1.      1. Debridement in endodontics refers to the elimination of:

a.                    Vital pulp tissue

b.                    Bacterial toxins

c.                    Microorganisms

d.                    Proteolytic breakdown products

e.                    All of the above


2.        2.Sodium hypochlorite:

a.                    Is used primarily as an intracanal medicament

b.                    Is an active solvent for tissue debris

c.                    Is utilized as an irrigant at 10% to 20% concentrations

d.                    Has a significant inflammatory effect on attached viable tissues

e.                    When in contact with hydrogen peroxide, liberates chlorine


3.       3. The technique for irrigation of the root canal includes:

a.                    Introducing the irrigant sparingly during cleaning and shaping

b.                    Alternating irrigant solutions of sodium hypochlorite and alcohol

c.                    Alternating irrigant solutions hydrogen peroxide and alcohol

d.                    Passively releasing the irrigant solution into the canal

e.                    Binding the irrigation needle and irrigating with pressure


4.        4.The minimum size for the prepared foramen of the ideal canal preparation would be the width of a:

a.                    No. 15 file

b.                    No. 25 file

c.                    No. 35 file

d.                    No. 45 file

e.                    No. 55 file


5.       5. A radiograph showing a canal that diminishes suddenly indicates:

a.                    The presence of an accessory canal

b.                    A root canal division

c.                    A root end curvature toward or away from the x-ray beam

d.                    A thin flat root

e.                    An x-ray anomaly


6.        6.Which of the following is true of the maxillary first premolar?

a.                    The majority will be birooted

b.                    Access cavity design is ovoid in a mesial-distal direction

c.                    The greater the divergency of the roots, the greater will be the occlusal access extension

d.                    There is a reported 20% incidence of three roots

e.                    After endodontics full restorative occlusal coverage is elective


7.      7.  Maxillary second premolar radicular morphology may present:

a.                    Two separate canals

b.                    Two canals anastomosing into a single canal

c.                    Two canals with interconnections

d.                    Accessory and lateral canals with less frequency than in incisors

e.                    All of the above


8.        8.The maxillary first molar:

a.                    Is the posterior tooth with the highest incidence of endodontic failure

b.                    Presents a distal-buccal root that is usually ovoid and curved

c.                    Has a palatal root that often curves distally in the apical third

d.                    Has a reported 52% incidence of two canals and two apical foramina in the mesial-buccal root

e.                    None of the above


9.        9.Excessive calcification of the pulp chamber and root canal:

a.                    Does not affect locating the canal orifice

b.                    Necessitates apical surgery

c.                    May render the canal nonnegotiable

d.                    Is amenable only to extraction

e.                    Minimizes the risk of perforation


10.     10.Which medical condition contraindicates endodontic therapy?

a.                    Rheumatic heart disease

b.                    Pacemaker patients

c.                    Controlled diabetes

d.                    Pregnancy

e.                    None of the above


11.     11.A three-dimensionally well-filled root canal system:

a.                    Prevents percolation of periapical exudates into the root space

b.                    Maximizes the amount of sealer and minimizes the cone material

c.                    Is independent of the endodontic cavity design

d.                    Is dependent upon the use of intracanal medications to sterilize the canal

e.                    Prevents any transient bacteremia from reinfecting the root canal through the pulp chamber


12.     12.The function of the root canal sealer is to:

a.                    Lubricate and to aid in sealing the obturative cone

b.                    Fill the patent accessory canals and small multiple foramina

c.                    Help seal the irregularities in the canal walls

d.                    Be bacteriostatic to a point of not encouraging bacterial growth

e.                    All of the above


13.     13.What organic solvent is substituted for chloroform as a gutta-percha softening material?

a.                    Ethyl alcohol

b.                    Orange oil

c.                    Eucalyptol

d.                    Methylmethacylate

e.                    Eugenol


14.     14.Pain from apical inflammation after canal obturation is usually controlled by:

a.                    Cold compresses

b.                    Periapical surgery

c.                    Analgesics (Anti-inflammatory) drugs.

d.                    Extraction


15.     15.Which of the following root canal sealers may cause discoloration of tooth structure?

a.                    TubliSeal

b.                    Wach’s

c.                    Chloropercha or eucapercha

d.                    Rickert’s

e.                    Grossman’s


16.   16.  The tooth germ of the succedaneous teeth arises from the:

a.                    Dental papilla

b.                    Dental sac

c.                    Stellate reticulum

d.                    Cervical loop

e.                    Dental lamina


17.    17. Differentiation of ameloblasts and odontoblasts

a.                    Occurs during the cap stage of tooth development

b.                    Is always more advanced in the area of the cervical loop

c.                    Is more progressive in the apex of the “bell”

d.                    Occurs at the same rate for both cell types

e.                    None of the above


18.    18. During dentinogenesis one of the following events occurs:

a.                    Odontoblasts develop first in the region of the root

b.                    Odontoblasts at full maturity become large cuboid cells

c.                   collagen fibrils accumulate subjacent to the basal lamina, the lamina becomes more evident .

d.                    The dentin matrix is involved in the formation, organization, and maturation of collagen fibrils

e.                    Von Korff fibers become organized and extend within the ameloblast processes


19.    19. Root development:

a.                    Commences during the initiation of enamel formation

\b.                   Comprises the formation of Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath by the outer enamel epithelia

c.                    Is influenced by Hertwig’s sheath as to the size and shape of the root(s)

d.                    Is the stage during which cementoblast differentiate from Hertwig’s sheath

e.                    All of the above


20.     20.Pulp innervations

a.                    Consists of both unmyelinated A-d and myelinated C fibers

b.                    Provides a system that controls the microcirculation and responds to the sensation of pressure

c.                    Enters the apical foramen to divide in the coronal pulp into the plexus of Raschkow

d.                    Includes terminal axons that are limited to fibers passing between odontoblast to the predentin

e.                    All of the above


21.   21.  Painful pulpitis:

a.                    Appears to be associated with the A-d fibers of the pulp

b.                    Is a consistent symptom associated with inflammation of the pulp

c.                    Appears to be related to the decrease in intrapulpal pressure during pulpal inflammation

d.                    Is most likely to be associated with nociceptive C fibers

e.                    Is limited to symptoms of an unprovoked nature


22.   22.  Inflammation is basically a ___ response:

a.                    Nervous

b.                    Cellular

c.                    Histologic

d.                    Vascular

e.                    Pathologic


23.     23.Chronic inflammation demonstrates a predominance of what cell type?

a.                    Monocytes

b.                    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs)

c.                    Lymphocytes

d.                    Fibroblasts

e.                    Pericytes


24.     24.No further treatment is required for a fractured root when:

a.                    There is minimal mobility

b.                    The tooth has not darkened

c.                    The patient is comfortable

d.                    The radiograph indicates healing is progressing

e.                    All of the above


25.     25.A tooth with a fractured root that does not heal will generally be:

a.                    Sensitive to percussion

b.                    Mobile

c.                    Turning dark

d.                    Slightly extruded

e.                    All of the above


26.    26. A fractured root healed by calcific repair will have the following signs or symptoms:

a.                    A discolored “pink tooth” appearance

b.                    Class II mobility

c.                    No response to electric pulp testing

d.                    A radiographic appearance of fracture line across the root

e.                    Symptoms of spontaneous unstimulated occasional pain


27.     27.Maintenance of pulpal vitality in exposed pulp-crown fractures

a.                    Improves the prognosis with elapsing time before treatment

b.                    Is the treatment of choice for teeth with incompletely formed roots

c.                    Requires a pulp capping procedure for mature teeth with laxative injuries

d.                    Is generally reserved for mature teeth

e.                    Is recommended for teeth with partial calcific pulpal obliteration


28.    28. Crown infraction:

a.                    Involves injuries associated with fractured roots

b.                    Is a complete fracture exposing dentin

c.                    Usually involves splinting for immobilization

d.                    Requires equilibration for esthetics

e.                    Often includes a severe pulpal reaction



Answer Key:

1(e),2 (a  ),3 (d ),4 (b  ),5 (b ),6 (a),7 (e  ),8 (a  ),9 (c  ),10 (e  ),11 (a  ),12(e),13 (c  ),

14 (c  ),15 (d  ),16 (e  ),17 (c  ),18 (d  ),19 (b  ),20 (c  ),21( d), 22(d  ),23 (c  ),24 (a  ),

25 (e), 26 (d), 27 (b), 28 (e).