King Saud University
College of Dentistry
Graduate Orthodontic Program
Dr. Eman Alkofide
BDS, MS, FCMDOP, D.Sc.
Professor of Orthodontics
The orthodontic program at King Saud University has been established since 1991. It is a three-year program that offers a clinical certificate in Orthodontics in addition to a Masters degree in Dental Sciences. The graduate program accepts 5 students with excellent academic background in order to enter the program. The studies commence in September and extend for a period of 36 months, in which intensive training in clinical orthodontic, the basic sciences, and research are all provided within that period. The graduate students are exposed to a diversified educational experience from the teaching faculty in the Orthodontic program. In addition, visiting lecturers and professors participate in the education of the students. The ultimate goal of the orthodontic program at King Saud University is to graduate individuals with the capability of assuming their role as clinicians in orthodontics, in research, or in the academic sector. With the commitment to provide health care for the public, and continue excellence throughout their career.
I. Specialty and subspecialty requirements
II. Clinical Guidelines For Orthodontic Post-Graduate Students
Requirements For Graduation
First Year Curriculum:
Course No. Course Title: Credit:
Dens 510 Biostatistics in Dentistry 1 (1,0)**
Dens 511 Advanced Oral Biology 1 (1,0)**
Dens 513 General Epidemiology 1 (1,0)**
Dens 514 Applied Head and Neck Anatomy 1 (1,0)**
Dens 515 Advanced Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology 1 (1,0)**
PDS 540 Orthodontic Seminar 5 (5,0)
PDS 541 Orthodontic Clinic I 5 (0,5)
*PDS 552 Genetics 1 (1,0)**
Total = 16 (11,5)
Summer Course I:
*PDS 542 Orthodontic Clinic 3 (0,3)
Dens 600 Research/Thesis
Second Year Curriculum:
Dens 516 Occlusion (Craniomandibular Dysfunction) 1 (1,0)**
Dens 520 Research Methods & Scientific Writing 1 (1,0)**
Dens 522 Education Methods 1 (1,0)**
PDS 548 Orthodontic Seminar II 5 (5,0)
PDS 549 Orthodontic Clinic II 5 (0,5)
PDS 551 Child Psychology 1 (1,0)*
Total = 14 (9,5)
Summer Course II:
*PDS 553 Orthodontic Clinic 3 (0,3)
Dens 600 Research/Thesis
Third Year Curriculum:
*PDS 556 Orthodontic Seminar III 2 (2,0)
*PDS 557 Orthodontic Clinic III 4 (0,4)
Total = 6 (2,4)
Dens 600 Research/Thesis 6 (0,6)
Summary of Curriculum Courses:
Core Courses 8 credits
Graded Specialty Courses 20 credits
Pass/Fail Specialty Courses 14 credits
Total 42 credits
Thesis 6 credits
* Pass/Fail Course
** Half-year course
DENS 510 1 (1,0)
Biostatistics in Dentistry
This didactic course is offered to all graduate students during the first year. It is given in a manner, which progressively combines basic with intermediate level statistical concepts, definitions and methods commonly applied to research and data analysis. Topics covered include variables, frequency distribution, sampling, measure of central tendency, variance, and measures of dispersion, various statistical tests, analysis and probability. The course also includes introduction to computer application in dental sciences.
DENS 511 1 (1,0)
Advanced Oral Biology
This course is offered in the first year of the graduate studies. The lectures cover the development of the face, microanatomy of the hard dental tissues, oral mucous membrane, periodontium and salivary glands. In addition, lectures cover various oral and dental structures, their functions, relationship and response to systemic and environmental influences. Clinical consideration is emphasized throughout the course in the lecture topics. Latest literature information on these topics and the current controversies on them are discussed.
DENS 513 1 (1,0)
Principles and methods in the study of the distribution and determinants of diseases in human populations are taught through this course. Emphasis is placed on the integration of biological and statistical elements in the sequence of epidemiological reasoning that derives influences about the etiopathology of diseases from population data. Topics covered will include: agent, host and environment, statistical measures used in epidemiology, methods for organizing epidemiological data, disease surveillance and investigations of disease outbreaks.
DENS 514 1 (1,0)
Applied Head and Neck Anatomy
This half-year course is normally offered during the second half of the first year in the Department of the College of Medicine. Topics reviewed highlight salient anatomical structures of the head and neck as applied to dentistry to reflect significant clinical considerations. The forma of teaching is didactic. This is supplemented with selected practical sessions or laboratory audio-visual learning aids may be decided. Topics covered include but are not limited to; facial skeleton, muscles of the face and mastication, the mouth, oropharynx and larynx, blood vessels, lymphatic and nerve supply of the oral cavity and of the salivary glands.
DENS 515 1 (1,0)
Advanced Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology
Radiology is usually given during the first year of the graduate dental education. The lecture-seminar format of teaching the course allows complementing didactic lectures or seminar topics with clinical-radiographic materials and radiological interpretations. The course provides all graduate dental students the opportunity to refresh and add to their knowledge of radiation physics, radiation biology, hazards and protection, advanced imaging techniques and diagnostic oral radiology thereby enhancing clinical competence in their different specialties.
PDS 552 1 (1,0)
This course is an introduction into human genetics. Molecular biology of genes, cytogenetics, mechanisms of inheritance, inheritance of malocclusion, dental anomalies, craniofacial syndromes and medical genetics will be taught. Effects of the environment on inheritance, population genetics, genetics in medicine and dentistry, and methods of genetic research will be discussed.
Special emphasis will be made on inherited diseases and anomalies, with the possibility of prevention. Genetics engineering and its advantages and disadvantages will be discussed.
DENS 516 1 (1,0)
Occlusion (Craniomandibular Dysfunction)
The design of this course meets the requirements of graduate students in Prosthodontics, Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics in particular, and other students in general.
The course provides the background for the static and dynamic aspects of occlusion and its importance in clinical dentistry. Topics on stomatognathic physiology and craniomandibular dysfunctions are adequately covered. Engineering principles of Mandibular motion to explain the articulator design principles of occlusion in natural and restored dentitions will be reviewed and presented, as necessary, in laboratory demonstrations.
DENS 520 1 (1,0)
Research Methods & Scientific Writing
This course deals with the principles of research methodology. Emphasis will be made on and the various methods of research design, in addition to the ethical aspects of research on animals and humans. The student shall learn to write a protocol for a research project, interpret own research findings, and present research findings in oral and written form.
DENS 522 1 (1,0)
The aim of this course is to expose all graduate students, regardless of their future professional expectations, to the methods of teaching and learning. It is assumed that teaching professionally in the University, teaching dental interns and residents outside of the University setting, presenting papers to professional and related bodies or organization and participation in educational workshops, conferences and seminars, all require a formal exposure to the strategy and tactics of teaching and learning.
Topics include the nature of learning and teaching, curriculum development, instructional objectives, instructional media, audio-visual teaching and learning aids and assessment methods for knowledge, skills and attitude. Students are encouraged to design and produce course objectives, self-instructional packages and to practice teaching undergraduates in their specialty courses.
DENS 600 6 (0,6)
The monograph of the College of Graduate Studies of King Saud University states that a “Masters thesis should be characterized by novelty and originality…”.
Graduate students are expected to work independently with minimal supervision once a well-designed research protocol of the student is approved. Original academic and independent critical approach, clear thinking, intellectual curiosity, thoroughness and accuracy in details are attributes, which a graduate student should demonstrate in carrying out a research for the Master’s degree thesis defense.
PDS 551 1 (1,0)
This course is designed to impart knowledge of psychosocial nature of developing children, adolescents and adults. Psychological development from infancy through early adulthood will be described with greater emphasis placed on application of this information to clinical health care delivery services. Discussion of difficult cases and their management will be undertaken, such as Dentofacial disfigurements and orthognathic surgery.
PDS 541, 542, 549, 553, 557 20 (0,20)
Orthodontic Clinic I, II, III & Summer Courses
These clinical courses are spread over all the three years of the graduate studies. They are designed to train the students in clinical diagnostic procedure of orthodontics, which includes collection and analysis of data base, list of problems, solution of each of the problems according to priority order, objectives of treatment and treatment mechanics.
During the first semester upon entry into the program, the students will dedicate their time to preliminary clinical work, such as wire bending and construction of appliances in the laboratory. The students will receive their patients towards the end of the semester. They will be trained in taking history, impressions, trimming and polishing study models, intra and extra-oral photographs, intra and extra-oral radiographs including Cephalometric and hand-wrist radiographs for the evaluation of the skeletal components of the head in addition to the assessment of physical maturation status. Each case will be worked up by the student and his/her corresponding supervisor, and presented thereafter to their colleagues and supervisors.
Each student will be given a variety of Malocclusal cases for treatment requiring any or all of the following: growth guidance, extractions or non-extractions therapy, extra- oral traction, functional and removable appliance treatment, and fixed appliance therapy utilizing the edgewise technique. Each case is assigned to a student who will be in turn assigned to a supervisor. The student, under the supervisor guidance will treat the case accordingly.
In addition, the students will be exposed to treating orthognathic surgical cases, cleft lip and palate cases, and TMJ dysfunction cases. All under the supervision of the respective specialists.
During the first and second years of the graduate studies, the students are required to continue their clinical training in addition to their research activities. They are also encouraged to visit other reputable centers abroad such as in the U.S. or Europe, for observation and case presentation seminars. And they are encouraged to attend conferences conducted in Saudi or other countries.
PDS 540, 548, 556 12 (12,0)
These seminars are given throughout the three-year program. During the first year, the seminars will focus on the basics of orthodontics through a revision of various textbooks (Listed below). The student will learn about the development of the dentition, facial growth and development, tooth movement, etiology of malocclusion, classification of malocclusion, Cephalometrics and imaging including the use of the Dentofacial Planner, diagnostic procedures, orthodontic assessment, treatment objectives and treatment mechanics.
The second year seminars will focus on Dentofacial orthopedics and growth guidance, growth and treatment analysis, orthodontic materials, biomechanics of treatment and appliances, specific treatment procedures and multidisciplinary treatment. Orthognathic surgery, TMJ problems and cleft lip and palate cases and will also be discussed during these seminars, along with their management and treatment approaches. During the second year and the following year, numerous articles from reputable journals will be reviewed covering these topics.
Finally, in the last year, they will be given seminars on more advanced cases of orthodontic problems such as management of Dentofacial abnormalities and distraction osteogenesis. In addition, the students will review the most recent literature from various journals. The student at this stage should be able to discuss and understand the basics of orthodontics, diagnosis and treatment planning of orthodontic patients, the approach and management of these and difficult cases, and should have an insight at the progress and future of orthodontics.
Textbooks recommended for Orthodontic Seminars
1. Problems & Procedures in Dentofacial Orthopedics “Management of Mixed Dentition & Intercuspation”. By Van Der Linden. Quintessence Book 1990.
2. Orthodontics with Fixed Appliance “Presenting Cases & Their Treatment”. By Van Der Linden. Quintessence Book 1997.
3. Functional Appliances in Orthodontic Treatment “Atlas of Clinical Prescription & Laboratory Construction”. By Harry S. Orton OBE. Quintessence Book 1990.
4. The Principles & Procedure of Dentofacial Orthopedics. By Hugo Stockfish. Quintessence Book 1995.
5. An Atlas & Manual of Cephalometric Radiograph. By Thomas Rakosi. Wolfe Med. Publis. Ltd. 1979.
6. Radiography Cephalometry From Basics to Video imaging. By Alexander Jacobson. Quintessence Book 1995.
7. Contemporary Orthodontics. By W. Proffit. Mosby 1993, Second edition.
8. Biomechanics-Orthodontics. By Marcotte. BC Decker Publication 1990.
9. An Atlas of Craniofacial Growth. By Riolo et al. Second Printing 1979.
10. Science & Practice of Occlusion. By Charles McNeill. Quintessence Book 1997.
11. Orthodontics for the TMJ-TMD Patients. By Duane Grummons. Wright & Co. 1994, First edition.
12. Orthodontic Management of the Dentition with the Pre-adjusted Appliances. By John Bennett & McLaughlin. 1515 Medical Media 1997.
13. Orthodontic & Orthopedic treatment in the Mixed Dentition. By J. McNamara & W. Brudon. Needham Press 1994, Fourth edition.
I. Specialty and subspecialty requirements:
Each student is assigned to a clinical faculty member who is responsible for the student and the patient. The graduate student will provide orthodontic treatment for the patient under the guidance and supervision of the instructor. Each student is assigned approximately 25-30 patients, to be treated within their three years of clinical training. A variety of cases are offered to the student that ranges from early interceptive orthodontic treatment to treatment of adults through fixed orthodontic appliances. Focus is on the edgewise mechanics and straight wire technique, but the use of functional appliances and removable appliances is also given. In addition, students will learn how to deal with advanced stages of orthodontic treatment by caring for patients from previous postgraduate students.
Incorporating subspecialty cases such as TMJ patients, orthognathic surgery cases, and cleft lip and palate patients further broadens clinical experience for the graduate student. They are also encouraged to handle comprised cases, which deal with restorative, periodontics or prosthetic problems.
Clinics are held in the afternoon on a daily basis. These are preceded by morning seminars.
During the first two years of the program, the students are required to continue their clinical training during the summer.
The students should formulate the diagnosis and treatment plan for every patient under their care. This is done along with their corresponding instructor and presented to their colleagues for further discussion. Each patient should have a blue binder in which the following pre-treatment documentation should be available:
· Hand-Wrist radiograph (if instructed by advisor).
· Panoramic radiographs.
· Slides; 5 Extra-oral slides (profile, en face, en face with smile, oblique, oblique en face with smile). 5 Intra-oral slides (Frontal, right lateral and left lateral, upper/lower Occlusal views).
The above documentation should be placed in the blue binder and the following information should be typewritten:
· Patients name, age and other personal history.
· General history.
· Clinical examination; Extra-oral and Intra-oral.
· Model analysis, including Bolton’s analysis.
· Model evaluation.
· Radiological evaluation including; Extra-oral and Intra-oral, with Cephalometric tracings.
· Diagnosis, with the possible etiological factors.
· Treatment plan; which includes the need for extractions, amount of tooth movement, anchorage, appliances, treatment time and prognosis.
· Summary of the above. With the corresponding supervisor’s signature.
II. Clinical Guidelines For Orthodontic Post-Graduate Students:
1. All post-graduate students are required to be in their prescribed uniform at all times when they are in the clinic. Under no justifiable reason should a clinician be allowed to work with patients when they are not in their official clinical attire.
2. The official clinical hours are: 1:00 – 4:30 p.m.
3. The clinical orthodontic training program utilizes the concept of two-handed dentistry. Therefore the post-graduate students are expected to perform all clinical duties by themselves.
4. The presence of the dental assistant is only for organization of the postgraduate clinic.
5. Post-gradate students are expected to do all laboratory work by themselves, ex. Pouring, trimming, construction of removable appliances, etc.
6. All clinical forms (referral, radiograph forms and daily procedures) should be completed and signed by the postgraduate student and countersigned by the supervising instructor.
7. Treatment of the assigned patients should be carried out under the direct supervision of the instructor during the designated clinical day of each instructor.
8. Complete diagnostic orthodontic records should be taken initially as well as annually. Such records include; casts, radiographs, photographs, etc.
9. Actual orthodontic treatment (Banding and Bonding) should not be started until the patients oral; hygiene is good, his/her fillings or periodontal problems are completed. No treatment will be started until the summary form of the treatment plan is typed, and signed by the instructor.
10. Patients blue binder is the responsibility of the postgraduate students and they should be available and placed in the clinic.
11. Each postgraduate student should adhere to the approved treatment plan and utilize the concept of the treatment philosophy of each instructor accordingly.
12. In the event of taking vacations or days off, please inform the head of the Orthodontic clinic section, in addition to the regular administrative procedures that should be completed.
13. In the event that a clinical instructor was on vacation or absent, another instructor will be appointed by the Director of the Orthodontic Program to supervise the student in that session, making sure that the appointed instructor should follow the same treatment plan and philosophy of the original instruct.
During the third year of the postgraduate program, the students are required and encouraged to assist in the teaching of orthodontic courses at the undergraduate level. This can include preparing teaching materials, assisting in the laboratory session, and giving a few lectures to the undergraduate students. This will benefit the postgraduate student in building self-confidence, presenting material in front of an audience, and aiding them for a career in academics.
In addition to acquiring a certificate in Orthodontics at the end of the three-year program, the post-graduate student should prepare and defend their thesis at the end of the third year. The student will hence earn a Masters Degree in Dental Sciences from King Saud University.
The graduate student shall begin working on their research topic from the first year of their entry into the program.
During the initial year of their studies, the student should choose the advisor with whom they will work with, in addition to the topic selected by themselves or their advisors. Topics can include clinical or laboratory projects. Research may be undertaken in one of the department’s laboratories as part of an ongoing area of interest to the graduate student, or under clinical setting if the area of interest is as so.
In the second year, the student should collect his/her sample and data, in addition to formalizing their thesis. This should require the student to be either in the laboratory or in the clinic the majority of time for this purpose. During the third year, the research project should be completed or upon completion, in which the student dedicates their time to writing their research project for their defend, this includes a full literature review, materials and methods, presentation of their results, interpretation of the data, and finally a discussion on their research project. The students are required to defend their thesis towards the end of their final year in the graduate program in order for them to complete their requirements for graduating. The student is also required to produce a finished article from their thesis suitable for publication in a refereed journal
Requirements For Graduation
1. Completion of course work:
Each student is required to pass each course taken during his or her three-year program. A passing grade of at least “B” is needed for every course. If a student acquires a “C” grade in more than one course, they can be terminated from the graduate program, and are not allowed to continue their studies.
2. Evaluation of Clinical Competence:
Towards the end of the final year of the postgraduate program, each student is required to prepare 5 cases from their patient’s list, to be presented to the faculty members. This can include any of the student’s patients that have finished treatment or are towards the end of treatment. The student should follow the guidelines from the American Board of Orthodontics for preparing these cases. The student will be examined and evaluated accordingly, and given a passing grade.
3. Evaluation of Research Competence:
Each student is required to defend their thesis by the end of their final year and acquire a passing grade.