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In this work, the spectral anomalies of some even mass nuclei (Th, U, Pu and Cm) in the actinide region are studied. The observed energy levels have been calculated by different models such as the nuclear softness models NS(2) and NS(3), and the anharmonic vibrator models AVM1 and AVM2. Our calculations reveal the following remarks:
The results of the NS(3) and the AVM2 models are in quite agreement with the experimental data for Th, Pu and Cm isotopes. While the validity of the AVM2 model decreases in U isotopes. Both models show deviations particularly in EMBED Equation.3 Pu.
The results of the NS(2) and the AVM1 models are in good agreement with the experimental data for EMBED Equation.3 in Pu isotopes. NS(2) is in excellent agreement with experimental data, while the AVM1 is less valid, for Cm isotopes. Both models presented poor results in the case of Th and U isotopes, except for EMBED Equation.3 U and EMBED Equation.3 U where NS(2) model has shown good fit to experimental data.
The energy ratio EMBED Equation.3 has revealed normal behavior in Th isotopes. While it was almost constant with increasing neutron number in U, Pu and Cm isotopes which indicate a deviation from the EMBED Equation.3 rules.
In the framework of backbending phenomena, a clear backbending is present in EMBED Equation.3 Pu and EMBED Equation.3 Th. Smooth upbending is observed in some of Pu and Th isotopes. In the case of U isotopes, backbending increases as the neutron number increase.
The NS(3) and AVM2 models predict backbending phenomenon, where NS(3) is superior in representing the experimental data followed immediately by the AVM2 model. On the other hand, NS(2) and AVM1 models are poor in representing backbending phenomena in the nuclei under study, particularly, AVM1 is far away of representing the experimental data.
The study of the effective charges of proton and neutron around the mass region of some actinide nuclei show that EMBED Equation.3 and EMBED Equation.3 .
In the experimental work, singles gamma and electron spectra were measured for EMBED Equation.3 Am. The analysis of the observed spectra has revealed the existence of many lines in the low- and high- energy range. Doubted lines that had been reported in previous work were confirmed. The intensity of some gamma-transitions is measured and also their associated electron lines. Consequently, the mutipolarities of these transitions were assigned.
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