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Lecture No.




·Salivary Secretion

1.  Define mastication.

2.  Identify and describe the control of mastication

3.  Identify and describe the importance of mastication

4.  Salivary Glands and the Network of Acini and Ducts.

5.  Salvia Electrolytes and Proteins.

6.  The Protective Function of Salvia.

7.  The Role of Autonomic Nerves in Regulating Salvia Output and Content.




·             Deglutition (swallowing)

1.      Describe the sequence of events in a swallow and appreciate their physiological

2.      Significance.

3.      Define the differences between a primary and a secondary swallow (peristalsis).

4.      Explain the relationship between the resting esophageal pressure and atmospheric                     

5.      Pressure at different levels in the esophagus and upper stomach.

6.      Describe the origin and consequence of a high basal tone found in the upper

7.      Esophageal sphincter and lower esophageal sphincter.

8.      Explain how gastric reflux occurs.

9.      Appreciate some clinical co-relate e.g.

Ingestion of corrosive agents can cause esophageal strictures.

Incompetent lower esophageal sphincter can cause esophageal stricture.


3 & 4


·             Gastric Motility and Secretion

1.  Describe the innervation of the stomach and the sphincters.

2.  Describe various regions of the stomach and the electrical and contractile activity of each.

3.  Define the basic rate of contractions.

4.  Describe the progression of contractile waves across the stomach and correlate this with the effects on the contents of the stomach.

5.  Discuss the Role of the pyloris and the influences on its contractile state.

6.  Discuss the factors that influence and control gastric emptying.

7.  Stomach Cell Types that Contribute to Gastric Secretions.

8.  Gastric Juice.

9.  Hydrochloric Acid and Parietal Cell.

10.      Function of Gastric Secretion.

11.      Neural and Hormonal Control of Gastric Secretion.

12.      Acid Secretion during Ingested Meal.

13.      Mechanisms that Inhibit Gastric Acid.

14.      List the possible causes of vomiting.

15.      Describe the neural control of vomiting reflex.

16.      Describe the process of vomiting and appreciate clinical correlates.

17.      Describe the characteristics of the migrating motor complex (MMC), when it occurs, its function and how it is controlled.




·             The Small Intestine, Intestinal Motility and Sphincter control

    1. Describe the muscle layers in the intestine.
    2. Describe the types of intestinal movements:

Propulsive movements (peristalsis)

Segmentation movements.

The Basic Electrical Rhythm (BER)

    1. Describe how the contractions promote both mixing and propulsion.
    2. List the compounds and influences that are excitatory and those that are inhibitory to intestinal contraction.
    3. Describe the reflex response of the intestine to distension.
    4. Describe the differences between segmentation and haustraction.
    5. Describe the factors influencing the tension of the ileocecal sphincter.



·               Pancreatic juice: composition, function and control


1.      The Pancreatic Network of Acini and Ducts, describe the anatomic structure of the gland, mix exo-endocrine, common pancreatic duct, sphincter of Oddi.

2.      Pancreatic secretions, list the secretory products (electrolytes and enzymes), their role and mechanism of their activation.

3.      Pancreatic secretions neutralize luminal acids and digest nutrients.

4.      Neural and Hormonal Control of Pancreatic Secretion.

5.      Describe the basal secretion and how secretory patterns change during the three phases (cephalic, gastric and intestinal).

6.      Discuss some of the causes of pancreatic dysfunction and the changes that occur as a result.



·              Biliary Secretion and Function

1.      List the main functions of the liver.

2.      The Components of Bile and functional significance of bile secretion.

3.      List the major organic and inorganic compounds secreted in bile.

4.      Contrast primary and secondary bile acids.

5.      Neural and Hormonal Control.

6.      Describe the storage and secretion of bile.

7.      Describe the formation of micelles.

8.      The Enterohepatic Circulation and Bile Salts Recycle.

9.      Describe the handling of bilirubin by the liver.

10.  Contrast conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin.

11.  Discuss the possible causes for altered bilirubin metabolism.

12.  Predict the consequences of hepatic disease including obstruction, cellular damage and portal hypertension.



·              Digestion and Transport of Carbohydrates

1.  Digestible and Non-digestible Carbohydrates.

2.  Digestion of Carbohydrates in Different Parts of GI tract.

3.  Entrocytes and Carbohydrate Absorption and Metabolism.

4.  Impairment of Carbohydrate Absorption and Metabolism.


·              Digestion and Transport of Lipids

1.      Different Lipases Carry out Lipid Hydrolysis.

2.      The Role of Bile Salt in Lipid Absorption.

3.      Entrocytes Process Absorbed Lipid to Form Lipoproteins.

4.      The Role of Chylomicrons.




·              Digestion and Transport of Proteins

1.  Digested Protein and the production of Amino Acids.

2.  Specific Protein Transporters in the Small Intestine.

3.  Defects in Digestion and transport of Proteins.


·              Absorption of Vitamins

1.  The Fat-Soluble Vitamins.

2.  The Water-Soluble Vitamins.



·              The Large Intestine: Secretion and absorption in colon & defection

1.  Describe the primary function of the large intestine.

2.  Describe the secretion, absorption and motility of the colon.

3.  Define dietary fiber and list sources commonly found in the diet.

4.  Identify substrates and products of colonic bacterial metabolism, and predict the impact of metabolites on the rate of gas formation (flatus).

5.  Describe the rectosphincteric reflex.

6.  Describe how section of various nerves affects the urge to defecate and the control of defecation.

7.  Explain the causes of congenital megacolon.



·              Enzymes:

I.           Nomenclature

II.        Properties of Enzymes

III.     How Enzymes Work

IV.     Factors Affecting Reaction Velocity

V.        Michaelis- Menten Equation

VI.     Inhibition of Enzyme Activity

VII.  Regulation of Enzyme Activity

VIII. Enzymes in Clinical Diagnosis



·              Intermediary Metabolism


I.           Bioenergetics  and  Oxidative Phosphorylation

II.        Introduction to Carbohydrates

1.      Classification and Structure of Carbohydrates

2.      Digestion and Carbohydrates

III.       Glycolysis

1.     Introduction to Metabolism

2.     Regulation of Metabolism    

3.     Reaction of Glycolysis

4.     Hormonal Regulation of Glycolysis

IV.       Gluconeogenesis

1.          Substrate for Gluconeogenesis

2.          Reactions Unique to Gluconeogenesis

3.          Regulation of Gluconeogenesis

V.          Glycogen  Metabolism

1.          Structure and Function of Glycogen

2.          Synthesis of Glycogen (Glycogenesis)

3.          Degradation of Glycogen (Glycogenolysis)

4.          Regulation of Glycogen Synthesis and Degradation

VI.       Metabolism of Monosaccharides and Disaccharides

1.          Fructose metabolism

2.          Galactose Metabolism


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