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Suggested internet sites ( all medical subjects) (all medical subjects) excellent web site

This is the place to get up-to-date information about drug-induced lung diseases over the Net.

Example drug that can cause Interstitial lung disease such as

Acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis and respiratory failure (diffuse and severe infiltrative lung disease)


Patterns :

I (a) : Acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis and respiratory failure (diffuse and severe infiltrative lung disease)
I (b) : Subacute cellular interstitial pneumonitis (mild infiltrative lung disease)
I (c) : Pulmonary infiltrates and eosinophilia
I (g) : Pulmonary fibrosis
I (l)* : Diffuse alveolar damage
I (m)* : Granulomatous interstitial lung disease
II (a) : Acute pulmonary edema
II (b) : Acute permeability edema with or without ARDS
III (a) : Alveolar hemorrhage
IV (b) : Bronchospasm ± laryngal edema and anaphylactic shock
IV (d) : Lone cough
V (a) : Pleural effusion
XI (b) : Chest pain
XI (e) : Opportunistic infectious pneumonia (including viral, bacterial, tuberculosis, pneumocystis carinii ...)


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3. Imokawa S, Colby T V, Leslie K O, Helmers R A. Methotrexate pneumonitis: review of the literature and histopathological findings in nine patients. Eur Respir J 2000; 15: 373-381

4. McKenna K E, Burrows D. Pulmonary toxicity in a patient with psoriasis receiving methotrexate therapy. Clin Exp Dermatol 2000; 25: 24-27

5. Sing A, Leitritz L, Roggenkamp A, Kolb H J, Szabados A, Fingerle V, Autenrieth I B, Heesemann J. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in bone marrow transplant recipients: Report of two cases and review. Clin Infect Dis 1999; 29: 429-433

6. Suwa A, Hirakata M, Satoh S, Mimori T, Utsumi K, Inada S. Rheumatoid arthritis associated with methotrexate-induced pneumonitis: Improvement with i.v. cyclophosphamide therapy. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1999; 17: 355-358

7. Yoshida S, Onuma K, Akahori K, Sakamoto H, Yamawaki Y, Shoji T, Nakagawa H, Hasegawa H, Amayasu H. Elevated levels of IL-8 in interstitial pneumonia induced by low-dose methotrexate. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 1999; 103: 952-954

8. Zingg K, Grossenbacher M, Conen D, Truninger K. Methotrexat-Pneumonitis. Schweizerische Rundschau Medizinische Praxis 1999; 88: 573-578

9. Aaron S D, Dales R E, Pham B. Management of steroid-dependent asthma with methotrexate: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Respir Med 1998; 92: 1059-1065

10. Bartram S A. Experience with methotrexate-associated pneumonitis in northeastern England: comment on the article by Kremer et al. Arthr Rheum 1998; 41: 1327-1328

11. Camiciottoli G, Trapani S, Castellani W, Ginanni R, Ermini M, Falcini F. Effect on lung function of methotrexate and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatol Int 1998; 18: 11-16

12. Cron R Q, Sherry D D, Wallace C A. Methotrexate-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a child with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. J Pediatr 1998; 132: 901-902

13. Hassanein T, Monson P, Chatfield E, DeGuzman L, El Mola T. Hign ANA levels do not preclude interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. American Journal of Gastroenterology 1998; 93: 1676

14. Kremer J M. Experience with methotrexate-associated pneumonitis in northeastern England. Arthr Rheum 1998; 41: 1328-1328

15. Mateo I, Canete C, Nolla J M, Fiter J, Rodriguez Sanchon B, Romero P. Evolution of pulmonary function in rheumatoid arthritis patients taking methotrexate. Br J Rheumatol 1998; 37 (Suppl 1): 118

16. Weinblatt M E, Maier A L, Fraser P A, Coblyn J S. Long-term prospective study of methotrexate in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: conclusion after 132 months of therapy. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 238-242

17. Clearkin R, Corris P A, Thomas S H L. Methotrexate pneumonitis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Postgrad Med J 1997; 73: 603-604

18. Horrigan T J, Fanning J, Marcotte M P. Methotrexate pneumonitis after systemic treatment for ectopic pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997; 176: 714-715

19. Ohosone Y, Okano Y, Kameda H, Fujii T, Hama N, Hirakata M, Mimori T, Akizuki M, Ikeda Y. Clinical characteristics of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and methotrexate-induced pneumonitis. J Rheumatol 1997; 24: 2299-2303

20. Salaffi F, Manganelli P, Carotti M, Subiaco S, Lamanna G, Cervini C. Methotrexate-induced pneumonitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis: report of five cases and review of the literature. Clin Rheumatol 1997; 16: 296-304

21. Schnabel A, Richter C, Bauerfeind S, Gross W L. Bronchoalveolar lavage cell profile in methotrexate induced pneumonitis. Thorax 1997; 52: 377-379

22. Thomas E, Mazyad H, Olive P, Blotman F. Cytomegalovirus-induced pneumonia in a rheumatoid arthritis patient treated with low dose methotrexate. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1997; 15: 583-584

23. Alkins S A, Byrd J C, Morgan S K, Ward F T, Weiss R B. Anaphylactoid reactions to methotrexate. Cancer 1996; 77: 2123-2126

24. Schnabel A, Dalhoff K, Bauerfeind S, Barth J, Gross W L. Sustained cough in methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rheumatol 1996; 15: 277-282

25. Israel C M. Severe pneumonitis as complication of low-dose methotrexate therapy in psoriasis-related polyarthritis. Reply. Dtsch Med Wschr 1995; 120: 1224-1225

26. van der Veen M J, Dekker J J, Dinant H J, Van Soesbergen R M, Bijlsma J W J. Fatal pulmonary fibrosis complicating low dose methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 1766-1768

27. Carroll G J, Thomas R, Pathouros C C, Atchinson M H, Leslie A L, Cook N J, D'Souza I. Incidence, prevalence and possible risk factors for pneumonitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving methotrexate. J Rheumatol 1994; 21: 51-54

28. Hollingsworth H M. Drug-related bronchiolitis-obliterans organizing pneumonia. Diseases of the bronchioles. In: Epler G R, ed. Diseases of the bronchioles. New York: Raven Press, Ltd; 1994: 367-376

29. LeMense G P, Sahn S A. Opportunistic infection during treatment with low dose methotrexate. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994; 150: 258-260

30. Sharma A, Provenzale D, McKusick A, Kaplan M M. Interstitial pneumonitis after low-dose methotrexate therapy in primary biliary cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 1994; 107: 266-270

31. Stenger A A M E. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia associated with low dose methotrexate treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. Scan J Rheumatol 1994; 23: 51-53

32. Bohon P, Dugernier T, Debongnie J C, Pirenne B. Hypersensitivity interstitial pneumopathy and ulcero-hemorrhagic rectocolitis: Role of methotrexate. Acta Gastroenterol Belg 1993; 56: 352-357

33. Buchbinder R. Methotrexate therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: a life table review of 587 patients treated in community practice. J Rheumatol 1993; 20: 639-644

34. Iki S, Yoshinaga K, Ohbayashi Y, Urabe A. Cytotoxic drug-induced pneumonia and possible augmentation by G-CSF - Clinical attention. Ann Hematol 1993; 66: 217-218

35. Kane G C, Troshinsky M B, Peters S P, Israel H L. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia associated with weekly methotrexate: cumulative dose of methotrexate and low CD4 cell count may predict this complication. Respir Med 1993; 87: 153-155

36. Leduc D, De Vuyst P, Lheureux P, Gevenois P-A, Jacobovitz D, Yernault J-C. Pneumonitis complicating low-dose methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Chest 1993; 104: 1620-1623

37. Cook N J, Carroll G J. Successful reintroduction of methotrexate after pneumonitis in two patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 1992; 51: 272-274

38. de Bandt M, Rat A C, Palazzo E, Kahn M-F. Delayed methotrexate pneumonitis. J Rheumatol 1992; 18: 1943

39. Hassan W, Carpenter M, Kelly C. Acute pneumonitis associated with low dose methotrexate treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. Thorax 1992; 48: 191

40. Kerstens P J S M, Van Loenhout J W A, Boerbooms A M T, Van de Putte L B A. Methotrexate, pneumonitis, and infection. Ann Rheum Dis 1992; 51: 1179

41. Padley S P G, Adler B, Hansell D M, M?ller N L. High-resolution computed tomography of drug-induced lung disease. Clin Radiol 1992; 46: 232-236

42. Schoenfeld A, Mashiach R, Vardy M, Ovadia J. Methotrexate pneumonitis in nonsurgical treatment of ectopic pregnancy. Obtstet Gynecol 1992; 80: 520-521

43. Vallerand H, Cossart C, Milosevic D, Lavaud F, Leone J. Fatal Pneumocystis pneumonia in asthmatic patient treated with methotrexate. Lancet 1992; 339: 1551

44. Weinblatt M E. Long-term prospective study of methotrexate in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. 84-months update. Arthr Rheum 1992; 35: 129-137

45. Akoun G M, Cadranel J L, Milleron B J, Flammang D'Ortho M P, Mayaud C M. Bronchoalveolar lavage cell data in 19 patients with drug-associated pneumonitis (except amiodarone). Chest 1991; 99: 98-104

46. Antonelli M S, Moreland L W, Brick J E. Herpes zoster in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with weekly, low-dose methotrexate. Am J Med 1991; 90: 295-?

47. Kuitert L M, Harrison A C. Pneumocytis carinii pneumonia as a complication of methotrexate treatment of asthma. Thorax 1991; 46: 936-937

48. Scully C J. Long-term methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1991; 14: 74-79

49. Wollner A, Mohle-Boetani J, Lambert R E, Perruquet J L, Raffin T A, McGuire J L. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia complicating low dose methotrexate treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. Thorax 1991; 46: 205-207

50. Carmichael A J, Ryatt K S. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia following methotrexate. Br J Dermatol 1990; 122: 291

51. Drosos A A. Methotrexate therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rheumatol 1990; 9: 333-341

52. Furst D E, Erikson N, Clute L, Koehnke R, Burmeister L F, Kohler J A. Adverse experience with methotrexate during 176 weeks of a longterm prospective trial in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. 1990; 17: 1628-1635

53. Schwartz G F, Anderson S T. Methotrexate induced pneumonitis in a young woman with psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1990; 17: 980

54. Alarcon G S, Gipsen J G, Koopman W J. Severe reversible interstitial pneumonitis induced by low dose methotrexate. J Rheumatol 1989; 16: 1007-1008

55. Alarcon G S, Tracy I C, Blackburn W D, Jr. Methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis. Toxic effects as the major factor in limiting long-term treatment. Arthr Rheum 1989; 32: 671-676

56. Hanrahan P S, Scrivens G A, Russell A S. Prospective long-term follow-up of methotrexate therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: toxicity, efficacy and radiological progression. Br J Rheumatol 1989; 28: 147-153

57. McKendry R J R, Cyr M. Toxicity of methotrexate compared with azathioprine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A case-control study of 131 patients. Arch Intern Med 1989; 149: 685-689

58. Shiroky J B, Watts C S, Neville C. Combination of methotrexate and sulfasalazine in the management of rheumatoid arthritis: case observations. Arthr Rheum 1989; 32: 1160-1164

59. White D A, Rankin J A, Stover D E, Gellene R A, Gupta S. Methotrexate pneumonitis: bronchoalveolar lavage findings suggest an immunologic disorder. Am Rev Respir Dis 1989; 139: 18-21

60. Ridley M G, Wolfe C S, Mathews J A. Life-threatening acute pneumonitis during low dose methotrexate treatment for rheumatoid arthritis: a case report and review of the literature. Ann Rheum Dis 1988; 47: 784-788

61. van Deursen C T B M, Koudstaal J, Maesen F P V. A patient with methotrexate lung and granulomatous changes in the liver - Or just sarcoidosis ? Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1988; 26: 293-296

62. Bell M J, Geddie W R, Gordon D A, Reynolds W J. Pre-existing lung disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis may predispose to methotrexate lung. Arthr Rheum 1987; 29: S75

63. Carson C W, Cannon G W, Egger M J, Ward J R, Clegg D O. Pulmonary disease during the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with low dose pulse methotrexate. Semin Arthr Rheum 1987; 16: 186-195

64. Gispen J G, Alarcon G S, Johnson J J, Acton R T, Barger B O, Koopman W J. Toxicity to methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1987; 14: 74-79

65. Philips T J, Hugh Jones D, Baker H. Pulmonary complications following methotrexate therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol 1987; 16: 373-375

66. Searles G, McKendry R J R. Methotrexate pneumonitis in rheumatoid arthritis: potential risk factors. Four case reports and a review of the literature. J Rheumatol 1987; 14: 1164-1171

67. Tugwell P, Bennett K, Gent M. Methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis. Indications, contraindications, efficacy, and safety. Ann Intern Med 1987; 107: 358-366

68. Akoun G M, Mayaud C M, Touboul J L, Denis M. Methotrexate induced pneumonitis: diagnostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage cell data. Arch Intern Med 1986; 146: 804-805

69. Boh L E, Schuna A A, Pitterle M E, Adams E M, Sundstrom W R. Low-dose weekly oral methotrexate therapy for inflammatory arthritis. Clin Pharm 1986; 5: 503-508

70. Brooks B J, Seifter E J, Walsh T E, Lichter A S, Bunn P A, Zabell A, Johnston-Early A, Edison M, Makuch R W, Cohen M H, Glatstein E, Ihde D. Pulmonary toxicity with combined modality therapy for limited stage small small cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 1986; 4: 200-209

71. Kremer J M, Joong K L. The safety and efficacy of the use of methotrexate in long term therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Arthr Rheum 1986; 29: 822-831

72. Louie S, Lillington G A. Low dose methotrexate pneumonitis in rheumatois arthritis. Thorax 1986; 41: 703-704

73. Maier W P, Leon-Perez R, Miller S B. Pneumonitis during low-dose methotrexate therapy. Arch Intern Med 1986; 146: 602-603

74. St Clair E W, Rice J R, Snyderman R. Pneumonitis during low-dose methotrexate therapy. Arch Intern Med 1986; 146: 603

75. St Clair E W, Rice J R, Snyderman R. Pneumonitis complicating low-dose methotrexate therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. Arch Intern Med 1985; 145: 2035-2038

76. Akoun G M, Mayaud C M, Milleron B J, Perrot J Y. Drug-related pneumonitis and drug-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Lancet 1984; i: 1362

77. Haim N, Kedar A, Robinson E. Methotrexate-related deaths in patients previously treated with cis-diamminedichloride platinum. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1984; 13: 223-225

78. Nelson J A, Drake S. Potentiation of methotrexate toxicity by dipyridamole. Cancer Res 1984; 44: 2493-2496

79. Zeller J M, Buys C M, Gudewicz P W. Effects of high-dose methotrexate on rat alveolar and inflammatory macrophage macrophage populations. Inflammation 1984; 8: 231-239

80. Zimmerman M S, Ruckdeschel J C, Hussain M. Chemotherapy-induced interstitial pneumonitis during treatment of small cell anaplastic lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 1984; 2: 396-405

81. Engelbrecht J A, Calhoon S L, Scherrer J J. Methotrexate pneumonitis after low-dose therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Arthr Rheum 1983; 26: 1275-1278

82. Urban C, Nirenberg A, Caparros B, Anac S, Cacavio A, Rosen G. Chemical pleuritis as the cause of acute chest pain following high-dose methotrexate treatment. Cancer 1983; 51: 34-37

83. van Hoof A, Tricot G, Verwilghen R L. Intermediate dose methotrexate and recurrent pleural effusions. Acta Clin Belg 1983; 38: 388-390

84. Bernstein M L, Sobel D B, Wimmer R S. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema following injection of methotrexate into the cerebrospinal fluid. Cancer 1982; 50: 866-868

85. Bortin M M, Kay H E M, Gale R P, Rimm A A. Factors associated with interstitial pneumonitis after bone-marrow transplantation for acute leukemia. Lancet 1982; i: 437-439

86. Camus P, Knopf J F, Olsson N O, Reybet-Degat O, Jeannin L. Pneumopathie au methotrexate, hypocompl?ment?mie et immuns complexes. Rev Fr Mal Respir 1981; 9: 64-65

87. Camus P, Reybet-Degat O, Michiels R, Jeannin L. Pneumopathie au methotrexate associ? ? des agglutinines froides. Presse Med 1981; 9: 3698

88. Weiss J R, Bruno S. Hypersensitivity reactions to cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Ann Intern Med 1981; 94: 66-72

89. Rohatgi P K, Halvarson L. Unilateral methotrexate-induced pneumonitis. J Natl Med Assoc 1980; 72: 896-899

90. Bedrossian C W M, Miller W C, Luna M A. Methotrexate-induced diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. South Med J 1979; 72: 313-318

91. Hanawa M, Fujisawa H. A case of interstitial pneumonitis induced by intrathecal injection of methotrexate. Nippon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi 1979; 17: 737-741

92. Lewis W J, Walter J F. Methotrexate-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Arch Dermatol 1979; 115: 1169-1170

93. Verdich J, Christensen A L. Pulmonary disease complicating intermittent methotrexate therapy of psoriasis. Acta Derm Venerol (Stockh) 1979; 59: 471-473

94. Guerra Tapia A, Moreno Izquierdo R, Barrio-Fuertes A, Merino Monge E. Fibrosis pulmonar debida a tratamiento con methotrexate. Acta Dermo-Sifiliogr 1978; 69: 301-308

95. Kaplan R L, Waite D H. Progressive interstitial lung disease from prolonged methotrexate therapy. Arch Dermatol 1978; 114: 1800-1802

96. Lewis M J, Cameron A H, Stah K J, Purdham D R, Mann J R. Giant-cell pneumonia caused by measles and methotrexate in childhood leukemia in remission. Br Med J 1978; i: 330-331

97. Sybert A, Butler T P. Sarcoidosis following adjuvant high-dose methotrexate therapy for osteosarcoma. Arch Intern Med 1978; 138: 488-489

98. Lascari A D, Strano A J, Johnson W W, Collins J G P. Methotrexate-induced sudden fatal pulmonary reaction. Cancer 1977; 40: 1393-1397

99. Manni J J, van den Broek P. Pulmonary complications of methotrexate therapy. Clin Otolaryngol 1977; 2: 131-137

100. Walden P A M, Mitchell-Heggs P F, Coppin C, Dent J, Bagshawe K D. Pleurisy and methotrexate treatment. Br Med J 1977; ii: 967

101. Gutin P H, Green M R, Bleyer W A, Bauer V L, Wiernik P H, Walker M D. Methotrexate pneumonitis induced by intrathecal methotrexate therapy. A case report with parmacokinetic data. Cancer 1976; 38: 1529-1534

102. Nesbit M, Krivit W, Heyn R, Sharp H. Acute and chronic effects of methotrexate on hepatic, pulmonary and skeletal systems. Cancer 1976; 37: 1048-1054

103. Sostman H D, Matthay R A, Putman C E, Walker Smith G J. Methotrexate-induced pneumonitis. Medicine (Baltimore) 1976; 55: 371-388

104. From E. Methotrexate pneumonitis in a psoriatic. Br J Dermatol 1975; 93: 107-110

105. Bhat K S S, Anderson K R, Stewart R D H. Lung disease associated with methotrexate therapy. Aust NZ J Med 1974; 4: 277-280

106. Bellini F, Masera G. Pulmonary disease complicating therapy with methotrexate. Ann Radiol 1973; 16: 267-271

107. Everts C S, Wescott J L, Bragg D G. Methotrexate therapy and pulmonary disease. Radiology 1973; 107: 539-543

108. Lisbona A, Schwartz J, Lachance C, Frank H, Palayew M J. Methotrexate-induced pulmonary disease. J Can Assoc Radiol 1973; 24: 215-220

109. Robbins K M, Gribetz I, Strauss L, Leonidas J C, Sanders M. Pneumonitis in acute lymphatic leukemia during methotrexate therapy. J Pediatr 1973; 82: 84-88

110. Whitcomb M E, Schwartz M I, Tormey D C. Methotrexate pneumonitis: case report and review of the literature. Thorax 1972; 27: 636-639

111. Dietzsch H-J, Lorenz K, Roschlau G. Lungenver?nderungen bei Methotrexate-Behandlung im Kindesalter. Dtsch Gesundh Wochenschr 1971; 26: 174-178

112. Filip D J, Logue G L, Harle T S, Farrar W H. Pulmonary and hepatic complications of methotrexate therapy for psoriasis. JAMA 1971; 216: 881-882

113. Pasquinucci G, Ferrara P, Castellari R. Daunorubicin treatment of methotrexate pneumonia. JAMA 1971; 216: 2017

114. Rawbone R G, Shaw M T, Jackson J G, Bagshawe K D. Complication of methotrexate-maintained remission in lymphoblastic leukaemia. Br Med J 1971; 4: 467-468

115. Robertson J H. Pneumonia and methotrexate. Br Med J 1970; 2: 156

116. Clarysse A M, Cathey W J, Cartwright G E, Wintrobe M M. Pulmonary disease complicating intermittent therapy with methotrexate. JAMA 1969; 209: 1861-1864

117. Schwartz I R, Kajani M K. Methotrexate therapy and pulmonary disease. JAMA 1969; 210: 1924


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