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تحميل الدليل التدريبي

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 Research Abstracts

 

Research Abstracts

  1. Technical Efficiency of Broiler Farms in the Central Region of Saudi Arabia: Stochastic Frontier Approach
  2. Actual and Targeted Wheat Production and Consumption in Saudi Arabia
  3. Estimating AIDS Model for Rice Imports in K.S.A

An Analytical Study for Cost of Production In Meat Industry in K.S.A

Khalid N. Alrwis, Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Food and Agric. Sciences, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract:

Meat industry is an important industry in K.S.A. The total investment in this industry is about S.R. million 888.19. There are 27 factories working in this industry. The per capita capital labor is about S.R. 427010/labor. The total output is about 63192 Ton of meats. The total costs of production in 10 factories produce homogeneity product of meats is about S.R. million 486.784. The raw materials represent 65.04% of the total cost. The direct expenses (wages, rent and depreciation) represent 21.91%. The administrative and general expenses represent 13.05%. The minimum size of economic production in meat industry is 465.169 Ton. The cost elasticity equals more then one at size greater than the minimum economic size i.c., the meat industry produces in the second state (economic stage) of production.

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Technical, Allocative, and Economic Efficiencies of Broiler Farms in the Central Region of Saudi Arabia: Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

Khalid N. Alrwis and E. Francis, Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Food and Agric. Sciences, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, U.S.A.

Abstract:

 

Broiler farms in Central Saudi Arabia require substantial high investment costs and competent management.  Some of the farms have experienced a wide range of technical and managerial problems. Some farms are operated at less than full capacity while others have ceased operations. The aim here is to determine the performance of the farms that remain, to measure their technical, allocative, and economic efficiencies, and to determine if the mean technical efficiency differs between small and large farms.  The Data Envelopment Analysis approach (DEA) is used to estimate the technical, allocative, and economic efficiencies of broiler farms in the central region of Saudi Arabia by determining which farms are located on the production frontier and which are not. The mean technical efficiency of small farms is compared with that of large farms to determine if policy instruments should be targeted toward small or large farms. Overall technical, allocative and economic efficiency measures estimated from the DEA approach and their frequency distributions with CRS and VRS are presented.  Under the CRS assumption, the estimated mean TE measure for the broiler farms is 72.9%.  With the VRS model the mean technical efficiency was estimated to be 81%.  The mean allocative (AE) and cost or economic  (EE) efficiency measures estimated from the DEA frontier are 77.9% and 56.4%, respectively, for CRS, and 81.9% and 66.4% for VRS indicating that costs could be reduced by approximately 20%, if all of the farms were allocatively efficient. The mean TE estimated for small farms for the CRS and VRS DEA approaches are 82.1% and 87.2%. This result means that the small farms could produced the same level of output at approximately 17.9% less cost if the operation was technically efficient if CRS is assumed, or by 12.8% if VRS is assumed.  The mean allocative (AE) and economic  (EE) efficiency measures estimated with the DEA model are 71% and 58.5%, respectively, for CRS, and 74.5% and 65.3% for VRS. The mean technical efficiencies estimated for the large farms for CRS and VRS DEA approaches are 81.6% and 89.9%.  The mean allocative (AE) and economic  (EE) efficiency measures estimated from DEA frontier are 84.5% and 68.3%, respectively, for CRS, and 88.5% and 79.5% for VRS. 

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Technical Efficiency of Broiler Farms in the Central Region of Saudi Arabia: Stochastic Frontier Approach

Khalid  N. Alrwis and E. Francis, Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Food and Agric. Sciences, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, U.S.A.

Abstract:

Broiler farms are considered one of the highest priority areas that have gained major support and incentives in the government policy.  Broiler farms in Central Saudi Arabia require substantial high investment costs and competent management. These farms have recently experienced a wide range of technical and managerial problems. Some farms are operated at less than full capacity while others have ceased operations. The aim here is to determine the performance of the farms that remain, to measure their technical efficiency, and to determine if the mean technical efficiency differs between small and large farms.  The stochastic frontier approach (SFA) is used to estimate the technical efficiency of broiler farms in the central region of Saudi Arabia by determining which farms are located on the production frontier and which are not. The mean technical efficiency of small farms will be compared with that of large farms to determine if policy instruments should be targeted toward small or large farms. The technical efficiency indexes calculated from the estimated production frontiers, range from 0.53 to 0.96, with mean technical efficiency estimated to be 0.89.  This implies that the broiler farms are producing chicken to about 89 percent of the potential frontier production levels, implying that the production is about 11% below the frontier. The technical efficiency indexes calculated from the estimated production frontier for the small farms range from 0.45 to 0.99, with mean technical efficiency estimated to be 0.83.  This implies that the SMALL broiler farms in the Central Region of Saudi Arabia are producing chicken to about 83% of the potential frontier production levels, given the levels of their inputs and the technology currently being used. The technical efficiency indexes calculated from the estimated production frontiers for the large farms range from 0.57 to 0.99, with mean technical efficiency estimated to be 0.82.  This implies that the broiler farms in the Central Region of Saudi Arabia are producing chicken to about 82 percent of the potential frontier production levels, implying that the production is about 18% below the frontier.

Key words:  broiler farms, technical efficiency, stochastic frontier Production function, parametric model, Saudi Arabia.

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Actual and Targeted Wheat Production and Consumption in Saudi Arabia

 Khalid N. Alrwis, Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Food and Agric. Sciences, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract:

Wheat is consider to be one of the important goods for most of countries in the world, since that the Saudi government trying to reach the safety level of food security by keeping the strategic level from the wheat and flour depending on the local production and increasing the level of self sufficiency from those products. The seventh plan (2000-2004) targeted making balance between water and food security, so that the Saudi government planning to make a new strategy fop wheat production, and estimating the targeted levels for wheat production and flour consumption. The results shows that the loss of flour was very small because of population increasing, so there consumption by about 2Kg. Moreover, the planted areas last year and the level of supporting prices as percentage of the world prices are important constraint that affecting the planted areas this year. Finally, the study expecting increasing in the total wheat production by about 0.23% for the period (2003-2010) also, there is a differences changes between the actual and targeted level of consumption of flour by about 6% for the period (1974-1998). 

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Estimating AIDS Model for Rice Imports in K.S.A

Khalid N. Alrwis, Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Food and Agric. Sciences, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract:

This paper has used the (AIDS) model to study and analyze the import demand for rice of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Further, the level of competition and the separability among the main sources of importation (India, U.S.A., Pakistan and Thailand) has been investigated. The method of estimating the demand function includes the iterative seemingly unrelated regression (ISUR). The method has also considered imposing the necessary demand conditions (additivity, homogeneity and symmetry). The parameters of the model were used to calculate the relevant demand elasticities for the sources of importation. The main results of the study show that the demand of imported rice is price elastic for all resources. Rice importations from India, Pakistan and Thailand are normal (necessary) goods, while rice importation from U.S.A. luxury good. The study shows a complementary relation between U.S.A and the other sources (India, Pakistan and  Thailand). There is no complementary relation between India, Pakistan and Thailand, this rice importations have the same trends in prices and quantities.

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Current and Suggested the Cropping Pattern with Respect to the Water Security in Saudi Arabia

Khalid N. Alrwis and Adel Mohammed Qanem, Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Food and Agric. Sciences, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract:

The main objective of this research is to study water resources' utilization in agriculture, and determine the suggested crop pattern taking into the account water security, and in comparison with current crop patterns in the Kingdom during the period (1995-1998). The study uses mathematical and statistical analysis such as linear programming and sensitivity analysis for resource and revenue to the quantity of water for each unit of land (Hectare). The study results found that the agricultural sector depends on ground water renewable and non- renewable by 66.54%, 33.46 respectively. The physical and revenue returns for the unit used water resources are different between traditional and specialized farms. Grains dominate the current cropping pattern, whereas fodder is second, then vegetables and fruits.   The gross margin of the quantity of water used in the suggested cropping pattern estimated to be 35473 millions of S.R., compared to 9824 millions of S.R in the suggested cropping pattern, which means that we could increase the gross margin of the quantity of water used by 261.1% if we use the suggested crop pattern. This will result in surplus in land, water resources, and in fertilizers if the suggested cropping pattern is adopted. The study recommends developing and protecting current water resources and pays more attention to water security by changing the cropping pattern to keep and develop the agriculture sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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The Economic Impacts of Taxes Policies on Vegetables Prices in Saudi Arabia

Khalid N. Alrwis and Ahmad Helmi, Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Food and Agric. Sciences, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract:

The aims of this study is to study and investigate the effect of using tax policies on Vegetables Prices in Saudi Arabia according to the rules of WTO to policy makers in the appropriate departments to protect local production, and to help the producers to face their problems specially the competitions of imported products. The study used secondary data for the period 1999-2002 and used the nominal production coefficient and relative prices to measure the effect of different prices policies on Vegetables Prices in Saudi Arabia. The study shows that the used of (Roznama ) caused an affirmative protection for the most of studied vegetables during the seasons and during the rest of the year, while some local vegetables facing variation competition, where the whole sale imported prices less than whole sale local prices between 5% and 29% during the season and between 9% and 14% during the rest of the year. So, it is appropriate to determine ceiling prices for vegetables instead of (Roznama) in order to protect local production.

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The Economic Size of Agricultural Sector in Saudi Arabia

Khalid N. Alrwis, Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Food and Agric. Sciences, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract:

Due to the importance of the agricultural sector in the variation of the productive base, this study has targeted the recognition of the definite factors of the economic size to the sector and its expectation till 2010.  To accomplish its goals, the study use stepwise regression analysis for independent variables which determined the economic size for the agricultural sector in Saudi Arabia for the period 1980-2001. The results of this study show that:

  •  Instead of the reduction in the investment values directed to the  agricultural sector, and its share of labor, the economic size of agricultural sector increased from 1% in 1980 to 5.11% in 2001. So, this sector participate in diversifying the Saudi economy.

  • Water used in agricultural, investments, and level of technology are considered the most important factors in determining the economic size of agricultural sector, where it is explaining 91% of changes that happened in the economic size of agricultural sector during the period 1980-2001.

  •  According to high level of technology, fixed investment at 1.75% and increasing the water used in agriculture, we expect increase in the economic size from 6.7% in 2004, to 7.74% in 2010, with an average about 7.22% for the period 2004-2010.

  •  This study recommend re-evaluation the assets and increasing its economic and technical efficiency and encouraging local and foreign investment which can help in re-employ the agriculture economic resource, in order to increase and sustained the share of this sector in Saudi economy.

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The Effects of Pursuing the Organic Farming of Onion Product on the Saudi Agricultural Economics

Khalid N. Alrwis and Othman Al-Nashwan,  Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Food and Agric. Sciences, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract:

This paper aims to measure the effects of pursuing the organic farming of onion product on the Saudi agricultural economics. This has been done by measuring the effects of limiting chemical fertilizers and pesticides and increasing organic fertilizers usage on productivity, farm gate price, production costs, gross and net returns, self-sufficiency ratio, imports value of dry onion, balance of trade deficit and exports coverage rate on imports. To achieve its goals, the study depended on analysis of simulation and regressive models estimated by ordinary least squares (OLS) procedure. The results of study were:

(1)     Application of organic agriculture on dry onion cause the reduction of productivity and increase in product prices because of quality increase. The results showed that a reduction of chemical fertilizers and pesticides by 50% and increase of organic fertilizers by the same rate, results in reduction of productivity by 70.6% and increase of dry onion farm gate price by 119.9%.

(2)     Under situation of no chemical fertilizers and pesticide application and by doubling organic fertilizer amounts, the self-sufficiency in dry onion decreases by 86.5% and hence the amount and value of dry onion imports increase by 19.9% and 22.1% respectively and trade deficit increases by 23% while the export rate of coverage on imports decreases by 27%.

(3)    Despite its effects on Saudi agricultural economics, the application of organic agriculture leads to products quality increases in addition to its positive environmental effects represented in the protection of water, land and human resources, one of the pillars of sustainable development. 

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Spatial Price Linkages for Some Agricultural Products in K. S. A. Regional Markets

Hussien A. Hebicha and Khalid N. Alrwis, Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Food and Agric. Sciences, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract:

Using monthly price data, this paper investigated the market integration for tomatoes, potatoes, and eggs in Saudi Arabia for the period 2000 - 2004. ADF tests indicated that the price series were stationary. Ravallion model of market integration was estimated and hypotheses of independence, long – run, and two forms of short – run market integration were tested. Fifteen pair wise price relationships for six major regional markets were examined for each commodity. Markets were not isolated from each other as indicated by the rejection of the independence hypothesis. Also, it turned out that 73%, 67%, and 64% of market pairs for tomatoes, eggs, and potatoes, respectively, were integrated in the long – run. On the other hand, hypotheses of short – run integration were rejected with one exception for one market pair of eggs. The failure to observe short – run integration may be attributed to the use of low frequency data. Therefore, the use of weekly or daily prices may reveal the short-run integration.

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Economic Analysis for Differences in Date Consumption Pattern among Riyadh and Quasim in KSA

Khalid N. Alrwis and Sobhy M. Ismaiel, Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Food and Agric. Sciences, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract:

The goal of this study is to estimate dates consumption function, to investigate the effects of factors of income and expenditure on Date Consumption Pattern among Riyadh and Quasim in KSA. This can help in providing accurate indicators to direct production, marketing and exporting policies. Estimation of food expenditure function, fruit expenditure function and date consumption function in the area of the study, also, the study aims to investigate the similarity and differences in the structural changes on style of date consumption between Riyadh and Quasim regions. To determine Structural Differences in Date Consumption Pattern among Riyadh and Quasim in KSA, primary data will be collected from a random sample of 500 consumers in the area using questionnaires. The study will use an appropriate method in econometrics such as ordinary least square (OLS) Chow test, and dummy variables to accomplish the goal of this study, using appropriate software.

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Measurement of  Productivity Changes in Traditional Fishery Sector at Red Sea, Saudi Arabia: The Malmquist Productivity Index  Approach

Khalid N. Alrwis and Ahmed M. Elhendy, Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Food and Agric. Sciences, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract:

The Saudi traditional fishery yield, at Red Sea, is   continuously losing its relative importance in total fish production. Sustainable development policies for this sector need to be supported by technical and economic studies. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has generally been adopted as the most appropriate methodology for the estimation of fishing productivity or capacity through estimating the Malmquist productivity index with its two components of efficiency and technical changes. The Study results showed that mean average productivity change over five years, 1999-2003, were negative for fishing methods at fishing areas, because of negative technical changes  exceeds positive efficiency change .Training of fishermen and improving technology of traditional boat and fishing methods, using fish finder, would improve efficiency and technological productivity changes.  Average yearly productivity changes showed that harvesting at Tabouq & Madinna reach its capacity or MSY level, while there was over harvesting at Makka. Policies of saving natural stock of fish would be different based on the last results, it should take into consideration the differences among fishing grounds. The impacts of weather, environment, and fish reproduction seasons on productivity of fish are shown by the estimation of average monthly productivity change, i.e. positive or negative productivity changes for each month of the year . Based on study results, controlling monthly number of fishing efforts for each boat is the first necessary step to avoid natural stock depletion. 

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