
1025f, 1051f
muscle contraction in, 436
in urination, 905–906, 906f
X ray of, 879f
Urinary system, 879–914
in acid-base balance, 927–933,
929f–930f
autonomic innervation of, 568f,
569, 570, 571t, 572f
in electrolyte balance, 922–926, 923f
interactions with other systems, 909
overview of, 42f, 880f
in pregnancy, 1072
senescence of, 1111
in waste elimination, 879–913
in water balance, 918–921, 919f,
920i, 921f
Urinary tract infections, 905i
Urination, 905–906
Valsalva maneuver in, 855
Urine
calcium loss in, 232f
composition of, 901, 902t
formation of, 886–899
output, 901–902
in diabetes insipidus, 666, 902
in diabetes mellitus, 669
pH of, 929
properties of, 899–901
storage of, 903, 904
voiding of, 905–906, 906f
volume of, 901–902
water loss in, 916, 917, 918f–919f,
919
Urobilinogen, 692, 962
Urochrome, 692, 899
Urogenital diaphragm, 351, 355f
Urogenital folds, 1021, 1022f, 1050
Urogenital sinus, 1020f
Urogenital triangle, 350, 355f, 1024f
Urticaria, 832t
Uterine milk, 1093
Uterine tube
anatomy of, 1050, 1051f–1053f,
1052, 1066f
cilia in, 103, 1052, 1053f
ectopic pregnancy in, 1094i
embryonic, 1020f
location of, 46f, 1051f–1052f
oocyte uptake by, 1066,
1066f, 1092f
in sexual cycle, 1065
Uterus. See also Menstrual cycle
anatomy of, 46f, 51f, 1051f–1052f,
1052–1055
autolysis and involution of,
1075–1076
blood supply to, 1054, 1055f
contractility of, 1074
embryonic, 1020f
growth in pregnancy, 1073
in intercourse, 1068, 1069f
in labor, 1074–1075, 1075f
Uterus masculinus, 1019
Utilization coefficient, 864
Utricle, 600f, 606, 607f
Uvea, 612
Uvula, 844f, 855

V
Vaccination, 816, 833i, 1111
Vagal tone, 738, 758f
Vagina
anatomy of, 1051f–1052f, 1055
embryonic, 1020f
epithelium of, 164f, 166f, 183
in intercourse, 1068, 1069f
location of, 47f, 51f, 1051f
orifice of, 355f, 1056f
Vaginal process, 1023f
Vaginal transudate, 1068, 1069f
Valence electrons, 60, 62
Valence of an ion, 59
Valium, 629i
Valsalva maneuver, 855, 906,
977, 1075
Valves
cardiac
anatomy of, 721–722, 721f–722f
disorders of, 723i
functioning of, 722, 723f,
734–736, 735f
insufficiency of, 723i, 763
prolapse of, 723i
stenosis of, 723i
surgical replacement of, 716
lymphatic, 801, 802f
venous, 753, 763–764, 763f–764f,
1111
Vanadium, 57t
Varicella-zoster, 493i
Varicocele, 1042t
Varicose veins, 753i, 1072, 1111
Varicosities, autonomic, 433, 434
Vasa recta, 884f, 885, 886f, 898, 900f
Vasa vasorum, 750
Vascular spasm, 703, 703f
Vas deferens. See Ductus deferens
Vasectomy, 1081i, 1081t, 1115i
Vasoactive chemicals, 757, 812
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP),
832, 833i, 955
Vasocongestion, 1040, 1068
Vasoconstriction, 101i, 577, 578, 664,
755, 756f
cutaneous, 18, 200, 814
Vasodilation, 577, 578, 755
cutaneous, 17, 200, 814
Vasomotion, 755. See also
Vasoconstriction; Vasodilation
blood flow and, 757–760
thermoregulation and, 17–18, 18f,
200, 814, 1011
Vasomotor center, 526, 529, 757–758
Vasomotor tone, 435, 577, 578f, 758f
Vasopressin, 644. See also Antidiuretic
hormone
Vectors of disease, 199
Veins, specific
accessory hemiazygos, 786f, 786t
arcuate, of kidney, 884f, 885, 886f
ascending lumbar, 786f–787f, 786t
axillary, 45f, 782f–783f, 784t, 785f
azygos, 786f, 786t
basilic, 782f, 785f, 785t
brachial, 45f, 782f, 784t, 785f
brachiocephalic, 45f, 782f–783f, 784t
bronchial, 786t
cardiac, great and middle, 725, 725f
central (of liver lobule), 960–961,
960f
cephalic, 43f, 45f, 398f, 782f,
785f, 785t
coronary sinus, 725, 725f
cystic, 788f, 789t
deep femoral, 790f
digital
of foot, 790t, 790f–791f
of hand, 785f
dorsal, of penis, 1030f
dorsal pedal, 790f–791f, 790t
dorsal venous network, 785f, 785t
esophageal, 786t
facial, 783f, 784t
femoral, 43f, 45f, 377f, 782f,
790f–791f, 791t
femoral circumflex, 790f
fibular, 790f, 790t
gastric, 788f, 789t
gastroepiploic, 788f–789f
gonadal, 782f, 787f, 787t
great cardiac, 725, 725f
great saphenous, 43f
hemiazygos, 786f, 786t
hemorrhoidal, 974, 975f
hepatic, 46f, 782f, 787f, 787t, 789f
hepatic portal, 788f–789f, 789t, 960f
iliac, common, 782f, 786t, 787f,
790f–791f, 791t
iliac, external, 782f, 787f,
790f–791f, 791t
iliac, internal, 782f, 787f,
790f–791f, 791t
intercostal, 567f, 786f, 786t
interlobular, 884f, 885, 886f
jugular, external and internal, 44f,
49f, 521, 782f–783f, 784t
lumbar, 786f–787f, 786t
median antebrachial, 785f, 785t,
median cubital, 398f, 782f,
785f, 785t
mediastinal, 786t
mesenteric, inferior and superior,
46f, 50f, 788f–789f, 788t
metacarpal, 784t, 785f
metatarsal, 790f–791f
middle cardiac, 725, 725f
occipital, 783f
ophthalmic, 783f, 784t
ovarian, 787t, 1050, 1052f
palmar arches, 784t, 785f
palmar digital, 784t
pancreatic, 788t
pericardial, 786t
peroneal. See fibular
phrenic, 787f, 787t
plantar, 790f–791f
popliteal, 782f, 790f–791f, 791t
posterior cardiac, 725f
pulmonary, 678f, 717, 719f,
767, 768f
radial, 782f, 784t, 785f
renal, 782f, 787f, 787t, 883f,
885, 886f
saphenous, great and small, 782f,
790f–791f, 791t
splenic, 788f, 788t, 789f
subclavian, 45f, 49f, 782f–783f,
784t, 785f
superficial circumflex iliac, 790f
superficial epigastric, 790f
superficial temporal, 783f, 784t
suprarenal, 787f, 787t
testicular, 787t, 1024, 1026f–1028f, 1027
thoracic, 782f
thyroid, 783f
tibial, anterior and posterior, 782f,
790f–791f, 790t
ulnar, 782f, 784t, 785f
umbilical, 1097, 1099, 1100f
vena cava
inferior
blood flow in, 757t, 764
diaphragm, relationship
to, 345f
fetal, 1099, 1100f
heart, anatomical
relationship to, 717,
719f, 721f
location of, 46f, 50f, 782f
tributaries of, 786t–787t,
787f, 789f
superior
heart, anatomical
relationship to, 717,
719f, 721f
location of, 45f–46f, 782f
tributaries of, 783f,
783t–786t,
785f –786f
venous arches
of foot, 790f–791f, 790t–791t
of hand, 784t, 785f
vertebral, 783f, 784t
Veins in general, 716. See also Sinuses;
Venous return
blood flow in, 739, 757t, 763–765
blood pressure in, 754, 755f
blood volume in, 753f
fetal, 1099, 1100f
structure and types of, 749f,
752–753
systemic
overview of, 782f
tables of, 783t–791t
varicose, 753i
Vellus, 202
Venoms, 437, 693t, 709, 828. See also
Poisoning; Toxins
Venous pooling, 765
Venous reserve, 864
Venous return, 739, 763–765
Venous sinuses, 752
Ventilation. See Pulmonary ventilation
Ventilation-perfusion coupling,
862, 863f
Ventral horn, 484f, 485
Ventral ramus, 493, 495f–496f
Ventral root, 485, 491f, 492, 495f–496f
Ventricles
of brain, 517, 518f, 521, 522f, 527f
of heart, 719f, 720, 721f
Ventricular fibrillation, 732f, 732i
Venules, 752, 812
Verapamil, in treating hypertension,
793i
Vernix caseosa, 1101t
Vertebrae, 49f
cervical, 262, 262f, 272t
coccygeal, 246t, 268, 279f, 280t
compression of, 239i
general anatomy of, 264,
264f, 265f
lumbar, 14, 262, 262f, 263,
267, 267f
number of, 262, 263
sacral, 47f, 246t, 267–268, 279f, 280t
thoracic, 262, 262f, 266–267, 267f
Vertebral arch, 264, 264f
Vertebral canal, 36, 36f, 37t
Vertebral column, 48f, 245f, 246t,
262–268, 262f–268f
adaptation to bipedalism, 263,
287f, 287i
Vertebral furrow, 395f
Vertebral region, 33f, 395f
Vertex position, 1073, 1073f,
1074, 1101t
Vertigo, 310i
Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL),
991, 991t, 992f, 1004t
Vesalius, Andreas, 4, 5f, 716
Vesicles
of brain, 519, 520f
Golgi, 118–119, 118f, 139, 140f
optic, 519, 520f
phagocytic, 112, 112f
pinocytotic, 113, 114f
secretory, 114, 139, 140f
synaptic, 414, 415f, 417, 418f, 448,
463, 464f, 465
transport, 139, 140f
Vesicular transport, 112,
112f–114f, 115t
Vestibular apparatus, 606
Vestibular bulbs, 1056f
Vestibular folds, 844f–845f, 845, 846,
847f, 948
Vestibular glands, greater and lesser,
1056f, 1068
Vestibular nucleus, 489
Vestibule
of inner ear, 599
of vulva, 1020f, 1055, 1068
Vestibulospinal tracts, 486t, 489, 543f
Vestigial organs, 10i, 204
Viagra, 1040i
Vibration, sense of, 486t, 487, 588, 589t
Vibrissae, 204, 844f
Villi, 964, 965, 966f, 969. See also
Chorionic villi
Viral infections, 556t, 815i
AIDS, 830
defenses against, 814, 819, 820
meningitis, 521i
Virgin lymphocyte pool, 817, 826t
Viruses
as carcinogens, 151
cytomegalovirus (CMV), 1104
defense against, 809, 810, 814, 820
hepatitis, 1043i
herpes simplex (HSV), 1043i, 1104
human immunodeficiency (HIV),
524, 829–832, 830f
human papilloma (HPV), 1043i
polio, 490
rubella, 1104
size of, 97t
transport of, 114
varicella-zoster, 493i
Viscera, 36
Visceral muscle, 176, 177f, 433, 434f
Visceral nerve fibers, 492t
Visceral reflex arc, 564
Visceral senses
cerebral center for, 532
vagus nerve and, 554t
Viscosity of blood, 680–681, 693, 755
Vision, 549t, 610–628
brain and, 530f, 532, 540, 541f
color, 11, 625–626, 626f
stereoscopic, 11, 11f, 626, 627f
Visual association area, 540, 541f
Visual filling, 615, 615f
Visual reflexes, 486t
Vital capacity, 856, 856t, 857f, 1111
Vital signs, neonatal, 1103i
Vitamin A (retinol), 235t, 990, 995
deficiency and excess of, 996
RDA and dietary sources of, 995t
storage of, 1004t
Vitamin B1 (thiamine), 1012i
RDA and dietary sources of, 995t
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), 84, 995t, 996
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
excess of, 996
RDA and dietary sources of, 995t
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin), 688, 693,
693t, 954, 973, 1111
RDA and dietary sources of, 995t
storage of, 1004t
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), 60, 235t, 688,
693t, 995
excess of, 996
RDA and dietary sources of, 995t
Vitamin D (calcitriol)
calcium homeostasis, role in, 926
deficiency, 239i, 926
effect of PTH on, 648
excess, 996
functions of, 232, 232f–233f, 235t, 995
for infants, 1104
intestinal absorption of, 973, 990
and lactation, 1078
and osteoporosis, 239i
in pregnancy, 1072
RDA and dietary sources of, 995t
synthesis, 199, 231, 233f, 654, 880,
995, 1004t, 1108–1109
Vitamin E (-tocopherol), 60, 990, 995
RDA and dietary sources of, 995t
Vitamin K (phylloquinone), 707i, 708i,
990, 995
bacterial synthesis of, 976, 995
neonatal, 1104
in pregnancy, 1072
RDA and dietary sources of, 995t
Vitamins, 234, 235t, 994, 995–996
absorption of, 973
deficiencies, 996
fat-soluble, 78t, 973, 990, 995, 995t
functions of, 989t, 995
RDA and dietary sources of, 995t
water-soluble, 973, 995, 995t
Vitreous body, 612f, 613, 614i, 1110
Vocal cords, 48f, 844f–845f, 846, 847f
Volar region, 398f
Volta, Alessandro, 424i
Voltage, 415
Voltage-regulated gates, 100, 457t, 458,
460, 461
Volume depletion, 919
Volume excess, 920, 921t
Voluntary muscle, 408, 432t
Voluntary nervous control, 564, 566t
Vomiting, 526, 925, 955
Voodoo, 833i
Vulva, 1055–1056, 1056f

W
Walking, neural control of, 482
Warfarin, 708i
Warm-up exercises, 386i, 424
Warts, genital, 1043i
Wastes, metabolic, 16, 880. See also
Nitrogenous wastes
Water
body content of, 916
conservation by kidney, 887f, 894,
897–899, 897f
hydrogen bonding of, 62, 62f, 855
intake, 918f
intestinal absorption of, 973
loss, 916–919, 918f–919f
metabolic, 1000–1001, 1000f
osmosis of, 107
properties of, 63–65, 64f
requirement and functions of, 989t
retention, 199
Water balance, 916–921, 1103
disorders of, 919–921, 920i, 932t,
933i–934i
in old age, 1112
Water diuresis, 897, 921f
Water intoxication, 920, 921t
Watson, James, 132i, 133f, 140
Wave summation, 425
WBC. See Leukocytes
WBC count. See Leukocyte count
Weight
control, 986
gain in pregnancy, 1073, 1073t
Wells, Horace, 628i–629i
Werner syndrome, 1113
Wernicke’s area, 544, 545f
White blood cells (WBCs). See
Leukocytes
White fat, 169
White matter
of brain, 516, 522f, 532–533, 533f
of spinal cord, 485
White muscles, 430
White pulp of spleen, 807, 808f
Wilkins, Maurice, 132i
Withdrawal (contraceptive method),
1079i, 1081t
Word roots, 20
Work, 68, 85
Working memory, 474
Wormian bones, 244
Wound healing, 184f, 185–186, 664
Wrist, 274, 365, 365f, 398f. See also
Bones, specific: carpal
Wrist drop, 494i

X
X chromosome, 146, 146f, 149,
1018–1019, 1105f, 1106
Xenografts, 211
Xiphoid process, 269, 269f,
345f, 394f
X rays, 22i, 23f, 59, 60
teratogenic effect of, 1104

Y
Y chromosome, 146, 146f, 149,
1018–1019, 1105f, 1106
Yellow bone marrow, 223, 225f
Yellow elastic tissue, 169
Yolk sac, 685, 1094f–1096f, 1097,
1098, 1098f
origin of germ cells in, 1034, 1061

Z
Z disc, 411, 413t, 417, 423, 432t,
433, 436
Zeiss, Carl, 6
Zinc, 57t, 202i, 994t, 1112
Zona pellucida, 1064, 1065f,
1090, 1091f
Zygomatic arch, 250f, 254, 258, 336f
Zygomatic process, 249f, 254, 254f
Zygote, 1018, 1062f, 1091,
1092f, 1099t
Zygote intrafallopian transfer, 1115i
Zymogens, 954, 963t
musand